Belarus

Bliscy sojusznicy? Perspektywy pogłębienia integracji rosyjsko-białoruskiej po 2018 roku

Author: Arkadiusz Czwołek
Institution: Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2273-5345
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 27-62
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223402
PDF: npw/34/npw3402.pdf

Close allies? Prospects for deepening Russian-Belarusian integration after 2018

The aim of the article is to analyze Russian-Belarusian relations after 2018 and to determine the degree of advancement of the unification process of both countries within the formally existing since 1999 Union State of Russia and Belarus. In 2018, Russia took steps to accelerate the integration process. At that time, the Russian Federation presented two models for its future integration with Belarus. In order to force Belarus to tighten its cooperation, Russia used a whole spectrum of political and economic tools. The article diagnoses the main problems of the integration process to date and sets out the main goals of Russian policy towards Belarus. The subsequent stages of negotiations on deepening Russian-Belarusian integration were also characterized. The prospects for further integration of Russia and Belarus were also presented.

Cele i założenia polityki Federacji Rosyjskiej wobec Białorusi w sferze naftowo-gazowej

Author: Arkadiusz Czwołek
Institution: Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 79-103
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2022.74.05
PDF: apsp/74/apsp7405.pdf

Objectives and assumptions of the policy of the Russian Federation towards Belarus in the area of oil and gas

The aim of the article is to analyze the energy policy of the Russian Federation towards Belarus in 2015–2021. The article focuses on the issues of bilateral relations in the sphere of crude oil and natural gas. Russia uses energy tools towards Belarus in order to force it to deepen its political, economic and military integration. Russia also undertook the task of regulating the principles of further energy cooperation with Belarus.

Migration of the Intellectual Elite from Belarus: Socio-Political Causes and Consequences

Author: Yuliya Ulasiuk
Institution: Uniwersytet Przyrodniczo-Humanistyczny w Siedlcach
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0403-9546
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 297-307
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2023.02.22
PDF: ppk/72/ppk7222.pdf

The subject of the research is the problem of mass migration of the intellectual elite from Belarus. The analysis of the current situation in Belarus shows that a special role in the migration of Belarusian scientists and academic teachers is not played by economic factors, but to a greater extent, by political and social factors. Migration has taken the form of flight from Belarus, which is leading to a huge crisis in Belarusian science, education and society in general. The largest number of Belarusian scientific migrants is in Poland, where programs of assistance to Belarusian scientists and favourable conditions for moving have been created. Highly qualified specialists, leaving to work in other countries, bring significant bene-fits to the host country, at the same time causing huge, irreparable damage to the country they leave. For host countries, the migration of the intellectual elite serves as a tool to increase the country’s competitiveness in the world market.

Uwarunkowania międzynarodowe rozwoju sektora IT na Białorusi a przyczyny emigracji informatyków białoruskich w latach 2020–2021

Author: Rafał Lisiakiewicz
Institution: Uniwersytet Ekonomiczny w Krakowie
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8649-6518
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 165-191
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233708
PDF: npw/37/npw3708.pdf

International conditions of the IT sector development in Belarus and the reasons for emigration of Belarusian IT specialists in 2020–2021

The aim of the article is to indicate the relevant factors shaping economic migrations from the perspective of the theory of international relations. The article concerns a crucial period for the immigration of IT workers from Belarus, i.e. the second half of 2020 and the first half of 2021. From the point of view of the theory of international relations, it should pay attention to two levels in research on the issues of economic cooperation: domestic and international one. In the article, the author will point out the link between migration and the international and political conditions of the development of the IT sector in Belarus. The research hypothesis put forward by the author is related to the link between the causes of migration and the economic and political conditions that developed in Belarus in the 21st century. Authoritarian systems, according to the author, may favor economic development and create conditions for running a business in a specific way, but the security of such activity itself is limited.

Polskie Stronnictwo Ludowe wobec Rosji, Ukrainy i Białorusi w latach 2015–2019

Author: Tomasz R. Dębowski
Institution: Uniwersytet Wrocławski
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9933-8911
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 192-211
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233709
PDF: npw/37/npw3709.pdf

The Polish People’s Party towards Russia, Ukraine and Belarus in 2015–2019

Eastern policy is one of the most important areas of Polish foreign policy. It regards the countries (of the former Soviet Union), that do not belong to the Euro-Atlantic structures. In 2015, Law and Justice won the parliamentary elections in Poland. Witold Waszczykowski was assigned as the head of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and was replaced in January 2018 by Jacek Czaputowicz. The aim of the study is to find an answer to the question: what was the attitude of the Polish People’s Party to Russia, Ukraine and Belarus in 2015–2019 and what premises influenced its shape? A working hypothesis was adopted: “The Polish People’s Party in 2015–2019 opted for a partnership model of Poland’s relations with Russia, Ukraine and Belarus, shaped on the basis of pragmatic premises”. The time limit for the research covered the period from July 17th, 2015 to November 11th, 2019. The analysis of the collected material made possible to answer the question (contained in the introduction to the article), and also confirmed the validity of the adopted working hypothesis. Moreover, it showed that for the Polish People’s Party, matters concerning eastern policy were not the leading thread in the reflection on Polish foreign policy.

