cooperation

The EU-China Economic Relations: a Harmful Competition or a Strategic Cooperation?

Author: Maciej Walkowski
Institution: Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań (Poland)
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 172-189
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2017211
PDF: ppsy/46-2/ppsy2017211.pdf

The People’s Republic of China currently possesses the second biggest national economy in the world, smaller only to that of the United States. It is also a matter of time for China to become the greatest economic power, at least regarding share in aggregated global GDP and the sphere of international trade. Growing engagement of China in global economic development and its dependence on other participants of trade exchanges have made this country a  more ‘responsible shareholder’ of the international economic system. China has a  great development interest in upholding a  stable world economic situation, and especially in proper economic relations with the United States and the European Union, on whose markets its healthy development largely depends. Whether China will soon become a “mature, responsible and attractive superpower” depends to a significant degree not only on its efforts but also on proper relations with major trade and investment partners around the world. It seems that mutually beneficial economic relations between the PRC and the European Union (founded on mutually beneficial and strategic cooperation and not on serious and opaque competition) constitute one of the key factors determining this scenario’s validity. Unfortunately, for the time being, many problems arise in this relationship. They come from both sides requiring a proper diagnosis, as well as a scientific analysis including both assessment and prognosis. The presented scientific article tries to meet these expectations.

Sotrudnichestvo Turcii s subektami Rossijjskojj Federacii v period 2000–2010 gg.

Author: Ahmet Burak
Institution: Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu, Poland
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 25-42
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2016202
PDF: npw/11/npw2016202.pdf

In its 90 years of modern existence, Turkish foreign relations with Russia reflect contentious issues with which the two republics have grappled during the twentieth century and following the collapse of great empires, civil wars and radical changes in the international political system. Moreover, it is safe to say that the degree of constructiveness of these relations is directly dependent upon macropolitical processes in Eurasia, and that the success of foreign political contacts reflects the level of political and cultural thinking of state elites in both countries. One of the most important directions of Russian–Turkish bilateral relations is inter-regional cooperation on the subject of the Russian Federation and Turkey. This paper analyzes the main directions and pace of economic cooperation development between Turkey and Russia’s constituent entities, and evaluates the prospects of these relations.

Poszerzanie pola bezpieczeństwa energetycznego w ramach Grupy Wyszehradzkiej

Author: Norbert Obara
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 139-152
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2016107
PDF: npw/10/npw2016107.pdf

The Visegrad Group (V4) is an informal, regional form of cooperation: Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary. The article is about making intensify cooperation in the field of building energetic safety between four countries and a mechanism of cooperation with third countries in the “V4+” format, building energetic networking with countries outside Group, for example Croatia, Romania, Bulgaria. There were several political declaration about building market coupling to strength energetic safety. The documents sets out the conditions of cooperation in the fields of energetic safety and the reinforcement of energy security in the region. The main problem in the group is Russia. Hungary is seen as having taken a ‘special path’ with relation with Russia. The deal Hungary-Russia about blocks of Paks nuclear power covers constructing the new blocks and fuel supplies for increase Hungary’s energy independence. It could be against main aim of UE energetic policy to making one UE energetic policy, in the V4 group also. The perspective for V4 are not very optimistic because of different geopolitical interest of members Group in spite of political declaration for strengthening Energy cooperation.

What Renders ENP a Viable Policy Option? Discussing the Logic Behind the ENPs Legitimacy and Dwelling on the ENP’s Sustainability

Author: Konrad Hanuszko
Institution: Warsaw School of Economics
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 40-55
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/rop201603
PDF: rop/2016/rop201603.pdf

The objective of this paper is to discuss the logic behind the ENP and explore whether it makes the ENP a relevant and sustainable policy-framework. The discussion is structured as follows. First, the rationale behind the ENP is discussed. The second part is dedicated to the challenges that the ENP partner-countries face. Then, the threats that the EU faces due to unsolved problems inherent in the ENP states are examined. Finally, ways of improving the ENP are discussed. Conclusions follow.

NSZZ „Solidarność” lat 1980 – 1990 jako czynnik integrujący region kujawsko-pomorski

Author: dr Stefan Pastuszewski
Institution: Uniwersytet Kazimierza Wielkiego w Bydgoszczy
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 393-404
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/siip201719
PDF: siip/16/siip1619.pdf

NSZZ “Solidarność” years 1980 – 1990 as an integrated factor of Kujawsko-Pomorskie region

Independent Self-governing Trade Union “Solidarity” did not accept the disintegration of the state by dividing into 49 small provinces and districts liquidation – both in the program and operations sought to community actions. Similarly happened in the Kujawsko-Pomorskie region, where “Solidarity” unionists in the public and conspiracy activities sought to create a macro-region of their trade union within the limits of the liquidated in 1975 Bydgoszcz-region. By 1989 cooperation between regions: Bydgoszcz, Toruń and Włocławek was very good. The experience of “Solidarity” can now be used in the process of integration of the Kujawsko-Pomorskie region, as an idea of regional solidarity – a sense of mutual dependence and mutual responsibility for the prosperity and development of the entire region.

Multi-competent pupils – a challenge for teachers at the time of global cultural transformation

Author: Agata Popławska
Institution: University of Pedagogy in Bialystok
Author: Tatiana Aniskevich
Institution: Pushkin Brest State University
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 100-115
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/IFforE2017.07
PDF: iffe/10/iffe1007.pdf

The purpose of the study was to characterise pupils’ profiles as well as the initiatives undertaken by teachers in order to comply with the dynamically changing world. The first part of the paper presents selected contexts of global cultural transformation. The second part focuses on the characteristics of pupils’ multiple competencies with an aim to identify and reorganize their cognitive axiological, social and emotional competences. The last part points to and analyses developmental potential of pupils’ multiple competences in properly arranged and implemented educational processes. In order to meet the challenges, teachers should make use not only of pupils’ potential, but also of their own resources.

