Central Asia

Prichiny tragicheskikh sobytijj 1916 goda na territorii Turkestanskogo kraja

Author: Elena Niyazovna Zakirova
Institution: Yugra State University, Russia
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 211-219
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2016215
PDF: npw/11/npw2016215.pdf

This article reveals the main reasons, stages and consequences of the Central Asian peoples revolt against the Russian authorities during the World War I.

Rosyjska polityka integracyjna w Azji Centralnej wobec aktywności Unii Europejskiej na tym obszarze Część II

Author: Sylwester Gardocki
Year of publication: 2015
Source: Show
Pages: 37-55
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2015202
PDF: npw/09/npw2015202.pdf

The competition of Western states and Russia for influence in the area of Central Asia has a long history. Located in the centre of the continent, the Central Asian region is a kind of link between China and the countries of Southeast Asia, Afghanistan, the Middle East and a number of Islamic countries in the south, the Caucasus, Turkey, Europe and Russia – to the west and north. The beginning of the current development of the geopolitical situation in Central Asia falls on time of disintegration of the Soviet Union and emergence of independent republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. The presented article describes the geopolitical situation of the region.

Rossijjskaja integracionnaja politika v Centralnojj Azii po otnosheniju k aktivnosti Evropejjskogo Sojuza na ehtojj territorii Chast 1

Author: Sylwester Gardocki
Institution: Uniwersytet Warszawski, Poland
Year of publication: 2015
Pages: 13-27
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2015101
PDF: npw/08/npw2015101.pdf

The competition of Western states and Russia for influence in the area of Central Asia has a long history. Located in the centre of the continent, the Central Asian region is a kind of link between China and the countries of Southeast Asia, Afghanistan, the Middle East and a number of Islamic countries in the south, the Caucasus, Turkey, Europe and Russia – to the west and north. The beginning of the current development of the geopolitical situation in Central Asia falls on time of disintegration of the Soviet Union and emergence of independent republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. The presented article describes the geopolitical situation of the region.

Borders of the Central Asian countries under the international law

Author: Michał Pietkiewicz
Institution: Uniwersytet Warmińsko-Mazurski w Olsztynie, Poland
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 30-42
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2017402
PDF: npw/15/npw2017402.pdf

In the article the international legal status of the territory, and the territory of the state was ascertained, and the features of the legal status of a state border were identified. The main problem of the thesis is to show the causes of conflicts in determining the borders of the Central Asian states from the perspective of Russian scholars. The main issues of regulating international relations in the sphere of the delimitation of state borders under the international law in Central Asia are outlined.

Surowce energetyczne postradzieckiej Azji Centralnej: zasoby, produkcja, polityka energetyczna

Author: Robert Kłaczyński
Institution: Uniwersytet Pedagogiczny im. KEN w Krakowie, Poland
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 77-95
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2017405
PDF: npw/15/npw2017405.pdf

A paper entitled Energy resources of post-soviet Central Asia: reserves, production, energy policy covers topics that refer to production and transport of the petrol and natural gas through the so called “Asian five” states. Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan are over-regional leaders in the production of petroleum and natural gas. New natural resources reserves has been also discovered in Tajikistan and Kirgizstan. The post-soviet states of Central Asia are making an effort to raise their shares in the global petrol market however their abilities are limited by the Russian Federation`s position in the global market, corruption and nepotism. Only the overcoming of this negative tendencies might lead to positive change of the perception, as the region countries will be perceived as a key players in the petroleum and natural gas export.

Wymuszone małżeństwo w wyniku porwania w krajach Azji Centralnej

Author: Kacper Mirosław Milkowski
Institution: Uniwersytet Warmińsko-Mazurski w Olsztynie, Poland
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 190-204
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2017411
PDF: npw/15/npw2017411.pdf

It would seem that the twenty-first century is a time in which the marriage is concluded only with love, and the woman herself can decide whom she will marry. Author of the paper presents the phenomenon which is the abduction of women for marriage. History proves that kidnapping wives have been practiced all over the world. Today, this tradition has survived primarily in Central Asia. The phenomenon of forced marriages by abduction occurs in Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. Bride kidnapping is a violation of basic human rights. This state of Central Asia are signatories to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, which forbid this type of acts It should combat all manifestations of this kind of phenomena in the world. The publication shall define the phenomenon. Central Asian states bound by many treaties, but has not led to the introduction of effective legislation. In the publication the author shall identify the factors that influence the perpetrator. Presented are also criminal law in these countries. It is worth noting that as a result of the occurrence of this kind of inhumane phenomenon occurs very frequently that the injured person is a child.

