Thoughts on the Theoretical Problems in the Book of Xi Jinping , Zarządzanie Chinami I [The Governance of China I], Wydawnictwo (Publishing House) Adam Marszałek, Toruń 2019, pp. 572

Author: Zbigniew Wiktor
Institution: University of Wrocław (retired)
Author: (Jia) Wei Xiao
Institution: University of Wrocław
Year of publication: 2019
Source: Show
Pages: 189-224
DOI Address:
PDF: rop/2019/rop201914.pdf

The article includes five parts:
1. Introduction – information about the book promotion event held in Warsaw on December 19, 2019 on the Polish edition of Xi Jinping’s Governance of China vol. I. The book launch was great not only because of the editing and the contents of the book, but also because it was a political, economic, cultural and international event, since the author is the number one politician not only in China but also in the contemporary world. The introduction includes information about the book content and demonstrates its importance for the theoretical generalizations and recognition of the main problems of contemporary China.
2. According to the authors of the paper, problems mentioned in the book are especially important. The original Chinese way of building socialism and the early stages of Chinese revolution were national, anti-feudal, anti-capitalist, democratic and socialist. Mao Zedong established class-based Maoism as a Marxism-Leninism in the Chinese version, while Deng Xiaoping and his successors established and developed the socialist market economy, which is the continuation of Maoism in the new era and they created the Chinese path to the anti-capitalist revolution and the building of socialism with Chinese characteristics. The perspective of the development of China till 2021 and 2049 (as a modern and developed socialism) and its influence on the national rejuvenation is not only Chinese but also an international issue.
3. Third part of the paper is devoted to the problems of building socialism in China, the analysis of the theory of Xi Jinping, the leading role of the CPC, the economic role of the owner and foreign capital in economy and policy, and the socio-economic contradictions in the contemporary PRC.
4. Forth part concerns Confucianism and Marxism as theoretical and practical problems in China; the original Chinese culture and civilization; the continuation and discontinuation of the historical development in contemporary epoch; the original development; the policy of opening- -up; the necessity of considering human contents of Confucianism in building and developing of socialism in China.
5. Fifth part of the paper is on the future status of the Communist Party of China’s Economy. Since the emergence of state-owned economy, it has played a huge role in the economic development of all countries. However, under the way of neoliberalism, state-owned economy has gradually been associated with backwardness and inefficiency. On the forum of state-owned economy enterprise reform in China, General Secretary Xi Jinping gave out important instructions. State-owned enterprises are an important force for strengthening the comprehensive power of the country and safeguarding the common interests of the people. State-owned enterprises must be made stronger, better and bigger. Academia has had a huge disagreement on this, and some scholars believe that this is an act of favoritism toward state-owned enterprises. This paper analyzes China’s state-owned economy from the perspective of total factor productivity (TFP), Marx’s historical materialism, national productivity, and social development, clarifying that state-owned economic reform is diff erent from the system of “profit based demands” rooted in the private economic market, but a system based on national productivity and the “needs” of the people. Making state-owned enterprises “stronger, better, and bigger” is in line with the historical development of socialism and material productivity, resolving doubts on the direction of state-owned economic reform.

Constructing Social Cohesion in Vietnamese Public Schools: The Methods, and Students’ Forgotten Identities

Author: Truc Thanh Truong
Institution: University of Northampton, UK
ORCID: 0000-0003-4187-9181
Author: James Underwood
Institution: University of Northampton
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 25-42
DOI Address:
PDF: kie/130/kie13002.pdf

There are four main areas through which education can foster social cohesion, these are: curriculum design; an appropriate classroom climate of dialogue and respect; equal opportunities for all learners; and diverse school programmes that encompass the interests and experiences of the learning community. In this paper, by intersecting these concepts with the lead author’s experiences as a student in Vietnam’s primary and secondary public schools, we explore how social cohesion in constructed within the Vietnamese school system and the impact this has on student identity. Further focus is provided by analysing in-depth three fundamental aspects of the Vietnamese education system. These are: moral education; Vietnam’s national rite of saluting the flag; and didactic, teacher-focused teaching. The latter section of the essay then critically evaluates some shortcomings associated with the teaching of social cohesion in Vietnam. The purpose of this paper is to add meaning to those cultural features of schooling that have been taken for granted by Vietnamese people and also to highlight the need to find a balance between social cohesion and individuality in the Vietnamese educational system, so that in future current flaws can be erased. This paper is a conceptual paper informed by research literature. However, it also embraces an auto-ethnographic approach and in doing so extends the parameters of academic writing within a Vietnamese context.

