Chiny

O źródłach zróżnicowania kulturowo-cywilizacyjnego Azji Południowo-Wschodniej

Author: Kornel Bielawski
Institution: Uniwersytet Gdański
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 111-123
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/cip201706
PDF: cip/15/cip1506.pdf

Azja Południowo-Wschodnia stanowi region ekstremalnie różnorodny kulturowo. Współczesna rzeczywistość cywilizacyjno-kulturowa stanowi efekt licznych interakcji międzygrupowych, różnorodnych grup etnicznych i wyznawców odmiennych religii, do których dochodziło na przestrzeni dziejów. Charakter regionu determinowany jest także przez ukształtowanie terenu oraz bliskie sąsiedztwo dwóch ważnych cywilizacji: Indii oraz Chin. W artykule omówione zostaną źródła zróżnicowania cywilizacyjno-kulturowego Azji Południowo-Wschodniej.

Statehood Without the State: The Politico-Legal Visions of the Future State of Tibet

Author: Marcin Lisiecki
Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń
Year of publication: 2018
Source: Show
Pages: 31-46
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2018.59.03
PDF: apsp/59/apsp5903.pdf

The main purpose of this article is to analyze the situation of modern Tibet, which political and legal structures are divided into the Central Tibetan Administration in India and the Tibet Autonomous Region in China. What connects them is a developing national identity of the Tibetans and the actions taken by the Central Tibetan Administration to create a new and independent state. Of great importance for the specificity of politics and the shaping of Tibetan national identity are also activities of the 14th Dalai Lama, who internationally promotes Tibetan culture and informs about the situation of Tibetans living in the Tibet Autonomous Region in China.
Dalai Lama is also the author of the draft constitution of the future state of Tibet, which content is a basis of the analysis in this article. Due to the comprehensive presentation and explanation of the specifics of this project, we will analyze not only particular articles, but also the introduction that we can consider as preamble. Thanks to this, it will be possible to show the relationship between political, legal and religious issues that make up the visions of the new state of Tibet.
This article is divided into two related parts. The first one is connected with national identity and independence of Tibet. The second part is focused on democratization of Tibet and relation between religion and politics.

Sports Exchange as a Tool of Shaping State’s Image: The Case of China

Author: Michał Marcin Kobierecki
Institution: University of Łódź
Year of publication: 2018
Source: Show
Pages: 109-120
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2018.59.08
PDF: apsp/59/apsp5908.pdf

China is a country that employs a number of tools in order to shape its positive international perception. Sport plays an important role in this area. The aim of the research is to investigate the issue of sports exchanges and their role in shaping international image of China. The analysis is an empirical case study and is aimed at answering a research question concerning how sports exchanges may be used in order to shape a desired international image of a country. According to the main hypothesis to be tested in the article, through sports exchanges China managed to make a swift from the old, unidirectional sports diplomacy, to a more dialogue-oriented, reciprocal form.

Regress of the West and the Emerging of New World Order: The Case of NATO

Author: Katarzyna Gruszko
Institution: Jan Kochanowski University in Kielce
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6700-5696
Author: Tomasz Gajewski
Institution: Jan Kochanowski University in Kielce
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1556-1591
Year of publication: 2018
Source: Show
Pages: 182-199
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2018.60.11
PDF: apsp/60/apsp6011.pdf

Uncertainty is the notion that can be a one-word description of the state of global affairs. Tensions in the world order architecture are symptoms of its ongoing transformation. The purpose of the article is to explore the reasons, manifestations and direction of this change. The prime assumption of the analysis is the regress of the West. NATO as a strategic bridge between two centers of the West – Europe and the United States – is subjected to scientific investigation to examine its possible role in reestablishment of the relative power of the West and regaining its defining capabilities in the world order in statu nascendi. The analysis is supplemented by two scenarios of possible trajectories of world order transformation.