The Water Resources Management in Central Asia – The Political and Economic Contradictions as a Source of Inefficiency

Author: Tomasz Waśkiel
Institution: Uniwersytet Wrocławski
Year of publication: 2018
Source: Show
Pages: 85-100
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw20181605
PDF: npw/16/npw2018105.pdf

The issue of access to water in Central Asia has a centuries-old history and it is an exceptionally complex issue. The Central Asian republics, for twenty – six years of their sovereignty, have not been able to create an effective water resource management system. This state of affairs causes constant disputes and controversies, as well as various threats – social, economic and environmental. The article explores the genesis of the problem, especially from the period of Soviet power, when huge irrigation system was created and based on two rivers: the Syr Darya and the Amu Darya. These powerful investments combined with extensive farming are the root causes of today’s problems. The countries of the region tried to regulate the issue of managing the water resources by signing regional agreements in this matter, the most important are these signed in: Almaty, Kyzyl–Orda and Ashgabat. Bilateral or tripartite agreements between states were also concluded. Unfortunately, most of them were ineffective, contractual provisions remained only in writing. One could say that the cooperation between Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan on the rivers Chu and Talas is the only positive example. The contradictory economic and political interests of Central Asian countries were recognized as the main source of the water management system inefficiency. Relations between the states are often suspicious and fueled by nationalism. Central Asia is a region that is not internally integrated, in which it is difficult to develop inter-state agreements. The author concludes that the shift in Uzbekistan’s foreign policy may support developing a new regional compromise in the long term perspective.

Prawo autorskie w państwach Azji Środkowej

Author: Ksenia Kakareko
Institution: Uniwersytet Warszawski
Year of publication: 2018
Source: Show
Pages: 73-98
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw20181705
PDF: npw/17/npw1705.pdf

Copyright law in the countries of Central Asia

The Berne Convention has not been ratified by the former Soviet Union. Far-reaching work to prepare the USSR for ratification of the Berne Convention was discontinued as a result of the break-up of this state. The Central Asian states acceded to the Berne Convention, independently of each other, after they had formally gained independence. The Commonwealth of Independent States to which the countries of Central Asia belong, has prepared rules for the creation of copyright laws for its members. The Eurasian Economic Union, which was established in 2015, is another international subject that influences the shape of copyright in the countries of Central Asia. The analysis of acts of copyright of the Central Asian states proves, firstly, that the laws of these states were modeled on the guidelines of the Commonwealth of Independent States, and secondly, it proves the high convergence of copyright laws. Differences, sometimes quite significant, reflect the cultural and social specificity of individual Central Asian republics.

Rozwój chińskiej soft power w Azji Centralnej – szanse i wyzwania

Author: Marek Borys
Institution: Akademia Sztuki Wojennej
Year of publication: 2018
Source: Show
Pages: 111-129
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20181806
PDF: npw/18/npw1806.pdf

The development of Chinese soft power in Central Asia – opportunities and challenges

The article presents analysis of the development of China’s soft power in Central Asia. Since 2005, China has been trying to promote Chinese language and culture in Central Asia. Institutes of Confucius began to appear in the region. There are currently 13 of them. More and more youth from this region are learning Chinese. They also go to China to study at Chinese universities. Learning Chinese language increases the prospects of professional development and employment for people from the region. However, China still has a long way to achieve a satisfactory level of promoting its culture in the region. There are accusations that Beijing wants to train the Central Asian elites in line with the Chinese model. Central Asian states are, however, particularly sensitive to their cultural heritage. Cultural independence is among the foreign policy priorities of these countries. Beijing should continue to increase efforts to create a positive image in the countries of the region. The new Silk Road is becoming an important element of diplomacy to promote Chinese soft power.

Struktura organizacyjna Cerkwi prawosławnej w państwach Azji Środkowej

Author: Jacek Sobczak
Institution: SWPS Uniwersytet Humanistycznospołeczny w Warszawie
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2231-8824
Year of publication: 2018
Source: Show
Pages: 7-38
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20181901
PDF: npw/19/npw1901.pdf

Organizational structure of the Orthodox Church in the countries of Central Asia

In the following article the author aims to track the changes occurring in the structure and functioning of the Orthodox Church in Turkestan (present-day region of Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan), which was a part of the Russian Empire, and later – the Soviet Union. For this purpose, the author uses the geographical and historical background of the events that infl uenced the shape of the local Church, and also presents its most important leaders.

