children

Solutions and the Algorithm of Screening Indicating the Presence of FASD in Preschool Aged Children in the System of Early Care

Author: Jablonský Tomáš
Institution: Catholic University, Ružomberok
Author: Okálová Oľga
Institution: Catholic University, Ružomberok
Author: Petra Nettleship
Institution: United Kingdom
Author: Utku Uçay
Institution: King’s College, London
Year of publication: 2018
Source: Show
Pages: 17-27
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/tner.2018.52.2.01
PDF: tner/201802/tner20180201.pdf

Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder is an overarching term that describes the extent of effects of prenatal alcohol exposure. It includes the range of neurodevelopmental findings and other medical findings specific for FAS. Measurability of characteristics depends on several factors, such as diagnostic instruments, multidisciplinary focus, etc. The objective of the contribution is to provide the primary early care givers with recommendations for FASD screening. It involves suggestions that deal with recognition, protection and intervention of children with FASD in the most elaborate and unbiased manner. Results of the study offer selective intention of screening in preschool-aged children. The research was conducted with 173 children aged from 3 to 7 years. The authors used their own concept of selected domains indicating the occurrence of impairments in FASD domains. Specific quantitative and qualitative research methods were assigned to them. The impairments relate to anthropometric deviations determining early occurrence of FASD. The authors have selected the domain of basic anthropometry: head circumference, height and weight and philtrum and the obtained results from domains: auditory processing, selected cognitive components, motor system, speech and sensory processing. Conclusions define basic criteria for FASD screening in general population and basic algorithm of distribution of recognized child in a system of early care in the SR. They rely on the fact that there is urgent demand in Slovakia to involve participants in active FASD care.

Artists in the Eyes of Children – Semiotic Analysis of the Meanings about Artists Constructed by Children

Author: Małgorzata Karczmarzyk
Institution: University of Gdańsk
Author: Dominika Szelągowska
Institution: III High School in Gdansk
Year of publication: 2018
Source: Show
Pages: 131-141
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2018.02.08
PDF: kie/120/kie12008.pdf

The problem around which this study was constructed is the contemporary art and a person, who creates this art – an artist, and their authentic perception by the child. A modern vision of the child too often shows the artist in a distorted, incomplete or reduced way. This kind of children knowledge, based on the patterns and stereotypes, reduces the reflectivity of children, unnecessarily distorts their judgment and closes the road ahead to a full and critical participation in the world. The study is based on the analysis of interviews and children’s drawings centered around the perception of the profile of an artist by children. It results from the analysis of the research material gathered during the study that this is a stereotypical vision, and the artist is still associated with a person who remains beyond the reach of “normal” society.
The conducted research shows the diversity of the types of meanings that children aged 5–7 attribute to the term “artist” and “artistry”. The naive ideas on this subject created by children prove to be a collection of beliefs of a partially common and often completely different nature. For a pedagogue, the ultimate purpose of the research is to obtain knowledge which will allow effective changes in education, in this case, in art education. The investigation of meanings which children attribute to concepts concerning the artistic phenomena may allow to create a strategy of transmission of knowledge of art history and to design the creative activities connected with the broadly-understood visual arts.

Third culture children in the Czech Republic: the influence of parents’ cultures on preparing for school

Author: Lenka Venterová
Institution: Uniwersytet Tomasza Baty w Zlinie
Year of publication: 2018
Source: Show
Pages: 179-192
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/em.2018.02.09
PDF: em/9/em909.pdf

Dzieci trzeciej kultury są stosunkowo nowym podmiotem badań w Republice Czeskiej. Niniejsze badania jakościowe obejmują dzieci, których językami ojczystymi są czeski i angielski, a każdy z rodziców ma inne zaplecze kulturowe. Ich dzieci uczęszczające do szkół podstawowych w Republice Czeskiej muszą często pokonać innego rodzaju problemy dotyczące przygotowania się do nauki szkolnej niż ich jednokulturowi rówieśnicy. W części metodologicznej staram się zidentyfikować te problemy oraz powody zamieszkania tego typu rodzin mieszanych w Republice Czeskiej, mimo że nie zawsze jest to dla ich dzieci łatwe.