Przede wszystkim honor. Przyczyny i przejawy specyficznego postrzegania jeniectwa w kulturze Japonii – w kontraście do norm społeczeństw zachodnich

Author: Kamil Weber
Institution: Centralne Muzeum Jeńców Wojennych
Year of publication: 2021
Source: Show
Pages: 25-41
DOI Address:
PDF: so/20/so2002.pdf

Above All, Honor. Reasons Behind the Specific Perception of War Prisoners in Japanese Culture – A Comparison with Western Societies

Cultural differences between Western and Eastern civilizations are noticeable in the system of professed values and in many aspects of life. This also applies to the approach to captives, which was clearly demonstrated by the events of the first years after the end of World War II. An example could be the way in which former Japanese and German soldiers, who were captured after the end of the war, were treated after their return to homeland. This article aims to show the sources of these differences and, to a lesser extent, examples of behaviors which they caused. The analysis consists of references to historical, economic, social, religious, and psychological conditions, which, as intertwined, resulted in the emergence of different perceptions of an individual’s role in a society and his obligations toward the community. These conditions determined the specific attitudes of representatives of each culture in difficult war and post-war circumstances. Explaining the Japanese soldiers’ willingness to sacrifice and the importance of honor for them, reference was made to the influences of Confucianism, Buddhism, Shinto, and the bushido tradition. Showing the deeply rooted reasons for the attitudes described in the article was therefore supposed to enable their explanation.

Feministyczna dekonstrukcja tradycyjnego obrazu kobiety w utworach Qiu Jin

Author: Michalina Koniuk
Institution: Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 157-172
DOI Address:
PDF: ksm/37/ksm3708.pdf

Feminist deconstruction of the traditional image of women in Qiu Jin’s works

Women’s issues are a significant subject of study in the realm of Chinese literature. In many works, it can be seen to oppose stereotypes or norms imposed on the female gender and to take measures leading to the emancipation of the individual. Such literature is symptomatic of a desire for change in society, that is, the overthrow of the patriarchal system and the introduction of equal rights between the sexes. An example of such prose is the works of China’s first feminist, Qiu Jin, who decided to fight for women’s rights. She was sentenced to death for her revolutionary activities. However, her texts introduced a completely new image of women into the public sphere - different from the one that had been reproduced for hundreds of years in ancient China. The poet chose to endow her heroines with charisma, courage, intelligence and the will to fight for a better life. Her aim was to make women aware of their situation in life, their social role, and to encourage them to leave the male-dominated world. Michalina Koniuk, in the chapter “Feminist Deconstruction of the Traditional Image of Woman in Qiu Jin’s Works”, proposes to analyse Qiu Jin’s works and present that the characters created by the writer oppose and destroy the image of the obedient and uneducated woman that existed in ancient China. First, the social role imposed on women in Chinese society has been described, namely that of obedient daughter, wife and daughter-in-law. The requirements and rules expected of Chinese women have been presented, and how Confucian norms contributed to the belittling of women’s role and position in Chinese society. As the poet was inspired by her own life experiences, Qiu Jin’s life were briefly introduced. Her childhood, during which the first signs of dissatisfaction with the obligations and social norms imposed on girls could be observed. An unsuccessful marriage mobilised the feminist to fight for women’s rights, to oppose the doctrines of Confucius and to leave home and go abroad. This was a great act of courage and at the same time a struggle for freedom and independence in the life of a feminist. That part was followed by an analysis of Qiu Jin’s works, whose female characters exemplify the kind of norms and behaviours that Qiu Jin rebelled against. At the same time, these characters deconstruct the traditional image of a woman and introduce a new one of a strong and independent individual. In this chapter, all poems and quotations have been translated by the author from Chinese into Polish.

A brief introduction to Christian and Confucian studies in North Korea

Author: Nicolas Levi
Institution: Polish Academy of Sciences
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 198-208
DOI Address:
PDF: npw/39/npw3911.pdf

The question of religions in North Korea remains a sensitive issue in this country. Due to the nature of the North Korean regime, studies on religions were banned until the 1980’s. It’s only after that a research institution dealing with religious issues were established in the major university of the country. This institution is dealing with the main religions existing in North Korea. The main challenge was to combine the ideological framework with religious aspirations. The present study analyzes North Korean discursive strategies concerning religious studies. It focuses on the academic work of North Korean researchers dealing with religious studies.

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