Rynek turystyczny w Kazachstanie – wybrane zagadnienia

Author: Natalia Gburzyńska
Institution: Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1091-4741
Year of publication: 2019
Source: Show
Pages: 159-176
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20192014
PDF: npw/20/npw2014.pdf

Tourist market in Kazakhstan – selected issues

This article concerns the modern tourist market in Kazakhstan. I focused to a large extent on the indications of the tourist industry’s characteristics in this country as well as the potential chances and threats that may be encountered in this area of the economy. The conclusions contained in the publication were based not only on source materials, but also on the author’s personal observations and memories of friends of the traveler. The aim of the article was to draw attention to the unusual tourism richness that can be observed by traveling through this country of Central Asia, as well as changing the stereotypical view of Kazakhstan.

Sekurytyzacja islamu w Azji Centralnej

Author: Nartsiss Shukuralieva
Institution: Uniwersytet Kazimierza Wielkiego w Bydgoszczy
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4046-9738
Year of publication: 2018
Source: Show
Pages: 33-54
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/so2018202
PDF: so/14/so1402.pdf

Securitization of Islam in Central Asia

The aim of the article is to analyse mechanisms of constructing Islam in the discourse and practices of undemocratic Central Asian countries. This objective will be accomplished through the references to securitization theory located within the framework of the constructivist paradigm. The major argument of the paper is that the discursive transformation of various dimensions of Islam’s existence into a homogeneous threat to the security was an important securitizing move. Its relevance is related to the national and international level of legitimacy. The strength of the securitizing move results from the amount of resources of the authoritarian Central Asian elites as the dominant securitizing actors. In the first part, the text critically discusses the radicalization of Muslims in Central Asia thesis and the practices of the state structures towards Islam. In the next part it will present various manifestations and dimensions of the securitization of Islam in the discourse and practice of the incumbent elites in Central Asia countries.

Cywilizacja Azji Środkowej

Author: Sławoj Szynkiewicz
Institution: University of Warsaw
Year of publication: 2019
Source: Show
Pages: 170-195
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ap201908
PDF: ap/22/ap2208.pdf

Central Asian Civilisation

The paper presents a general overview of relations between sections of the region’s population in historical perspective starting from the Bronze Age. The history of Central Asia has been in essence the constant great migration of ideas following the exchange of populace and goods. It is seen as a network of cultural, trade and political exchanges constituting its specific civilisation based on parallel relations that balance partners’ worthiness according to their merit, achievements, usefulness, creative endeavour, and political influence. Imperial neighbours of the region who had not respected cultural parity in variety were at loss in building mutual relationships.

Research on Systemic Transformation in the Countries of Central Asia

Author: Tadeusz Bodio
Institution: University of Warsaw, Poland
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8873-7434
Author: Andrzej Wierzbicki
Institution: University of Warsaw, Poland
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5493-164X
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 111-133
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2020307
PDF: ppsy/49-3/ppsy2020307.pdf

The article presents the goals, tasks, organization and major stages of implementation of the international programme of research on transformation in the countries Central Asia. The research has been conducted since 1997 by a team of political scientists from the University of Warsaw in cooperation with representatives of other Polish and foreign universities.

“Sham partnership” or “hidden competition”? The Russian Federation and the Islamic Republic of Iran in the Central Asian region

Author: Kakha Putkaradze
Institution: Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1762-6769
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 99-113
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/rop2020207
PDF: rop/12/rop1207.pdf

Recent years the growing confrontation between the Russian Federation, the United States, and the EU is accompanied by Moscow’s searching the alternative allies for its diplomatic support. Iran is called one of such allies today. The Russian-Iranian relations are interesting both in terms of sectoral and geographical fields. The region of Central Asia is of particular importance. The need to consider such aspects is explained by the strengthening of Iran’s position in Central Asia as a direct zone of Russian interests in a sense of its economic, cultural, and religious presence.

Проблемы становления и развития государственности Республики Каракалпакстан

Author: Александр Веретильнык
Institution: Uniwersytet Szczeciński
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5286-4466
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 114-132
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20202607
PDF: npw/26/npw2607.pdf

Problems of Formation and Development of Statehood of the Republic of Karakalpakstan

This article is a study of the statehood of the Republic of Karakalpakstan, its integration with Uzbekistan and the problems faced by the Karakalpak national movements. The study can be considered relevant and innovative, since the problems of Karakalpakstan are insufficiently studied in the Polish and European scientific community. The development of relations with the countries of Central Asia, which have large reserves of natural resources, including oil and gas, is one of the priorities of the foreign policy of the European Union. Therefore, the study of regional problems and prediction of possible military-political conflicts in this region of the world, and how to respond to them, is of particular relevance to the political sciences.