Pomiędzy izolacjonizmem i globalizacją z chińską charakterystyką: stosunki USA–ChRL w pierwszym roku prezydentury Donalda Trumpa

Author: Bartosz Kowalski
Institution: Uniwersytet Łódzki
Year of publication: 2019
Source: Show
Pages: 23-38
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2019.61.02
PDF: apsp/61/apsp6102.pdf

Stosunki amerykańsko-chińskie w pierwszym roku prezydentury Donalda Trumpa były okresem gwałtownego przewartościowania polityki Waszyngtonu wobec Pekinu. Protekcjonistyczne hasło „America First” kontrastowało wyraźnie z próbą narzucania przez Chińską Republikę Ludową globalnej narracji otwartości gospodarczej, a wycofywanie się Stanów Zjednoczonych z porozumień wielostronnych zaczęły dyskontować władze Chin, wysuwając własne projekty multilateralne. W porównaniu z prezydenturą Baracka Obamy, postulującego „zwrot ku Azji” (pivot to Asia), pierwszych dwanaście miesięcy rządów jego następcy w Białym Domu charakteryzowała wyraźna zmiana priorytetów w polityce wobec Chin w oparciu o konfrontacyjną retorykę i rosnącą asertywność w kwestiach gospodarczych.

O metodologicznych trudnościach badania i opisywania Chin

Author: Krzysztof Gawlikowski
Institution: Uniwersytet SWPS
Year of publication: 2019
Source: Show
Pages: 50-78
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ap201903
PDF: ap/22/ap2203.pdf

Some methodological difficulties in studying and analysing China

The study presents various factors which obstacles adequate description and analysis of Chinese realities in Western scholarly literature. The first factor presented in the article is the psychological mechanism of a “mirror”. As Lynn T. White suggested, since the 17th century, that Westerners look at China not through a ‘window’ but through a ‘mirror’, in which their own fears or most treasured ideals are refl ected, not China itself. Hence their descriptions of China refl ect first of all their state of mind. Peter Hays Gries and Stanley Rosen add to this metaphor another one, that of a procrustean bed. According to these authors, contemporary Western scholars procede like ancient Procrustes who made his captives fit his bed cutting their too long limbs or stretching these too short, in order to adapt Chinese realities to the Western schemes. Sebastian Heilmann and Matthias Stepan in order to explain Western mistaken views of China and expectations presented six wrong assumptions concerning developments in China. Their list is controversial, but it is true that on the Western side there are numerous wrong assumptions concerning China and other Asian states. Thus the Chinese realities are described in a wrong way, and the predictions of future developments are also false.
The Author put an emphasis on scientific categories and terms elaborated in Europe and the States and considered “universal”, which, however, are not adequate to the Chinese realities. Hence their use results in falsification of descriptions and makes previsions based on them – groundless. He distinguishes two essential kinds of categories and terms borrowed from the West but inadequate to the Chinese realities. The first constitutes the terms which significance does not fit to the Chinese realities, as “language”, “religion”, historical epochs such as “antiquity”, “,Middle Ages”, etc. The second constitutes the terms which meanings involve cultural values. Many of them are difficult to translate into Chinese and they acquire different meanings in the context of Confucian heritage. The Author analyses from this perspective: “human rights”, “democracy” and “freedom”.
Western scholars are also often mislead by Chinese sources. The study indicates another factor, which facilitates great misunderstandings. According to the cultural norm of the Confucian civilisation there is a “proper façade” presented in public, behind which there are hidden “internal realities”. Of course, such differences could be detected in each culture, but in highly ritualistic Confucian civilisation this distinction is essential, and both parts constitute “complex realities”, whereas Westerners presume that the façade constitutes a whole and complete reality. The Author presents as an example centralised, unitary Leninist state in Chin that is – in his opinion merely a false “public image”, whereas in reality there operate more or less innumerable quite autonomous units, which in fact are not subordinate. Under such circumstances all decisions must be consulted and negotiated among them, like in a federal system, although it does not operate formally. The Westerners also misleads themselves considering their peculiar civilisation as “universal”, whereas there are various civilisations, which will not amalgamate during the modernisation processes. Hence various societies function and change in their own ways, different from the western schemes and expectations.
The study indicates that the West still predominates and presents its civilisation as universal. However, its predomination faces growing resistance and numerous scholars recognise the existence of numerous civilisations, which will also develop in the future. The author enumerates the most significant concepts such as “dialogue among civilisations and cultures” adopted by the United Nations in 1989, Huntington’s warning against imposing western norms on other civilisations, which may result in their ‘clashes’, the concept of the Axial Age, of Multiple Modernities, and so on. The road to an equal status of all civilisations is long and tortuous. The elaboration of universal scientific categories and principles is even more difficult, and it is, perhaps, a task for future generations of Asian scholars.

