• Roszczenia krajów Europy Zachodniej I Stanów Zjednoczonych Ameryki wobec rządu Polskiej Rzeczpospolitej Ludowej z tytułu długów sprzed II wojny światowej, a także nacjonalizacji powojennej na dzień 19 III 1954 w świetle materiałów źródłowych

    Author: Robert Andrzejczyk
    Year of publication: 2014
    Source: Show
    Pages: 31-43
    DOI Address:
    PDF: ksm/19/ksm201403.pdf

    This article takes up topic rarely covered in Polish economic history i.e. compensations for nationalization and pre-IIWW debts to natural and legal persons from selected countries. During the 1948–1971 period Polish Government signed 12 bilateral indemnity agreements.

    Based on these agreements Polish government transferred to the governments of foreign states lump-sum compensations to satisfy the claims of entities referred to above (exceptions: Norway – mutual compensation agreement offsetting claims, France – indemnization in the form of hard coal deliveries). Selection of these countries was done based on economic interests of Poland after IIWW (e.g. perspectives of export of hard coal). Historical source material for this article is note titled “Capitalist countries claims against Poland for pre-IIWW and IIWW debts as well as claims that arose out of Polish laws affecting foreign property after liberation.” Note is dated 19th March 1954 and was addressed to the Polish Minister of Finance. Document is kept in the Central Archives of Modern Records (AAN) in Warsaw, archival collection of the Ministry of Finance, Minister’s Office file, No 2/24.

  • Cold War versus Symbolic Battlefield : The Crisis in Greek-German Relations as a Result of the Dispute over Compensations for WWII and the Way to Overcome It: Case Study

    Author: Przemysław Łukasik
    Institution: University of Opole
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 139-159
    DOI Address:
    PDF: apsp/68/apsp6810.pdf

    It is difficult to speak of a historical dispute in the case of Greek compensation claims for losses suffered during WWII by Nazi Germany. This is because the German side has repeatedly taken responsibility for the harm done to the Greek people. Germany is also a country that has paid over 75 billion in damages by 2016 with various categories of victims from different countries, including Greece (Barcz & Kranz, 2019, p. 155). In the discourse on Greek demands against Germany, metaphors of the Cold War (Kalpouzos, 2015) or a symbolic battlefield (Christodoulakis, 2014, p. 20) appear, suggesting primarily a significant importance of this issue for internal political decisions made at the Acropolis and the local historical awareness. Despite this, since the “outbreak” of this “Cold War” in Germany, both on the political and expert’s levels, and primarily in historical research, many efforts have been made to constructively “resolve the dispute”. In author’s opinion, both terms coined during Greek-German historical controversy characterize duality of position of the contemporary states in discussion about impact of the past on current relations between nations in general. On the one hand, ‘Cold War’ term refers to political and economic levels (compensations demand) of the contemporary historical conflicts. On the other hand, ‘symbolic battlefield’ suggests moral superiority or righteousness on one side.

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