Issues of national minorities in the policy of the Eastern Partnership

Author: Halyna Lutsyshyn
Institution: Lviv Polytechnic National University
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8434-071X
Author: Oleksandr Sokolovsky
Institution: Lviv Polytechnic National University
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0515-2367
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 137-150
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233807
PDF: npw/38/npw3807.pdf

The peculiarities of implementing the policy of the EU’s Eastern Partnership Initiative in regards to protecting the rights of national minorities have been studied. The issue of national minorities in the EU is considered from the perspectives of security, democracy, and regional integration. Despite contemporary criticism of the EU’s Eastern Partnership Initiative, many initiatives aimed at protecting the rights of national minorities in the region have been implemented, thereby fostering intergovernmental cooperation. It is evident that Ukraine and Moldova are the most proactive in protecting the rights of national minorities amongst the Eastern Partnership countries. These countries have been granted the status of candidate for EU accession. Despite the Russian-Ukrainian war, Ukraine actively works on improving legislation in the field of ethno-policy. Particular emphasis is placed on analysis of the institutional structure of national minorities, communication pathways, and non-discriminatory policies in Eastern Partnership countries. Member states of the Eastern Partnership actively utilize “soft power” techniques through a network of minority organizations. It has been suggested that European integration of Ukraine and Moldova has generated considerable opportunities for the development of national minorities. Loosening of state borders has enabled national minorities to connect more deeply with their ethnic homelands, thereby transforming them into engaged participants of transborder cooperation and significant figures of regional policy. The Eastern Partnership furnishes a platform for minorities to assert themselves in decisions which pertain to their lives, execute grant initiatives, and take part in regional associations of minorities. Nevertheless, certain risks are highlighted, such as particular nations exploiting EU enlargement to tackle minority matters or manipulate minority rights. The EU has analyzed programs supporting national minorities, especially those implemented in the Eastern Partnership countries. While Eastern Partnership countries have developed their policies regarding national minorities, there are common problems faced by minorities in the region. Ukraine, Georgia, Moldova, Azerbaijan, and Armenia are involved in conflicts, being former Soviet Union countries, and face numerous challenges concerning the functioning of the Russian minority, which is numerically significant in this region. It is stated that the EU cooperates with the Eastern Partnership countries on matters regarding national minorities, and it is crucial to develop innovative models for managing ethnic diversity, promoting the involvement of national minorities in making socio-political decisions and integrating them into society.

Представление о РОДИНЕ жителей белорусско- польско-литовского культурно-языкового пограничья (на материале польских периферийных говоров)

Author: Jadwiga Kozłowska-Doda
Institution: Uniwersytet Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej w Lublinie
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7567-178X
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 248-285
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233812
PDF: npw/38/npw3812.pdf

Imagination of the HOMELAND of the inhabitants of the Belarusian-Polish-Lithuanian cultural and linguistic borderland (based on the material of Polish peripheral dialects)

The article discusses the concept of HOMELAND based on the material of Polish peripheral dialects on the territory of Voronovo district, Belarus. As a context, the author used selected dictionaries of other researchers of the “Polish language of Borderlands” in the Belarusian-Polish-Lithuanian borderlands, narratives of the inhabitants of the Myadel region (Belarus), memories of emigrants from the Vilnius region (Lithuania), as well as residents of Podlasie, Warmia and Mazuria (Poland). The author collected the material as records of continuous texts on various topics, it was not a purposeful study of vocabulary and semantics on the topic of the homeland. The method of cognitive definition proposed by Jerzy Bartminski, which provides for the reconstruction of the “mental object”, i.e. the maximum set of characteristics fixed in the language, was used in the article. As a result of the analysis of the material, similar features, indicated earlier by the researchers of this borderland, were found. Among the components of the imagination of HOMELAND, in the first place there was a warm attitude to native places (the emotional connection of a person with the place of birth and the period of childhood) and ancestors (including the deceased, the cemetery). The importance of the place of residence and neighbours (their own, ours, etc. people with similar experience), as well as religion (their own and neighbouring parishes, the cult of the Virgin Mary) was also emphasized. Less often, but expressively accentuated cultural (for example, traditions and language) and everyday signs of the concept (stability; private property; homeland where you can live). At the same time, more expressive than in other works, sketching of the ideological homeland by local residents was noticed (for the older it is the Second Polish Republic, for the younger – Belarus). According to the author, this is explained by the fact that among the respondents were, among other things, the residents whose ancestors participated in the uprising of 1863, fought with the Bolsheviks in the Polish-Soviet war, as well as those associated with the Home Army. In addition to the traditional point of view of an ordinary peasant/ petty nobleman, the perspective of a patriot not only of a “small homeland”, but also of a non-existent state (Second Polish Republic) is also considered.

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