Central Asia

International Higher Education as Foreign Policy: Comparing the Strategies of the EU, China, and Russia Towards Central Asia

Author: Kerry Anne Longhurst
Institution: Collegium Civitas (Poland)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4710-2640
Author: Agnieszka Nitza-Makowska
Institution: Collegium Civitas (Poland)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1677-986X
Author: Katarzyna Skiert-Andrzejuk
Institution: Collegium Civitas (Poland)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4451-5092
Published online: 15 July 2022
Final submission: 16 March 2022
Printed issue: 2022
Source: Show
Page no: 13
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy202228
PDF: ppsy/51/ppsy202228.pdf

The article sheds light on the nexus between higher education and foreign policy. International higher education has become an increasingly prominent element of some states’ policies towards other countries as a flank to traditional foreign policy. It has occurred in Central Asia, where the European Union, China and Russia are all supporting teaching, research and capacity-building activities in the tertiary sectors of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan. Although they employ similar tools and instruments, the assumptions and visions underpinning their respective strategies diverge. Russia’s strategy is shaped by historically informed identity factors and the impulse to entrench predominance in the post-Soviet space, whilst China uses its support for higher education as a soft infrastructure for its Belt and Road Initiative (BRI). Meanwhile, the EU has integrated higher education into its strategy for the region, which aims at drawing Central Asia closer to its orbit through democratisation and the rule of law.

Comparative Analysis of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation and European Union Strategy on Central Asia: Confrontation or Cooperation?

Author: Danylo Stonis
Institution: Matej Bel University in Banská Bystrica (Slovak Republic)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4771-0144
Published online: 15 July 2022
Final submission: 15 June 2022
Printed issue: 2022
Source: Show
Page no: 22
Pages: 69-90
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy202230
PDF: ppsy/51/ppsy202230-5.pdf

In 2021, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) turned 20 years old. With “Shanghai Spirit” as its guiding principle, the scope of SCO’s activity has significantly expanded, recently adding India and Pakistan to its members. As a result, SCO policy has heavily influenced the Central Asia region. In response, in 2019, the EU launched a new strategy for Central Asia, adopting “connectivity” as its core concept. As a result, both SCO and EU strategies in Central Asia tend to conflict with each other, thus leading to uneven and inconsistent development of the region. Therefore, this paper aims to identify contradictions between SCO’s “Shanghai Spirit” guiding principle and the EU’s concept of “connectivity” by comparing the SCO and EU strategies toward Central Asia. The methodology in the paper involves a qualitative comparative method, including two qualitative case studies, represented by the SCO’s “Shanghai Spirit” and the EU’s concept of “connectivity” in their strategies on Central Asia. The article concludes that contestation between the SCO and the EU policies in Central Asia impedes stable development of the region, and therefore, a compromise between both policies in Central Asia is suggested.

Shanghai Cooperation Organization: A Realist Approach

Author: Jildiz Nicharapova
Institution: American University of Central Asia in Bishkek
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8745-3533
Year of publication: 2019
Source: Show
Pages: 11-24
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/siip201901
PDF: siip/18/siip1801.pdf

The main goal of this paper is an analysis of activities, purposes, problems of the (SCO) since its inception in order to understand what is the main reason behind its creation and existence? What are its achievements and what benefits have got each member state? Is it beneficial to all members? The hypothesis is that SCO serves only its big members, it was intended to be a China’s tool to enter Central Asia without vexing Russia. The article analyzes the activities of the SCO with the existing theories in IR in order to answer these questions. The main objective of the SCO was an attempt by the powers of the Central Asia to control the region. The SCO faces problems of distrust between its members. It is a very important instrument of guaranteeing Sino-Central Asian partnership. It is also a guarantee that China will never dominate Central Asia due to many signed agreements within the organization. With more than twenty years of history and existence, the SCO may become a real force on the international arena. The SCO’s intention is to become a world power and to construct a fairer international order. The SCO has the economic potential and political will to do it.

