artificial intelligence

Sztuczna inteligencja a teorie domyślania Historia i wybrane podejścia do sztucznej inteligencji

Author: Bożena Pięta
Institution: Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu
Year of publication: 2019
Source: Show
Pages: 113-126
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kimwe2019110
PDF: kim/2019_1/kim2019110.pdf

Artificial intelligence and default theories

Formal logic has been an important part of development of artificial intelligence (AI) research for almost sixty years, but its role has always been controversial. In the article an overview of the role of logic in artificial intelligence has been presented. The article showed mainly two possible applications of logic in AI: as a knowledge representation formalism and method of reasoning, and as a tool in computer science. The paper analyzed each of these and also investigated both the problems as well as the perspectives for the successful application of logic.

The Role of the Ethical Underpinnings of International Humanitarian Law in the Age of Lethal Autonomous Weapons Systems

Author: Kaja Kowalczewska
Institution: Pedagogical University of Krakow
Year of publication: 2019
Source: Show
Pages: 464-475
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2019305
PDF: ppsy/48-3/ppsy2019305.pdf

This paper presents selected conclusions related to the theoretical underpinnings of international humanitarian law, with special focus on the understanding of considerations of humanity and the dictates of public conscience (the Martens clause) and their impact on the regulation of lethal autonomous weapons systems. Despite the fact that different positions can be found in the doctrine, it is argued herein that the general principles of international humanitarian law are not sufficient to properly regulate the disruptive military technologies (new means and methods of warfare) and a new international norm is needed. Consequently, the paper agglomerates extra-legal and cross-cutting arguments stemming from other normative regimes that point to prioritization of the value of human life and the role and quality of the human factor in decision-making procedures relating to the health and life of victims of modern armed conflicts, which should be incorporated in it.

The Current Legal Regulation of Cruptocurrancies and Blockchain in the World. Sistematisation of Definitions

Author: Oleksandr Chernykh
Institution: National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5904-1734
Year of publication: 2021
Source: Show
Pages: 41-55
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ksm20210104
PDF: ksm/29/ksm2904.pdf

The author analyses the legislation of different countries, analytical studies of international experts in order to determine trends in the legal regulation of blockchain. Regulations of government banks, regulatory organizations regarding the operation of the virtual assets and growing demand for virtual currency leads to high risks in the area crypto actives. Uncertainty and complexity of legal support for the development of blockchain technologies and artificial intelligence in economic activity leads to limited practice of regulatory definition and government processes. However, state order is to sanction the stabile existing social relations from considering international legal institutions of legal regulation, such as the protection of personal data, identification and verification subjects of entrepreneurial activity, prevention of laundering money, prevention of evasion from payment of taxes. The author draws attention to the fact that it is necessary to concentrate analyses on resolving not only virtual currency, but the system blockchain in general, to provide legal definition of those phenomena which are not associated with just speculation or payments of cryptocurrency. In the article discusses current problems of the EU, Asia, Ukraine on implementation of international standards in the field of prevention of laundering of money, protection of per sonal data and the possibility of crypto actives and use the technology of artificial intelligence, which will develop business operations, including technology blockchain.

Competition for High Politics in Cyberspace: Technological Conflicts Between China and the USA

Author: Karina Verónica Val Sánchez
Institution: Selcuk University-Konya (Turkey)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7036-3523
Author: Nezir Akyesilmen
Institution: Selcuk University-Konya (Turkey)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8184-5280
Published online: 21 June 2021
Final submission: 15 December 2020
Printed issue: December 2021
Source: Show
Page no: 27
Pages: 43-69
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy202116
PDF: ppsy/50/ppsy202116.pdf

This paper highlighted the use of cyberspace as a conflict zone by the US and China, focusing on competition in various technological spheres, including cyberespionage, military technology, and Artificial Intelligence (AI). The main purpose of this study was to depict how great powers manipulate the cyber domain for their high political objectives through US-China rivalry. The research has been carried out mainly via literature review, discourse analysis, and relevant statistics. Consistent with previous literature and global public perception, the outcome has shown that both states are using cyberspace as a new domain for completion in trade, technology, and military purposes. Cyberespionage, the militarization of cyberspace, and AI have been the main conflict areas between these two global competitors in the last decade.