Ego-Resiliency and Parental Satisfaction Among Parents of Children with Down Syndrome

Author: Anna Kózka
Author: Hanna Przybyła-Basista
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 239-249
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/tner.2017.48.2.19
PDF: tner/201702/tner20170219.pdf

Parents of children with Down syndrome face many challenges related to their children’s disability. They manage to raise their children primarily thanks to their internal resources, protective psychological traits and help from other people. The aim of this study was to investigate the level of ego-resiliency as an important personality trait in a group of mothers and fathers of children with Down syndrome. The relationship between ego-resiliency and parental satisfaction was also studied. The sample consisted of 126 parents (75 mothers and 51 fathers). Our results show that there is no difference in the level of ego-resiliency between mothers and fathers of children with Down syndrome. Nevertheless, it is noticed that there is a difference in perceived stress, psychological well-being and some aspects of parental satisfaction between parents with high and low levels of ego-resiliency. These results give an interesting insight into the internal func- tioning of parents of children with Down syndrome.

Early Foreign Language Learning from the Children’s Perspective

Author: Saša Jazbec
Author: Branka Čagran
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 125-136
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/tner.2016.45.3.10
PDF: tner/201603/tner20160310.pdf

Many European children begin to learn a (foreign) language at a very early age, and early foreign language learning has thus evolved into a paradigm that seems to have settled as a steady companion of everyday school life. The aim of this contribution, which addresses the topic of early foreign language learning from the participant’s, i.e. the student’s, point-of-view, is to determine students’ reasons for learning a foreign language, as articulated by the students themselves. The research analysis will investigate the motivational aspects that influence learning, and will also illustrate and interpret the research results of a study in which approx. 300 students aged 6-10 years from 9 different countries participated. The analysis will not be country specific, but will highlight common motivational features that recur in all the students’ replies and reveal – as expected-not a linguistic, but a decisively pragmatic focus in the process of language learning.

The relationships between perceived stress and psychological well-being among mothers and fathers of children with down syndrome

Author: Anna Kózka
Author: Hanna Przybyła-Basista
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 285-294
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/tner.2016.44.2.23
PDF: tner/201602/tner20160223.pdf

The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between perceived stress and psychological well-being among parents of children with down syndrome. The relationship between perceiving one’s parenthood and well-being was also studied. The sample consisted of 126 parents (75 mothers and 51 fathers, aged 25-69) of children with down syndrome. our results show that ego-resiliency is a partial mediator of the relationship between perceived stress and psychological well-being. Moreover, there is a difference in well-being between parents who perceive their parenthood as a burden or challenge, and parents who report happiness and satisfaction.

(Nie)równe traktowanie dzieci powracających w polskiej szkole

Author: Paulina Szydłowska
Author: Joanna Durlik
Author: Joanna Grzymała-Moszczyńska
Author: Halina Grzymała-Moszczyńska
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 201-224
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/em.2017.02.13
PDF: em/7/em713.pdf

Celem badań, które zostały przeprowadzone w ramach projektu (Nie)łatwe powroty do domu. Badanie funkcjonowania dzieci i młodzieży powracających z emigracji, było zdiagnozowanie sytuacji dzieci i młodzieży powracających do Polski i opisanie jej z różnych perspektyw: dziecka, rodzica, nauczyciela/ki, a także osób pracujących w poradniach psychologiczno-pedagogicznych. W badaniach wzięło udział 34 dzieci, 27 rodziców oraz 26 nauczycieli. Z respondentami i respondentkami przeprowadzono częściowo pogłębione wywiady, a z pracownikami Poradni Psychologiczno-Pedagogicznych wywiady focusowe oraz badanie ankietowe.Wyniki badań wskazują na występowanie dyskryminacji w stosunku do dzieci powracających w polskich szkołach. Przybiera ona różne formy: od nieuwzględniania przez szkołę ich specjalnych potrzeb edukacyjnych, przez etykietowanie, po przemoc słowną albo fizyczną ze strony rówieśników. Badania pokazują również, że często kadra szkolna nie tylko nie reaguje adekwatnie na przemoc stosowaną względem tej grupy dzieci, ale sama dopuszcza sie takiej przemocy w sposób nieświadomy. Sytuacja ta może wynikać zarówno z braku przygotowania nauczycieli do pracy z dzieckiem z doświadczeniem migracyjnym w ramach studiów, a także z braku dostępu do szkoleń na temat edukacji antydyskryminacyjnej.

