China

  • СЕМІОТИКО-КОМПОЗИЦІЙНІ АСПЕКТИ ФОРМУВАННЯ ТВОРІВ СТАНКОВОГО ЖИВОПИСУ КИТАЮ: ЗАГАЛЬНОТЕОРЕТИЧНИЙ АНАЛІЗ

    Author: Khuan Sin
    Institution: Kharkiv State Academy of Design and Arts
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0783-6786
    Year of publication: 2022
    Source: Show
    Pages: 177-193
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ksm20220110
    PDF: ksm/33/ksm3310.pdf

    SEMIOTICO-COMPOSITIVE ASPECTS OF THE FORMATION OF CHINESE EQUIPMENT PAINTING WORKS: GENERAL THEORETICAL ANALYSIS

    The scientific article is devoted to the complex analysis of semiotic-compositional aspects of formation of works of easel painting of China. It established that taking into account the holistic and fundamental changes that took place in the spiritual life of society in the late XX –early XXI century and due to the transformations taking place in the fine arts of China, it is obvious that profound changes have affected the methodology of philosophical knowledge and the foundations of artistic creativity. In art, the practice of artistic creativity and the accompanying philosophical reflection always go hand in hand, fully determining each other. In turn, attention to some specific aspects of the formation of the compositional construction of a work of art is not only able to promote practice, but can deepen the degree of penetration into all aspects of the topic under consideration. Emphasis is placed on the fact that extrapolating such a method to the study of the phenomena of compositional construction, we can afford to trace the relationship between individual artistic styles and their relationship to the goals and objectives of composition. This allows us to distinguish two aspects of the study: the attitude to the composition, its goals, objectives, methods and techniques in the context of the analyzed individual artistic styles; attitude to the composition, its goals, objectives, methods and techniques, as a communicative model of “open” type, in which the message changes as codes change, and the use of certain codes is dictated by ideology, features of historical development, translational movement of semiosis.

  • Strategic Ambiguity in US-Taiwan Relations During the Donald Trump Administration

    Author: Filip Grzegorzewski
    Institution: University of Warsaw (Poland)
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3160-8214
    Published online: 30 January 2022
    Final submission: 23 January 2022
    Printed issue: March 2022
    Source: Show
    Page no: 16
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy202210
    PDF: ppsy/51/ppsy202210a.pdf

    Strategic ambiguity, or the deliberate policy of uncertainty as to whether the United States would use force to defend Taiwan against an invasion by the People's Republic of China, has been the centrepiece of US policy towards the Taiwan issue for decades. This paper discusses the factors driving the redefinition of strategic ambiguity and its recalibration throughout Donald Trump's presidency (2017–2021). The fundamental driver of this change was to balance the rising power of the People’s Republic of China (PRC). The paper applied offensive realism as a theoretical framework for its analysis. Under President Donald Trump, Washington modified its policy of strategic ambiguity, explicitly framing relations with Taiwan within a broader Indo-Pacific strategy. While the US retained key elements of strategic ambiguity, including the 'One China' policy, it added new features to deploy it offensively against Beijing's growing regional hegemony. The increased dynamism and unpredictability of relations with Taiwan were matched by a welcoming attitude towards strengthening Taiwanese identity and highlighting the systemic differences between communist China and democratic Taiwan. America stepped up arms sales and encouraged Taiwan to build its self-defence capabilities. Washington engaged in countering Chinese attempts to isolate Taiwan internationally and included it in restructuring global supply chains. Although the United States has not formally revised the boundaries of the 'One China' policy, the modification of strategic ambiguity increased Taiwan's prominence in US-China power competition and pushed back the prospect of peaceful unification.

  • Uwarunkowania instytucjonalno-prawne rozwoju przedsiębiorstw społecznych w Chinach: przepisy krajowe i lokalne programy pilotażowe

    Author: Ewa Radomska
    Institution: Uniwersytet Pedagogiczny im. Komisji Edukacji Narodowej w Krakowie
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9503-534X
    Year of publication: 2022
    Source: Show
    Pages: 108-128
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223207
    PDF: npw/32/npw3207.pdf

    Institutional and legal conditions for the development of social enterprises in China: the national provisions and the local pilot schemes