Konflikt wokół zapory Rogun jako przykład sporów o zasoby wodne w Azji Centralnej

Author: Paulina Filkowska
Institution: Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0040-967X
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 101-114
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223505
PDF: npw/35/npw3505.pdf

The conflict around the Rogun dam as an example of disputes over water resources

Water scarcity is an area of disputes between many states. Generally, these conflicts occur as a result of competition for water resources. They are especially visible in underdeveloped regions, such as Africa or the Middle East. Central Asia, the five republics established after the collapse of the USSR, is also an area exposed to conflicts. An example of such conflict can be the construction of the Rogun dam on Vakhsh river in Tajikistan. The project caused a lot of controversy and further construction fueled them even more. The aim of the paper is to present the conflict over the Rogun dam on the Vakhsh river in Tajikistan as an example of a conflict over water resources in Central Asia. The article presents the genesis and essence of the dispute, as well as attempts to resolve the conflict.

Muhadżirowie w Polsce – zagrożenie terroryzmem islamistycznym ze strony obcokrajowców

Author: Przemysław Mazur
Institution: Uniwersytet Pedagogiczny im. KEN w Krakowie
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0025-9410
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 181-200
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223509
PDF: npw/35/npw3509.pdf

The Muhajirs in Poland – the threat of Islamist terrorism from foreigners

The aim of this article was to analyse the terrorist threat in Poland posed by foreigners participating in the global salafi jihadist project. As a rule, these are people associated with such organizations as the Muslim Brotherhood, Al-Qaeda and the Islamic State ISIS, and their derivatives. The research was to verify the actual scale of the phenomenon, the motivations, the modus operandi, and to show trends in this practice. It was also an attempt to identify system problems that hinder the fight against terrorism and may result in a threat to Polish security. The analysis also shows that, contrary to popular opinions, the threat comes not only from the Middle East, but also from Central Asia and the Caucasus. All these directions, however, have their specifics.

Czeczeni w Kazachstanie po deportacji stalinowskiej w latach 1944–1957

Author: Kamil Pietrasik
Institution: Wyższa Szkoła Studiów Międzynarodowych w Łodzi
Year of publication: 2015
Source: Show
Pages: 97-116
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/so2015106
PDF: so/7/so706.pdf

Chechens in Kazakhstan after the deportation of Stalin in the years 1944-1957

This topic is a representation of the most important aspects of life on the deportation of Chechens in Kazakhstan in the period from 1944 to 1957. The author also discusses the number of deported Chechens to Kazakhstan and other Central Asian countries.

Народные суды кочевого населения царистского Туркестана – важное звено в системе местного «туземного» самоуправления (по архивным, правовым и иным материалам)

Author: Акылбек Л. Салиев (Akylbek L. Saliev)
Institution: Kirgisko-Rosyjski Uniwersytet Słowiański
Year of publication: 2014
Source: Show
Pages: 161-167
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/so2014209
PDF: so/6/so609.pdf

The People’s Courts of the nomadic population of tsarist Turkestan – an important element of the “local” authorities’ structure (based on archives, legal documents and other materials)

The article considers the status and the role of “native” judicial power in the system of common local self-government bodies among the nomadic population in the pre-revolutionary Central Asia.

Характерные черты отношений России с киргизскими племенами в конце XVIII–первой половине XIX века

Author: Вадим П. Яншин (Vadim P. Yansin)
Institution: Kirgisko-Rosyjski Uniwersytet Słowiański
Year of publication: 2014
Source: Show
Pages: 168-181
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/so2014210
PDF: so/6/so610.pdf

Characteristics of Russia’s relations with the Kyrgyz tribes in the late 18th and early 19th century