Reformy społeczno-polityczne w Uzbekistanie w czasie prezydentury Szawkata Mirzijojewa

Author: Przemysław Sieradzan
Institution: Uniwersytet Gdański
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9255-7417
Year of publication: 2021
Source: Show
Pages: 104-127
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20212806
PDF: npw/28/npw2806.pdf

Socio-political Reforms in Uzbekistan during the Presidency of Shavkat Mirziyoyev

The paper aims to present various aspects of the reform process initiated and implemented by Shavkhat Mirziyoyev, the president of the Republic of Uzbekistan, since 2016. The main subjects of consideration are vectors of political change in the spheres of institutions of political power, economy and foreign policy in the broader context of the legacy of the first president Islam Karimov’s reign and the heritage of the Soviet period. The fundamental reforms have embraced democratization of political system, fight against corruption, extension of civil rights and abandoning of isolationism in international relations, and are sometimes decribed as the „Uzbek Thaw”. However they seem to be very meaningful, one will be able to evaluate their significance for the statehood of the independent Uzbekistan only from the perspective of future decades.

Reforma konstytucyjna w Kirgistanie. Wyzwania i zagrożenia dla demokracji i państwa prawa

Author: Oleksandr Veretilnyk
Institution: Uniwersytet Szczeciński
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5286-4466
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 185-199
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2022.01.14
PDF: ppk/65/ppk6514.pdf

Constitutional Reform in Kyrgyzstan. Challenges and Threats to Democracy and the Rule of Law

The collapse of the USSR in 1991 led to the emergence of five independent states in Central Asia: Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Kyrgyzstan. Four of them established an authoritarian form of government, while Kyrgyzstan became the only democratic state in the region. This may change after the referendum on constitutional reform, which is scheduled for 2021. The amendments to the Constitution provide for the extension of the president’s powers, which, according to many Kyrgyz researchers, may lead to the transformation of Kyrgyzstan into an authoritarian state. This article presents the results of the analysis of the draft amendment to the Constitution of the Kyrgyz Republic initiated by the new president of the country, Sadyr Japarov.

Migracja zarobkowa z Azji Centralnej do Rosji w dobie pandemii COVID-19

Author: Andrzej Stopczyński
Institution: Uniwersytet Łódzki
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9795-725X
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 90-108
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223305
PDF: npw/33/npw3305.pdf

Labor migration from Central Asia to Russia during the COVID-19 pandemic

Like most countries in the world, the Russian Federation has also been struggling with the coronavirus pandemic that causes the COVID-19 disease since the beginning of 2020. The pandemic has harmed many areas of life in Russia, including social, demographic and economic issues. The changes also affected the labor market, which to a large extent is shaped by economic migrants from Central Asia. The situation of the economic migrants themselves has also changed significantly. Many of them lost their jobs, especially in the first half of 2020. Due to sanitary restrictions and the closure of borders, the number of Central Asian residents who decided to leave for Russia has significantly decreased. Experts emphasize that economic migrants make a significant contribution to the development of the Russian economy and the economies of Central Asian countries. This article aims to present how the Covid-19 pandemic influenced the shape of economic migration from Central Asia to Russia in the context of changing employment conditions and the socio-economic situation, both in Russia and the countries of the region.

Central Asia as a region in international relations

Author: Simant Shankar Bharti
Institution: University of Warsaw
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9578-7066
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 15-27
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/rop2022202
PDF: rop/20/rop2002.pdf

‘Central Asia’ is a unique and diverse region of the world that landmass distinct from other regions and sedentary civilisation is one of the characteristics. The geography of this region is considered a controversial discourse among scholars in international relations and, Europeans prefer to call them ‘Central Eurasia’, but Asian scholars frequently used the term ‘Central Asia’. However, the history of Asia was not stable and similar in the past. In this regard, this article tries to find the status of the Central Asia in international relations from a historical to empirical discussion in academia. Through the discourse analysis applied here to trace scholars, historians, institutions, governments, and sociologists’ perspective how they treat ‘Central Asia’, whether it is a deeply profound ‘region’ or precise existence. The initial argument says that Central Asia is more significant due to the geostrategic point of view and attracts superpowers in the ground of diplomacy play.

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