Zagrożenia dla bezpieczeństwa dzieci zamieszkujących w strefie konfliktu na wschodniej Ukrainie

Author: Tomasz R. Dębowski
Institution: Uniwersytet Wrocławski
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9933-8911
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 136-153
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20202407
PDF: npw/24/npw2407.pdf

Threats to the safety of children in the conflict zone in eastern Ukraine

Publications on the conflict in eastern Ukraine rarely describe the situation of children living in the combat zone. More attention is paid to the political, economic and military aspects of this confrontation. The author has set himself two goals. The first one is to check how the war affects the biological and mental aspects of children’s lives. The second is an attempt to answer the question whether there is a possibility of improving the situation of minors. The paper on the problematic system is divided into three parts. The first part draws attention to the following problems: difficulties with access to medical care, increased incidence of infectious diseases, growing drug addiction, drinking water pollution, as well as the threat of unexploded ordnance. The second part describes: threats to mental health of children, socialization problems (pre-school and school education, family crisis, shaping of national identity), as well as participation of child soldiers in the conflict in Donbass. The last section of the article contains conclusions. The considerations were prepared on the basis of carefully verified materials in English, Ukrainian and Polish. Many publications were downloaded from the websites of international organizations, analytical centers and scientific institutions.

Dziecięce choroby i urazy w świetle Skarbu Nieprzebranego Dobrodzieystw Boskich Jana Kazimierza Steczewicza (lata sześćdziesiąte i siedemdziesiąte XVII w.)

Author: Małgorzata Delimata-Proch
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7894-2589
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 64-85
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/hso200104
PDF: hso/24/hso2404.pdf
License: This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license CC BY-NC-ND 4.0.

Child diseases and traumas in the light of “Skarb Nieprzebrany Dobrodzieystw Boskich” by Jan Kazimierz Steczewicz (the 1660s and the 1670s)

Skarb Nieprzebrany Dobrodzieystw Boskich by Jan Kazimierz Steczewicz provides an opportunity of analysing children’s health and the consequences of unfortunate accidents. It also allows to take a closer look at the votive practices and rites described in the book of miracles.

Horváth & Kiss v. Hungary: How Romani children became mentally retarded

Author: William S. New
Institution: Beloit College
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002- 5433-3228
Year of publication: 2021
Source: Show
Pages: 137-150
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/em.2021.01.07
PDF: em/14/em1407.pdf

In 2013, the European Court of Human Rights decided the case of Horváth and Kiss v. Hungary in favor of the two Romani boys who alleged that they had been misdiagnosed as ‘mildly mentally retarded’ and consequently placed and retained in a special school for their whole primary education. This, they claimed, deprived them of the educational opportunity to pursue their chosen vocational interests. In this research note, I will provide a brief view of the history of special education in Hungary, and the history of mental retardation in its medical/pedagogic connections. I will suggest that the Court’s decision, while a positive development, fails to address the fundamental systemic racism of the entire medico/educational system in Hungary, and that until that more radical change is undertaken, a disproportionate number of Romani children will continue to be officially and unofficially treated as mentally deficient.

Through the Diversity of Children’s Game to the Subsequent Learning

Author: Mária Vargová
Institution: Catholic University in Ružomberok
Author: Anna Klim-Klimaszewska
Institution: University of Natural Sciences and Humanities in Siedlce
Year of publication: 2021
Source: Show
Pages: 165-177
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/tner.21.65.3.13
PDF: tner/202103/tner6513.pdf

Children’s game makes a part of children’s lives. The paper provides partial results of empirical research focused on children’s game in the home and school environment. The character of the empirical research was diagnostic and quantitative. The subject of the research was children’s game and its implementation for children under 12 years of age. There were 218 individual respondents from all over Slovakia who participated in the individual interviews. They gave oral answer to questions about the game in their childhood and the way it way realized. Here we also present the approach of teachers and psychologists. Due to political-pedagogical character, we divided the game and the respondents into three categories according to the age and childhood.

