chemical weapons

Toxic Ticking Time-Bomb in the Baltic Sea and Threats to Poland’s Security

Author: Rafał Willa
Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University (Poland)
Author: Agnieszka Szpak
Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University (Poland)
Published online: 25 July 2022
Final submission: 17 June 2022
Printed issue: 2023
Source: Show
Page no: 18
Pages: 187-204
DOI Address:
PDF: ppsy/51/ppsy202233-12.pdf

The authors examine the threats from hazardous toxic materials from World War II wrecks sunk in the Baltic Sea and their cargo of chemical ammunition, indicate Poland’s reaction to this situation, and map out Polish obligations in this regard. This problem gives rise to multiple uncertainties about the exact nature of threats to environmental/ecological security, marine security, human security (including health security), economic security and food safety. The authors also elaborate on legal regulations relevant in this context. The research methods include formal-institutional analysis of relevant legal documents and discourse analysis. The main conclusions are: 1. toxic materials in the Baltic Sea threaten ecological, economic, human and security; 2. food safety in all Baltic states might be endangered; Poland should accede to the Nairobi Wreck Removal Convention; and Poland should cooperate regionally to resolve the problem of the Baltic chemical waste.

The scope of the prohibition of the use of chemical weapons in international public law

Author: Agata Kleczkowska
Institution: PAN
Year of publication: 2014
Source: Show
Pages: 180-189
DOI Address:
PDF: tpn/7/TPN2014211.pdf

The goal of the article is to examine if in international public law there is the prohibition of the use of chemical weapons during internal armed conflicts. The first part of the article deals with the previous regulations on the chemical weapons. Secondly, the Chemical Weapons Convention is discussed in relation to the scope of the prohibition. Then, the UN Security Council Resolution 2118 upon the Syrian conflict should be analyzed. Finally, the scope of the prohibition is related to the terms ‘war’ and ‘armed conflict’. The conclusions drawn from the abovementioned analyses depict that there is the strong need for an extension of the existing prohibition; however, no legal act has established it for now.

Message to:



© 2017 Adam Marszałek Publishing House. All rights reserved.

Projekt i wykonanie Pollyart