Ku normalizacji? Relacje Kościoła rzymskokatolickiego z władzami Chińskiej Republiki Ludowej po 1949 roku

Author: Marek Tylkowski
Institution: SWPS University
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ap202003
PDF: ap/23/ap2303.pdf

Towards normalization? Relations between the Roman Catholic Church and China People’s Republic after 1949

The article is concerned with the relations between the Catholic Church and the government of the People’s Republic of China. It starts with a short summary of the history of Christianity in China. Then it focuses on the analysis of changes of policies toward China on the part of the Holy See and their reception from Chinese authorities. It points out that the Vatican government consequently is making efforts in order to normalize the situation of Catholics in China and that it is ready to for a deep compromise with the Chinese government if necessary. In that context, the agreement between the Holy See and the Chinese government, which was prolonged on the 22nd of October 2020, is more understandable.

Globalnie czy lokalnie? Kulturowe uwarunkowania edukacji w Chinach

Author: Anna Mańkowska
Institution: Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1026-9487
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 85-97
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/em.2020.01.04
PDF: em/12/em1204.pdf

Celem podjętych rozważań jest przedstawienie kulturowych uwarunkowań edukacji w Chinach w dobie globalizacji. Artykuł odpowiada na pytanie, czy w czasach globalnych przemian i swobodnego przepływu treści, znaczeń i rozwiązań oświatowych, edukacja w Chinach pozostaje wierna tradycji i wartościom lokalnym. Przedmiotem badań były system edukacyjny i rzeczywistość kulturowo-społeczna w okresie przemian. W treści artykułu wykorzystano badania zastane chińskich i zagranicznych autorów. Jako metodę badawczą wybrano analizę źródeł wtórnych, która pokazała, że mimo gwałtownych, globalnych zmian, chińska edukacja w swoich metodach i sposobach nauczania pozostaje wierna ideałom i założeniom chińskiej tożsamości, a dokonuje tego za pośrednictwem procesu kontekstualizacji.

Determinants and Implications of Political and Economic Relations between China and South Korea during the Reign of Xi Jinping

Author: Paweł Bielicki
Institution: Asia and Pacific Society in Toruń
Year of publication: 2021
Source: Show
Pages: 129-150
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2021.71.08
PDF: apsp/71/apsp7108.pdf

Przedmiotem mojego zainteresowania jest przedstawienie najważniejszych uwarunkowań i implikacji charakteryzujących relacje chińsko- -południowokoreańskie za rządów Xi Jinpinga na płaszczyźnie politycznej i ekonomicznej. Celem moich rozważań będzie opisanie aktualnego stanu rzeczy we wzajemnych stosunkach oraz próba przeanalizowania, jak relacje obu podmiotów będą wpływać na konfigurację międzynarodową systemu bezpieczeństwa na terenie Azji Wschodniej. Na wstępie niniejszego studium prześledzę historię wzajemnych relacji za czasów zimnej wojny i proces normalizacji stosunków. Następnie przeanalizuję kontakty na linii Chiny–Republika Korei od 2013 r. i objęcia przez Xi Jinpinga oraz Parka Geun-hye sterów władzy w swoich krajach, skupiając się na najistotniejszym wówczas dla obustronnych związków problemie programu nuklearnego Korei Północnej. Niezwykle ważnym zagadnieniem w niniejszym tekście jest poruszenie kwestii zainstalowania na terenie Korei Południowej amerykańskiego systemu przeciwrakietowego THAAD w lipcu 2016 r., co doprowadziło do pogorszenia się relacji między Chinami a Republiką Korei, gdyż chiński rząd potraktował ten krok jako zagrożenia dla bezpieczeństwa ChRL. Istotnym punktem moich rozważań będzie także znaczenie rywalizacji amerykańsko-chińskiej dla kontaktów między rządami obu omawianych w tekście krajów azjatyckich. W dalszej części opisuję kontakty Pekin–Seul po wybuchu epidemii koronawirusa na przełomie 2019 i 2020 r. Dodatkowo poruszam także problem powiązań ekonomicznych obu państw. W podsumowaniu chciałbym odpowiedzieć na pytanie, czy w przyszłości należy spodziewać się intensyfikacji stosunków Pekin–Seul. Zamierzam stwierdzić, jak przybierająca na sile rywalizacja na linii Stany Zjednoczone–Chiny może przyczynić się do modyfikacji priorytetów dyplomacji południowokoreańskiej.