Parental Monitoring of the Internet Activity of Young Children and Preadolescents

Author: Hanna Przybyła-Basista
Institution: University of Silesia
Author: Anna Kołodziej
Institution: University of Silesia
Year of publication: 2014
Source: Show
Pages: 315-325
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/tner.14.36.2.25
PDF: tner/201402/tner3625.pdf

This study explores the influence of three psychological factors of the parental monitoring of children’s Internet activity: (i) parents’ perception of the Internet as a source of threat and risk, (ii) parents’ perception of the Internet as a source of benefits, and (iii) family closeness. The sample consisted of 161 parents (20 fathers and 141 mothers) of children aged 7 - 12. Results show that family closeness is the most significant predictor for parental monitoring. The second significant predictor is parents’ perception of the Internet as a source of threat or risk. As expected, the predictors for parental monitoring of children’s Internet activity depend on children’s age.

Aggressive Education of Children in the Family Environment

Author: Grażyna Poraj
Institution: University of Łódź
Year of publication: 2014
Source: Show
Pages: 162-181
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2014.05.10
PDF: kie/105/kie10510.pdf

Children’s individual experience gained within families may lead to the development of both prosocial and aggressive behaviours. The aim of the paper is to analyse the phenomenon of aggression in the family environment. Extensive specialist literature indicates that there are often many co-occurring factors that determine child aggression. Children live in a dysfunctional family, in conditions of poverty and parental pathology, experience parental hostility and violence, are neglected, their vital biological and psychological needs are not met, they undergo inadequate upbringing training. They also experience aggression in sibling relations. Thus, the family provides them with comprehensive aggressive education for years. An important issue is to prevent and control aggression in the family. It is not easy and requires actions at three levels: social, individual and family. The article also presents an interesting intervention model in a sibling aggression situation.

The Influence of Political Processes and the War in Ukraine on the Formation of Generation Alpha and the iGeneration (Z): Defining Specific Features

Author: Liudmyla Kryvachuk
Institution: Pedagogical University of Kraków
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3083-4781
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 66-89
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223304
PDF: npw/33/npw3304.pdf

The Influence of Political Processes and the War in Ukraine on the Formation of Generation Alpha and the iGeneration (Z): Defining Specific Features

The article attempts to analyse and define the specific features of the iGeneration (Z) and Generation Alpha in Ukraine in the context of the political processes and the war taking place in Ukrainian society. The article discusses the generation issues, taking into account the characteristics of the iGeneration (Z) and Generation Alpha. Assuming that a generation is an identifiable group of people who share a similar time of birth and significant events at critical stages of development, the article presents an original approach to determining the specific features of the iGeneration (Z) and Generation Alpha in Ukraine. The Orange Revolution (2004), the Revolution of Dignity (2014) and the hybrid war (2014-2022) and Russian-Ukrainian war (from 24.02.2022) had a significant impact on the formation of the iGeneration (Z) and Generation Alpha in Ukraine.

Social Relations of Urban Children in the Liminal Time of the Pandemic Period

Author: Marzenna Nowicka
Institution: University of Warmia and Mazury, Poland
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0032-9944
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 34-44
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/tner.2022.70.4.03
PDF: tner/202204/tner7003.pdf

This paper analysed the social relations of Polish children during the SARSCoV- 2 pandemic. The period of isolation and remote learning was approached as a transitional time using Victor Turner’s concept of liminality. The concept offered a new perspective on children’s experiences during the regime of health protection constraints and the resulting limitations. The research material was collected using focus group interviews with 41 urban children aged 7 and 9 to describe liminal features of their everyday life and characterise their social interactions. The findings reveal the risks and the potential of the pandemic period with respect to the social world and its construction by children. The most important observation concern is that educators and caregivers exploit children’s aversion to mediated interaction and assistance in reconstructing the world of actual interaction of children using creative rituals within the family and at school.

Education of Children with a Refugee Background in Poland in the Situation of War in Ukraine. Outline of the Problems

Author: Marzena Kruk
Institution: University of Maria Curie-Skłodowska
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5067-632X
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 7-22
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2023.02.01
PDF: kie/140/kie14001.pdf

In the context of the military conflict in Ukraine, since February 24, 2022, the Polish government has decided to include refugee children in the continuation and implementation of education in the Polish education system at various stages and levels of education. Educational institutions in Poland have faced the great challenge of accepting refugee children into the Polish education system. Due to the war situation, both children with a refugee background and their guardians (mothers), as well as teachers, were confronted with the reality that showed many aspects of education and the implementation of the didactic process in a situation hitherto unknown and unexpected. The article aims to provide a preliminary diagnosis of the education process of children with a refugee background from the perspective of teachers and institutional support. In addition, the analysis also attempted to assess the health and mental well-being of children with experience of war trauma. Critical reflection on the education process of refugee children in Poland is based on available reports and studies of quantitative and qualitative research carried out primarily by public institutions (Polish Ministry of Education and Science, UNHCR, Integrated Educational Platform) and the private sector (Centre for Citizenship Education 2022–2023).