Głos człowieka i głos android. Eksperyment porównawczy

Author: Marek Zimnak
Institution: Dolnośląska Szkoła Wyższa
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6684-6469
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 214-239
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/cip202011
PDF: cip/18/cip1811.pdf

Artykuł prezentuje założenia, przebieg i wyniki eksperymentu, opartego na wskazaniu przez uczestników głosu człowieka bądź głosu androida na podstawie przedstawionych próbek. Uczestnicy eksperymentu – studenci kierunków związanych z nowymi mediami – osiągnęli wyniki znacznie przekraczające połowę trafnych wskazań. Decyzje podejmowali wyłącznie na podstawie niewerbalnych cech wypowiedzi. W tekście zostaje podkreślona waga zagadnienia w obliczu rozwoju sztucznej inteligencji – dla pełnego bezpieczeństwa przyszłej koegzystencji obu odmian inteligencji niezbędne będą odpowiednie regulacje.

Konstytucyjne wartości u progu ery sztucznej inteligencji

Author: Mateusz Pszczyński
Institution: Uniwersytet Opolski
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3654-1795
Year of publication: 2021
Source: Show
Pages: 511-523
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2021.05.40
PDF: ppk/63/ppk6340.pdf

Constitutional values at the dawn of the AI era

The article presents constitutional values exposed to violation by solutions using AI. Based on the dogmatic-legal method, the views of Polish constitutional law since the 1989 changes were analysed. In the study of the impact of AI on the accepted values, the literature on the subject, mainly from 2017–2020, was used. The aim of the study is to identify significant constitutional values exposed to threats from the development of AI. Of the many constitutional values, it is shown that the key ones are human dignity and the rule of law and democracy as the most vulnerable to interference from AI. Examples of AI interference with human values and those related to the idea of a democratic state under the rule of law are presented. It concludes that unregulated use of AI poses a risk of violating constitutional values.

Unmanned Aerial Vehicle - a Lethal Weapon of Tomorrow for Terrorists

Author: Aleksander Olech
Institution: Baltic Defence College
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3793-5913
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 44-60
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223203
PDF: npw/32/npw3203.pdf

Unmanned Aerial Vehicle - a Lethal Weapon of Tomorrow for Terrorists

Terrorism has been used as a form of combat for centuries. Over the years, the tools used by terrorists have evolved. While attacks with cold weapons still take place, nowadays terrorists also use explosives, machine guns, guided missiles and increasingly often drones. The present growth of the arms market has led to terrorist groups being heavily militarized, as they can successfully acquire modern weapons and subsequently use them in their attacks. This state of affairs has directly affected the security of states and societies, and subsequently became a principal subject of discussion on international security forums. Contemporary global terrorist threats also harness artificial intelligence that supports weaponized robots, missiles, as well as clusters of killer drones. This narrative arose a few years ago, indicating that terrorists may have a vastly greater array of options at their disposal because they may cooperate with some states that would back them up. The chance for terrorist organisations to gain access to artificial intelligence technologies only increased due to the global competition surrounding it. Due to this potential spreading, terrorists will have a chance to operate weapons supported by AI. These events then merge into a deeply concerning scenario which conceivably may have to be confronted. The threat of terrorist organisations possessing and using swarms of drones does not seem to be very distant.