Cywilizacja chińska vs. cywilizacja europejska na przestrzeni XVI–XVII wieku: determinanty polityczne i gospodarcze

Author: Marian Tadeusz Mencel
Institution: Independent Researcher
Year of publication: 2021
Source: Show
Pages: 159-178
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/cip202109
PDF: cip/19/cip1909.pdf

Podstawowym wyznacznikiem odrębności poszczególnych cywilizacji jest środowisko. Z tej perspektywy wynikają zasadnicze różnice pomiędzy cywilizacją chińską i europejską. Wskazując środowisko jako podstawowy czynnik rozwoju cywilizacyjnego, rozumiemy nie tylko środowisko geograficzne, ale także środowisko jako przestrzeń geopolityczna, w której kształtują się relacje, zależności, powiązania i konkurencyjność, kształtujące na poszczególnych poziomach rozwoju cywilizacyjnego środowisko międzynarodowe i międzynarodowe stosunki. Do czasu podjęcia przez państwa europejskie dzieła eksploracji nieznanych obszarów Ziemi, świat polityczny podzielony był na strefy wpływów wielkich cywilizacji, których poziom rozwoju nie wyróżniał zdecydowanie żadnej z nich. Europa znaczną część swego dziedzictwa kulturalnego i naukowego przejęła od islamu, podobnie jak społeczeństwa muzułmańskie przez całe wieki wcześniej inkorporowały z Chin, poprzez wymianę handlową, podboje i osiedlenia.

Suwerenność państwa i rządy prawa: kodyfikacja prawa prywatnego w Chinach

Author: Igor Szpotakowski
Institution: Uniwersytet Jagielloński w Krakowie
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8015-8614
Year of publication: 2018
Source: Show
Pages: 158-171
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/siip201808
PDF: siip/17/siip1708.pdf

State sovereignty and the rule of law: the codification of private law in China

The main issue of this article is a comparison of codification of private law in the Republic of China (1912–1949) with the current fifth attempt to codify civil law in the People’s Republic of China, which is planned to be enacted in 2020. The aim of the paper is to prove that in both the most important factors for drafting new laws were not the internal needs of the state, but the necessity to regulate the position of the country on the international arena. The analysis is based on two main concepts: sovereignty and the rule of law, which are crucial for understanding this issue.

China’s BRI in Central and Eastern European Countries: The Role of ‘17+1’ Framework for Regional Economic Cooperation

Author: Mukesh Shankar Bharti
Institution: Jawaharlal Nehru University in New Delhi
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 241-262
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2022.76.13
PDF: apsp/76/apsp7613.pdf

The aim of this research is to describe China’s Belt & Road Initiative (BRI) in the context of broader economic cooperation among the Central and Eastern European countries (CEEC). This research investigates the infrastructural development in the CEE countries under the 17+1 initiative in the entire region. Further, this study explores different approaches of economic cooperation between CEEC and China and points out the Chinese foreign direct investment (FDI) in individual CEE-17 countries. What kind of cooperation and mutual interrelation does China’s economic cooperation develop with the member states of the 17+1 initiative? To what extent do the CEE countries transform their economy in the framework of the 17+1 project? It is very clear that China needs to develop more effective mechanisms for wider cooperation in CEE countries to achieve the goal of the BRI initiative. This research mainly produces empirical studies to investigate the objectives and hypotheses. As of now, the result of the BRI initiative and 17+1 framework projects impacted limited economic transition in the CEE countries. The article concludes that there is a need to accelerate different BRI projects proportionally in the CEE countries. Moreover, this study shows that there is a trade deficit between the CEE countries and China. This article indicates that as a recommendation for bilateral cooperation between CEE countries and China, there is a need for large levels of cooperation at the regional level.

