Azja Środkowa

Cywilizacja Azji Środkowej

Author: Sławoj Szynkiewicz
Institution: University of Warsaw
Year of publication: 2019
Source: Show
Pages: 170-195
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ap201908
PDF: ap/22/ap2208.pdf

Central Asian Civilisation

The paper presents a general overview of relations between sections of the region’s population in historical perspective starting from the Bronze Age. The history of Central Asia has been in essence the constant great migration of ideas following the exchange of populace and goods. It is seen as a network of cultural, trade and political exchanges constituting its specific civilisation based on parallel relations that balance partners’ worthiness according to their merit, achievements, usefulness, creative endeavour, and political influence. Imperial neighbours of the region who had not respected cultural parity in variety were at loss in building mutual relationships.

Reforma konstytucyjna w Kirgistanie. Wyzwania i zagrożenia dla demokracji i państwa prawa

Author: Oleksandr Veretilnyk
Institution: Uniwersytet Szczeciński
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5286-4466
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 185-199
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2022.01.14
PDF: ppk/65/ppk6514.pdf

Constitutional Reform in Kyrgyzstan. Challenges and Threats to Democracy and the Rule of Law

The collapse of the USSR in 1991 led to the emergence of five independent states in Central Asia: Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Kyrgyzstan. Four of them established an authoritarian form of government, while Kyrgyzstan became the only democratic state in the region. This may change after the referendum on constitutional reform, which is scheduled for 2021. The amendments to the Constitution provide for the extension of the president’s powers, which, according to many Kyrgyz researchers, may lead to the transformation of Kyrgyzstan into an authoritarian state. This article presents the results of the analysis of the draft amendment to the Constitution of the Kyrgyz Republic initiated by the new president of the country, Sadyr Japarov.

Prawo prasowe i autorskie w systemie konstytucyjnym Kazachstanu

Author: Talgat Jaissanbayev
Institution: SWPS Uniwersytet Humanistycznospołeczny w Warszawie
Year of publication: 2018
Source: Show
Pages: 166-181
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/tpn2018.2.08
PDF: tpn/14/TPN2018208.pdf

The main purpose of the article is to present the principles of functioning of the Republic of Kazakhstan together with descriptions of two branches of law – copyright law and mass media law in Kazakhstan. The beginning of the article is dedicated to the legislature, which is represented by bicameral parliament. Its seats, the legislative process as well as the current political situation are described. Followed by the executive power description together with its representative, the Government of Kazakhstan, which can be formed or dismissed by the president. The way the Government is formed and its authority are presented as well. In the next part of the article is the judiciary of Kazakhstan which is described together with the system of common and special courts followed by description the way the judges are appointed. A separate part in the article is dedicated to the President of Kazakhstan who plays an important role in the authority system and officially does not belong to any branch of the power. While describing the functions of the president, the characteristic title of the First President of the Republic of Kazakhstan, “Elbasy” (the National Leader), which belongs to the current President Nursultan Nazarbayev, is also analyzed together with the features which make this title so special. The next part describes the ruling political party “Nur-Otan” (“the Luminosity of the Motherland”) which has been in charge since the year of 2004. The last part of the article is dedicated to the foundations of the copyright law in Kazakhstan and especially its basic legal acts, the bodies which are called to implement the copyright law and the copyright law specific features. The main legal acts and norms of Kazakhstani mass media law have been described as well, especially in the areas of advertising, print, radio and TV transmissions, rights and obligations of journalists.

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