Are You a Little Pole? Constructing National Identity in Literature for Young Children

Author: Maria Swiątkiewicz-Mośny
Institution: Jagiellonian University
Year of publication: 2013
Source: Show
Pages: 108-118
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/tner.13.32.2.08
PDF: tner/201302/tner3208.pdf

The paper attempts to answer the question about the relation between the construction of national identity in contemporary world and children’s literature. Qualitative analysis of books for children was made. The main assumption is that stories we tell children create a specific cultural map of narration, thanks to which children create the feeling of identity, which is both individual and social. Contemporary literature for young children, contrary to older books, is devoid of national character.

Polityka społeczna w Polsce i na Ukrainie przez pryzmat procesów demograficznych: diagnoza i analiza porównawcza w kontekście ludności w wieku przedprodukcyjnym (0–17 lat)

Author: Liudmyla Kryvachuk
Institution: Uniwersytet Pedagogiczny im. KEN w Krakowie
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3083-4781
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 219-247
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233811
PDF: npw/38/npw3811.pdf

Social policy in Poland and Ukraine through the prism of demographic processes: diagnosis and comparative analysis in the context of the population of pre-working age (0–17 years)

The article the presents results of a study on the situation of children in Poland and Ukraine in the years 1991–2021 (30 years). Children and youth are determinants of social changes, they shape the future potential of society, therefore creating conditions for their formation and accumulation of human capital is one of the main priorities of state policy in most countries of the world. The comparative analysis was carried out on the basis of selected demographic indicators, including the number of children, the participation of children aged 0-17 in the general population in Poland and Ukraine, the number of live births, the birth rate, the fertility rate in Poland and Ukraine, the child mortality rate under 1 year, the child mortality rate under 5 years (0-4 years) in Poland and Ukraine. The diagnosis and analysis of the situation of children in Poland and Ukraine shows both positive and negative trends that require modernization of public policy instruments in this area in both countries.

Children’s Conceptions about Libraries and Learning

Author: Andrea Dömsödy
Institution: Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary
Year of publication: 2007
Source: Show
Pages: 75-84
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/tner.07.11.1.06
PDF: tner/200701/tner1106.pdf

Current library instructions, textbooks do not adequately address children, because they do not consider children’s (pre)conceptions about information literacy. Using qualitative methods this research tries to describe conceptual frameworks, distinctions to support a more efficient and constructivist library instruction. In our opinion research does not result in adaptive information about conceptions, if the research subject does not investigate relationships from the point of view of information and information literacy generally and in terms of some preferred resources. This study emphasizes a relationship between libraries and learning in children’s conceptions. Four types of conceptions were revealed in this specific sub-field, which influence preparing for autonomous learning and lifelong learning.

Ewolucja zabaw w gry. Podporządkowanie spontaniczności arbitralnym konwencjom

Author: Elżbieta Jaszczyszyn
Institution: Uniwersytet w Białymstoku
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8901-1643
Year of publication: 2024
Source: Show
Pages: 81-95
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2024.01.05
PDF: kie/143/kie14305.pdf

The evolution of game play. Subordination of spontaneity to arbitrary conventions

Among the many issues that are raised in the context of the development of preschool children, among others, there is the one devoted to the issue of play and games. However, the need to play does not cease with the end of the developmental stage that is childhood. Playing as a natural need of the species homo sapiens, along with cognitive activity (the need to learn) and social activity, are considered elementary forms of human activity also in adulthood and old age. In considering the evolution of playfulness in games, the fact of the identity of the concepts of “fun” and “play” and the possible differences in the meanings of these two concepts were emphasized. The vividness of play may be subject to discipline. The existence of a large body of literature on play (children’s, adult) sometimes relegates the analysis of the process of evolution of play activity into play (cycle: play-game). Certain categories of fun and games are very clearly arranged in a temporal sequence related to their appearance and the transition of one into another (fun into games). This issue is not one of the well-studied, but some outline of this thought can already be described.

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