Восстание 1916 года: к проблеме историографии и источниковедения

Author: Аскар Ч. Какеев (Askar Chokutaevich Kakeyev)
Institution: Kyrgyz Academy of Sciences Philosophy Department Kyrgyz-Russian Slavic University
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 79-94
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/so2016204
PDF: so/10/so1004.pdf

Uprising of 1916: In the problems of historiography and source studies

The article is about first attempt of a full historiographical representation of the problem of the 1916 uprising.

The importance of economic diplomacy in the era of globalization (the case of China)

Author: Maria Ewa Szatlach
Institution: Uniwersytet Kazimierza Wielkiego w Bydgoszczy
Year of publication: 2015
Source: Show
Pages: 208-224
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/siip201512
PDF: siip/14/siip1412.pdf

Together with the acceleration of globalization processes, power in international relations has moved from the political and military space to the economic one. Today, true power means ability and capacity to integrate with the global economy. Therefore, economic diplomacy, which is not a new phenomenon, became one of the most important elements of foreign policy of all countries. The aim of the article is to present the importance of economic diplomacy in foreign policy in the era of globalization with a particular emphasis on the economic activity of China.

Mniejszości muzułmańskie w Chińskiej Republice Ludowej

Author: Jakub Cywiński
Institution: Uniwersytet Humanistycznospołeczny SWPS w Warszawie
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 228-244
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/tpn2017.1.12
PDF: tpn/12/TPN2017112.pdf

The article analyzes in the three paragraphs the issue of Muslim minorities in China, focusing on the history of Muslims in China, certain groups who live and cultivate their religion on the Chinese territory and the current situation of main two ethnic groups – Hui and Uygur. In the first paragraph article focuses on the history of the phenomenon of Islam’s development in China. Second paragraph focuses on the actual ethnic groups, concerning Hui, Uygur and other, smaller ethnic Muslim groups in China. The third paragraph shows the political situation of Hui and Uygur groups today.

Chiny – formowanie centrum kulturowo-cywilizacyjnego Dalekiego Wschodu Część I

Author: Marian Tadeusz Mencel
Institution: Naukowiec Niezależny
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 50-87
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/cip202204
PDF: cip/20/cip2004.pdf

China – forming the cultural and civilization centre of the Far East. Part I

The paper aims at presenting the processes of forming China as the cultural and civilisation centre of the Far East. It is important, which is noticed, in the area of human and social relations towards the environment in which the most important cultural and civilisational transformations occur. In addition, the influence of relations with the outside world and factors influencing the formation of the first cultural formations are observed. The research space of the first part of the paper also involves the analysis of phenomena occurring in the process of the development of Chinese agriculture and the formation of cults, beliefs and religious rituals – important elements of shaping the cultural and civilisation distinctiveness of China.

Potęga współczesnych Chin. Zarys problemu

Author: Robert Łoś
Institution: Uniwersytet Łódzki
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 79-98
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2023.77.05
PDF: apsp/77/apsp7705.pdf

The power of modern China: an outline of the problem

The modern power of China is based on its traditional sources: the size of the territory and demographics, the scale of the economy, strong army and soft power (culture, values, foreign policy, public diplomacy). China, by building its hegemony, showed that only a state with significant resources is able to be a leader in the modern world. The basic condition is the balanced development of individual power resources, because only then can long-term hegemony in the modern world be achieved and maintained. It is important for the world whether China will gain hegemony by overthrowing the existing world order, or whether it will try to maintain the existing order by building its leadership on its basis.