Twórczość i autorstwo w dobie sztucznej inteligencji. Wyzwania stojące przed prawem własności intelektualnej

Author: Marek Porzeżyński
Institution: Instytut Badań nad Prawnymi Aspektami Nowych Technologii – Future Insitute
Year of publication: 2018
Source: Show
Pages: 25-44
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/tpn2018.1.03
PDF: tpn/13/TPN2018103.pdf

Artificial intelligence, besides blockchain, is the main topic discussed by representatives of nearly every branch of economy. Some entities are trying to search for their place in the world of artificial intelligence driven technology and others are looking carefully at the developments in the AI. Undoubtedly, software making use of the artificial intelligence can be viewed as something that can change the world we live in. The titles of press releases or other information sources are stimulating ones imagination in the range of possible application of artificial intelligence. At the same time, there is a group of people from the technology sector, that are concerned by the rapid and limitless development in this regard. The future of artificial intelligence and its application is still unknown but there are as many positive expectations as negative predictions. There are still many questions that have to be answered before the time that deep or strong AI will be prepared for everyday use. One of such questions is whether copyright is only dedicated for human beings? If the answer is affirmative than the next question that have to be asked is what form or type of protection can be used for works of art made not by humans? This are not the only problems that may arise (or has already arisen) from the use of AI.

Perspektywy muzycznej sztucznej inteligencji

Author: Wojciech Krzyżanowski
Institution: Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3576-5735
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 67-76
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/CDM.2022.1.07
PDF: cdm/1/cdm107.pdf

The Musical Perspectives of Artificial Intelligence

Recently we have been witnessing an amazing outburst of visual art done by Artificial Intelligence based on texts prompts. Will it ever be able to exhibit such a creative approach towards music? Before we answer, we should learn some basics of these systems. Artificial Intelligence powered by machine learning becomes more effective through exposure to empirical data. By analysing similarities and differences between hundreds of thousands of photographs of violin, it understands what a violin can look like, without being given any other explicit instruction. Machine learning systems specialize in recognizing objects and GAN networks can also generate new objects based on the analysed data. As for now there is no highly effective and diverse system to produce music based only on informal text prompts. But its existence is theoretically possible. We can even envision more complex systems, which automate such output around biological user feedback.

Diagnostics of the Student’s Learning Style With the Use of Modern Information Technologies

Author: Zdeňka Krišová
Institution: Moravian University College Olomouc
Author: Miroslav Pokorný
Institution: Moravian University College Olomouc
Year of publication: 2013
Source: Show
Pages: 174-187
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/tner.13.34.4.14
PDF: tner/201304/tner3414.pdf

The paper deals with learning styles and their initial diagnostics in the process of the student’s learning. It is focused on a method of learning styles recognition with the support of modern information technologies. The paper analyses different methods of the learning styles diagnostics, incorporating this issue into the scientific field of artificial intelligence and presents an idea on how to diagnose a learning style by using an unconventional fuzzy logic linguistic expert system. The expert system was designed to diagnose learning styles of university students in adaptive computer aided learning systems. A significant benefit is continuous numerical evaluation of the student’s degree of affiliation to all learning categories (types of student) with a possibility of simple determination of dominant and subdominant types, the use of a linguistic rule-based decision-making model, which is completely transparent and open, and the use of a decision-making procedure corresponding to the process of human consideration. The paper is an example of an application of modern information technologies in education.

Using Artificial Intelligence in Public Management: Aspects of Integration

Author: Lina Storozhenko
Institution: State University of Information and Communication Technologies
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2766-3712
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 37-49
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ksm20230403
PDF: ksm/40/ksm4003.pdf

The article examines various aspects of the use of artificial intelligence in the public administration system. In particular, the world experience of implementing intelligent technologies in management activities of the USA, China, Singapore, Japan, UAE, India, UK, Canada, Germany as leaders in the implementation of effective digital innovations in the field of public administration is considered. Attention is focused on creating favorable conditions at the state level to support initiatives for the development of artificial intelligence and determining its exceptional role in the further development of society. An analysis of Ukrainian practices of integrating artificial intelligence technologies into public administration proves that the use of digital innovations in domestic management activities is a definite pointer for the introduction and approval of relevant social, political, legal, economic, cultural norms in order to form a modern digital society, the most important element of which there is the development and active integration of artificial intelligence technologies into the management system and the formation of a «new» netocratic public administration. The article highlights key aspects of the implementation of artificial intelligence in public administration, including automation of administrative processes, data analysis, open access and exchange of information, security and protection of information, flexibility and adaptability, ensuring public participation, electronic platforms for citizen participation, identification and counteraction corruption, hybrid service systems, efficiency and innovation.