    The aim of the article is to assess the institutional and legal conditions for the development of social enterprises in China by analyzing the current national provisions, indirectly relating to these entities, the local pilot schemes and the accreditation systems of social enterprises operating within them, as well as to formulate recommendations to decisionmakers concerning further necessary measures for the development of social enterprises. The analysis carried out has drawn several key conclusions. China is at an early stage in the implementation of institutional and legal solutions which are important for the development of social enterprises. There are no national laws and policies regulating the status and functioning of these entities. The national provisions on non profit law and company law relate indirectly to social enterprises. A complementary set of rules is needed to take account of the hybrid organisational form of social enterprises. In addition, a comprehensive assessment of the existing institutional and legal arrangements implemented under local pilot schemes (in Chengdu, Shunde-Foshan, Shenzhen, Beijing) is needed. They provide the basis for national legislation and policies relating to social enterprises. Insufficient understanding of the concept and the importance of social entrepreneurship by decision-makers at the government level can be considered problematic.

  • Hybrydowy model zarządzania w chińskich przedsiębiorstwach

    Author: Karolina Mazurowska
    Institution: Uniwersytet SWPS
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0914-1144
    Author: Oskar Wangart
    Institution: Uniwersytet Warszawski
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 38-53
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ap202103
    PDF: ap/24/ap2403.pdf

    Chinese Hybrid Management Model

    The dynamic development of Chinese enterprises in the last two decades means that increasingly often, Chinese companies have been expanding their own specific corporate culture and management methods. The article discusses the differences in the attitudes of managers, business strategies as well as the Chinese definitions and visions of what an enterprise is to serve, what are its goals, strategies and forms of operation. In the article, we analyze Chinese and external – Western factors which influence the management and organization of work in China, arguing that the Chinese management model may be described as a hybrid, in view of the variety of sources on which its principles are based. The first part of the article deals with the philosophical foundations and management considerations in traditional China, referring to the main currents of the Chinese philosophical thought, Confucianism, Legism and Daoism. The second part describes the implications of Chinese philosophy in management; the practice of networking and how the characteristics of Chinese society affect corporate governance in China. Part three is devoted to human resources and to the way social needs of Chinese workers are met.The Chinese society is examined in the context of management. The last part of the article describes enterprises in the People’s Republic of China, their special relationship with the State and how it is understood in the context of management.

  • Individual in a Traditional Chinese Family

    Author: Wang Yun
    Institution: Uniwersytet SWPS
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8740-2499
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 71-84
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ap202105
    PDF: ap/24/ap2405.pdf

    The article analyzes the relation between the individual and the family in traditional China in a historical and cultural context. It concludes that the family, besides being a source of material support, provides a sense of identity, which is obtained through the performance of family role ethics. The ethics consist in fulfilling one’s specific obligations, such as filial piety, obedience, responsibility for family members, etc. Through practicing them since childhood, individuals shape their personality in a way that enables them to participate in a hierarchical, patriarchal family structure and maintain harmonious relations with its members.

  • Russia’s and China’s Vaccine Diplomacy in Central and Eastern Europe

    Author: Alla Atamanenko
    Institution: National University of Ostroh Academy
    Author: Natalia Konopka
    Institution: National University of Ostroh Academy
    Year of publication: 2022
    Source: Show
    Pages: 7-13
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/CPLS.20221.01
    PDF: cpls/1/cpls101.pdf

    The article analyzes the causes, implementation strategy, and results of vaccine diplomacy of the People’s Republic of China and the Russian Federation in Central and Eastern Europe. In particular, the activities of China and Russia in Serbia, Hungary, Northern Macedonia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Albania, Moldova, Belarus, and Ukraine are covered. The main directions, tools, and consequences of the activation of the two states in the region are outlined. The article underlines that China is expanding its strategic goals according to the One Belt One Road Initiative through the so-called Health Silk Road, providing a vaccine to low- and middle-income countries. The goals of the Russian Federation are established more in the geopolitical and political spheres. Russia seeks to reduce the influence of the EU and the US in the CEE region from political, economic, and security perspectives. China and Russia are both allies and competitors. The two countries are trying to gain additional leverage in the CEE region by means of political lobbying, investment, finance, propaganda, Euroscepticism, public opinion manipulation, and soft power. For some time, the shortage of medicine for vaccination, which was caused by giving priority to the population of vaccine-producing countries, contributed to a rather increased activity of the PRC and the Russian Federation in the implementation of the strategy of gaining image benefits.

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