Feministyczna dekonstrukcja tradycyjnego obrazu kobiety w utworach Qiu Jin

Author: Michalina Koniuk
Institution: Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0009-0001-5374-5968
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 157-172
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ksm20230108
PDF: ksm/37/ksm3708.pdf

Feminist deconstruction of the traditional image of women in Qiu Jin’s works

Women’s issues are a significant subject of study in the realm of Chinese literature. In many works, it can be seen to oppose stereotypes or norms imposed on the female gender and to take measures leading to the emancipation of the individual. Such literature is symptomatic of a desire for change in society, that is, the overthrow of the patriarchal system and the introduction of equal rights between the sexes. An example of such prose is the works of China’s first feminist, Qiu Jin, who decided to fight for women’s rights. She was sentenced to death for her revolutionary activities. However, her texts introduced a completely new image of women into the public sphere - different from the one that had been reproduced for hundreds of years in ancient China. The poet chose to endow her heroines with charisma, courage, intelligence and the will to fight for a better life. Her aim was to make women aware of their situation in life, their social role, and to encourage them to leave the male-dominated world. Michalina Koniuk, in the chapter “Feminist Deconstruction of the Traditional Image of Woman in Qiu Jin’s Works”, proposes to analyse Qiu Jin’s works and present that the characters created by the writer oppose and destroy the image of the obedient and uneducated woman that existed in ancient China. First, the social role imposed on women in Chinese society has been described, namely that of obedient daughter, wife and daughter-in-law. The requirements and rules expected of Chinese women have been presented, and how Confucian norms contributed to the belittling of women’s role and position in Chinese society. As the poet was inspired by her own life experiences, Qiu Jin’s life were briefly introduced. Her childhood, during which the first signs of dissatisfaction with the obligations and social norms imposed on girls could be observed. An unsuccessful marriage mobilised the feminist to fight for women’s rights, to oppose the doctrines of Confucius and to leave home and go abroad. This was a great act of courage and at the same time a struggle for freedom and independence in the life of a feminist. That part was followed by an analysis of Qiu Jin’s works, whose female characters exemplify the kind of norms and behaviours that Qiu Jin rebelled against. At the same time, these characters deconstruct the traditional image of a woman and introduce a new one of a strong and independent individual. In this chapter, all poems and quotations have been translated by the author from Chinese into Polish.

Oddziaływanie sztuki Dalekiego Wschodu w Polsce od końca XIX do XX wieku

Author: Yue Mingchunxiao
Institution: Uniwersytet Tsinghua, Chińska Republika Ludowa
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0009-0003-3542-6394
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 132-149
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ksm20230209
PDF: ksm/38/ksm3809.pdf

The impact of Far Eastern art in Poland from the late 19th to the 20th century

From the period of geographic discovery to the current era of globalization, Eastern and Western cultures have been in constant communication while being very different from one another. The Polish art scene was profoundly influenced by inspiration from the Far East from the late nineteenth century to the early twentieth century, or from “Young Poland” to the modern era following World War II. At the turn of the century, interest in Japan and its art expanded from Paris to Poland. The popularity of Japanese art in Poland increased as a result of social, cultural, and even political demands. Numerous ideas in Japanese art, such as ukiyo-e woodcuts, were compatible with the philosophy of the Young Poland era and hence served as the foundation for numerous art schools. Poland and China, another Eastern nation, frequently exchange cultural and artistic works during the aforementioned period, which are evident in sectors such as painting, film, stage design, etc.

Quo Vadis, America? U.S. National Security Strategy under President Joe Biden

Author: Ewelina Waśko-Owsiejczuk
Institution: University of Białystok
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 114-140
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2023.79.06
PDF: apsp/79/apsp7906.pdf

The research purpose of the paper is to analyze the key assumptions outlined in the US National Security Strategy 2022. The paper will look for answers to the following questions: What is national security strategy? Is it an important document? What and for whom does it matter? What direction will US policy take under Joe Biden’s administration? What tools and methods will be used? What are the goals and priorities set in the document? Which countries are among the closest allies and biggest adversaries? What impact had the Russian aggression against Ukraine on the shape of the US National Security Strategy 2022? The main research method will be source analysis and criticism, as well as a comparative method to contrast the current NSS with previous ones. The research thesis assumes that the priority of the current US security strategy remains the one initiated during previous White House administrations – the rivalry with China, which in tandem with Russia aims to change the modern international order, threatening the national interests of the United States of America. The conducted analysis, on the one hand, confirms the thesis, and, on the other hand, points to inconsistencies in US strategic thinking (which takes the form of a “wish list”), which can significantly affect the effectiveness of the implementation of the set goals and objectives.

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