The Role of 5G Technology in Superpower Rivalry between the United States and China: An Offensive Realist Approach

Author: Łukasz Gołota
Institution: University of Warsaw (Poland)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5624-6080
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Page no: 18
Pages: 173-190
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy202396
PDF: ppsy/52/ppsy202396.pdf

The article aims to explain the importance of 5G technology in pursuing power and shaping the international competition between two superpowers: the USA and China. Accordingly, the research focus of this article is to explain how and why 5G technology is being used by China and the U.S. as a key instrument in their growing geopolitical rivalry. The study is framed within the theoretical approach of offensive realism. It is based on the primary assumption that superpowers like China and the United States tend to increase their power not only by expanding their armed forces and territorial conquests but also by using every possible opportunity to do so. The article researches two questions. What is the importance of 5G technology in the rivalry between China and the U.S.? How has the development of communication technologies influenced countries and their ability to shape the international environment? 5G technology is considered more than just the next generation of wireless connectivity, as it goes beyond traditional forms of use and addresses a new category of users. It is a structure intended to facilitate a new category of goods and services: smart cities, autonomous vehicles, automated factories, digital services, and robotization of decision-making processes.

Stanowisko Unii Europejskiej wobec sztucznej inteligencji w medycynie. Analiza i implikacje „Rozporządzenia Parlamentu Europejskiego i Rady ustanawiające zharmonizowane przepisy dotyczące sztucznej inteligencji”

Author: Dominik Łepecki
Institution: Powiatowe Centrum Medyczne w Grójcu
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0009-0007-3737-7599
Author: Marcin Mikusek-Pham Van
Institution: Uniwersyteckie Centrum Kliniczne Warszawskiego Uniwersytetu Medycznego
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0009-0004-3920-3099
Author: Bartłomiej Grodziński
Institution: Hôpital Avicenne, Bobigny, Francja
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0009-0000-3368-9500
Author: Robert Tomaszewski
Institution: Uniwersyteckie Centrum Kliniczne Warszawskiego Uniwersytetu Medycznego
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0009-0000-0225-538X
Author: Elena Sztemberg
Institution: Powiatowe Centrum Medyczne w Grójcu
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0009-0003-1699-8602
Author: Agata Chojnicka
Institution: Warszawski Uniwersytet Medyczny
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0009-0004-3165-5920
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 76-82
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/CPLS.2023408
PDF: cpls/8/cpls808.pdf

The position of the European Union towards artificial intelligence in medicine. Analysis and implications of the ‘Regulations of the European Parliament and of the Council laying down harmonized rules on artificial intelligence’

In the face of a technological revolution driven by advances in the field of Artificial Intelligence (AI), the following work aims to explore the expected implications and consequences based on the Regulation of the European Parliamen and Councilt: Artificial Intelligence Act, with a particular focus on the medical sector. The above mentioned act, which is a response to the dynamic social and technological changes, is a groundbreaking initiative of the European Union aimed at ensuring the safe, ethical and responsible use of AI. In the healthcare sector, where AI has the potential to fundamentally transform diagnosis, therapy and healthcare management, this regulation plays a key role in defining the future of data-driven medicine. Our work examines the impact of this legal act regarding safety, transparency and the protection of civil rights in the medical sector. We draw attention to the fundamental challenges and threats related to the integration of AI in medicine, including issues of ethics, security and data protection. Our work highlights that the future of AI in the healthcare sector should be shaped not only by technological progress, but also by a strong commitment to ethics, responsibility and respect for human rights.

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