The author of the article describes Russian relations with the Kyrgyz tribes from the late eighteenth to mid-nineteenth century. The main objective of Kyrgyz legations sent at that time to Russia was to acquire certain material goods. In relations with neighbouring powers the elders of the Kyrgyz tribes were guided by several principles. Firstly, they wanted to maintain the position of the only ruler in their tribes and clans. Secondly, to this end, the elders shifted between neighbouring powers (Russia, China and the Khanate of Kokand). Thirdly, the Kyrgyz ensured that no one interfered in their relations with the Kazakhs, with whom they shared common confession (Islam). Up until 1840s Russian politics towards the Kyrgyz tribes essentially focused on protection of merchant caravans which passed through Kirgiz lands on their way to East Turkestan. In later time Russia sought to create from the Kyrgyz territory a buffer zone between itself, China and the Khanate of Kokand.

The European Union’s Economic Development Strategy and Cooperation with the Countries of Central Asia

Author: Mukesh Shankar Bharti
Institution: Amity Univesity
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3693-7247
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 220-244
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233611
PDF: npw/36/npw3611.pdf

The European Union’s Economic Development Strategy and Cooperation with the Countries of Central Asia

The purpose of this study is to analyse the European Union (EU) economic and development cooperation in Central Asia. EU’s economic support to Central Asian countries strengthens its position in this region. Central Asia is a key strategic area for cooperation and the EU seems to have deeper engagement. Moreover, this research highlights the EU’s strategic gear up with Central Asian countries from 2007 to till now. Since the EU launched the Central Asia Strategy in 2007, the objective of this policy is to provide development assistance and establish diplomatic channels in the region. The following research questions rely on, why is Central Asia important to the EU and how does it shape relations with Central Asian countries? And this study relies on qualitative analysis that will be used in this research which addresses the main research problems. Further, the study uses the empirical approach to justify answers to the questions and identify the research outcomes.

Wpływ dziedzictwa starożytnej Baktrii na rozwój gospodarczy i społeczny Tadżykistanu

Author: Natasza Duraj
Institution: Uniwersytet Łódzki, Polska
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0796-6620
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 120-135
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/so2023208
PDF: so/26/so2608.pdf

Influence of the Ancient Bactria’s Legacy on the Economic and Social Development of Tajikistan

The article’s main goal is to present the influence of ancient Bactria’s legacy on the economic and social development of Tajikistan. The paper provides information about the ancient Bactria’s history – the country where early urban planning traditions and statehood foundations were formed in Central Asia. Bactria included the central, southern, and eastern parts of Tajikistan. In the 6th Century B.C. Bactria was conquered by the Persian king Cyrus and became part of his Achaemenid empire. From the 4th Century B.C. Bactria became known as Tokharistan. It was the moment when the Tajik nationality began to form.

Securitization of Water in Central Asia: Insights from the Regional Water Security Complex

Author: Marek Musioł
Institution: University of Wrocław (Poland)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3318-9626
Year of publication: 2024
Source: Show
Pages: 191-205
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy202411
PDF: ppsy/53-1/ppsy2024111.pdf

Central Asia is revealing itself as an area where the problem of access to water and its current regional dynamics are almost at a radically critical level, where the potential risk of water disputes is still one of the highest in the world. Therefore, water scarcity issues and challenges triggered by the Aral Sea syndrome, the existing water mismanagement system, infrastructural and investment projects of dams and water reservoirs (Rogun, Naryn, Kambarata, Toktogul, etc.) and their transformation towards an existential threat will be analyzed within the securitization prism through the selected speech acts. This article will contribute to developing a new analytical framework of Regional Security Complex Theory (RSCT) and the securitization theory in water stress. The efforts undertaken in this article will ultimately lead to the development of a new approach to issues of water security and hydro politics within the concept of the Regional Water Security Complex (RWSC) on the example of the Central Asian region. The main research question will be to what extent water, as an immanent feature of this complex, is politicized and securitized. An important question will also be how the formulated security language indicates the existential nature of water as a security problem in the region.

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