Rola GOPR w systemie grup dyspozycyjnych w procesie zapobiegania zagrożeniom w regionach transgranicznych

Author: Jadwiga Mazur
Institution: Uniwersytet Pedagogiczny im. KEN Kraków
Author: Tadeusz Michalczyk
Institution: Krakowska Akademia im. A. Frycza Modrzewskiego w Krakowie
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 95–115
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2017.53.05
PDF: apsp/53/apsp5305.pdf

Celem niniejszej analizy jest wskazanie roli, jaką w systemie zapobiegania zagrożeniom na terenach transgranicznych odgrywa Górskie Ochotnicze Pogotowie Ratunkowe. Kolejno zostaną omówione Górskie Ochotnicze Pogotowie Ratunkowe, jego miejsce wśród grup dyspozycyjnych i strategii bezpieczeństwa państwa oraz rola w procesie zapobiegania zagrożeniom w regionach transgranicznych.

Diagnoza i ocena poziomu kapitału społecznego województwa świętokrzyskiego

Author: Sławomir Pastuszka
Institution: Uniwersytet Jana Kochanowskiego w Kielcach
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 167–188
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2016.51.10
PDF: apsp/51/apsp5110.pdf

Celem artykułu jest ocena poziomu kapitału społecznego województwa świętokrzyskiego. Analizie poddano takie elementy, jak: zaufanie, odpowiedzialność za dobro wspólne, skłonność do zrzeszania się oraz deklarowaną aktywność społeczną, udział w wyborach władz. Do analizy wykorzystano badanie ankietowe przeprowadzone wśród mieszkańców województwa świętokrzyskiego pod koniec 2014 r. Zdiagnozowany poziom kapitału społecznego badanych osób nie napawa optymizmem – cechuje go niski stopień zaufania ogólnego, stosunkowo niewielkie zaangażowanie w inicjatywy na rzecz dobra wspólnego oraz małe zainteresowanie aktywnością organizacji społecznych. Takie postawy i zachowania prawdopodobnie wpłyną negatywnie na perspektywy rozwoju gospodarki regionalnej opartej na wiedzy, spowolnią postęp społeczny, a w efekcie utrudnią zwiększenie poziomu dobrobytu mieszkańców województwa świętokrzyskiego.

Siódme rosyjsko-chińskie spotkanie na szczycie (drugie „nieformalne spotkanie” na szczycie), 9–10 grudnia 1999 roku

Author: Tadeusz Dmochowski
Institution: Uniwersytet Gdański
Year of publication: 2018
Source: Show
Pages: 56-70
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/cip201804
PDF: cip/16/cip1604.pdf

W artykule omówiono podstawowe dokumenty podpisane w czasie siódmego rosyjsko-chińskiego spotkania na szczycie (drugiego nieformalnego spotkania na szczycie) w Pekinie w dniach 9–10 grudnia 1999 r. W trakcie spotkania podpisano wspólny komunikat informacyjny z nieformalnego spotkania oraz wspólne oświadczenie rosyjsko-chińskie, a także trzy porozumienia międzyrządowe – dwa protokoły – opisy linii rosyjsko-chińskiej granicy państwowej w jej wschodniej oraz zachodniej części oraz porozumienie o wspólnym gospodarczym użytkowaniu wyodrębnionych wysp i przylegających do nich akwatoriów rzek pogranicznych.

Pedagogika przygody – uczenie się bycia razem, uczenie się wspólnego działania

Author: Ewa Palamer-Kabacińska
Institution: Uniwersytet Warszawski
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6251-0941
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 69-90
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2020.01.05
PDF: kie/127/kie12705.pdf

According to EU guidelines, modern education should focus on learning skills. It is anticipated that most of the professions that are known today will disappear in a dozen or so years and new ones will replace them. The labor market will require teamwork skills, creative thinking and problem solving. The formal education system cannot keep up with all these changes and requirements. For several years the movement of activities related to adventure education has been expanding in Poland: organizations operating in this trend are established, cooperate with each other, enter into international structures, and the network of forest kindergartens is expanding. The very concept of “adventure education” is known to a small group of educators and animators for now. Assumptions are associated with scouting - although they should not be equated with it. Adventure education is primarily in the field of non-formal education, but following the example of Slovenia or Great Britain, it is also trying to enter schools in Poland. It is successfully used in sociotherapeutic activities, and is increasingly involved in activities by scout organizations and commercial companies. So what is adventure education? Is it worth investing and why? What are its assumptions? What competences and skills does it teach? This article will attempt to answer these questions in relation to own research carried out as part of the adventure programs implemented in the years 2015.

Wybrane aspekty stosunków chińsko-francuskich w XXI wieku

Author: Marzena Mruk
Institution: Uniwersytet Śląski w Katowicach
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3529-0365
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 77-94
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20202705
PDF: npw/27/npw2705.pdf

Selected Aspects of Chinese-French Relations in the 21st Century

The relationship of the People’s Republic of China with the French Republic was initiated in 1964 and has been constantly evolving since then. The 21st century and the changes taking place in the international system have contributed to the growth of China’s position in the international arena as a superpower, while France has been trying to maintain its dominant position in the European Union for two decades. Both countries have a lot in common and divide. The element that binds both countries together is their status in the UN Security Council, their ambivalent attitude to the superpower status of the United States, and the mutual willingness to expand economic cooperation. Among the factors that differ Beijing and Paris, there are rivalries in Africa and the approach to human rights. This does not change the fact that France is one of the main directions of China’s European policy and makes it one of Beijing’s most important political and economic partners. The international situation that both the Chinese and French governments have to face may contribute to a change in bilateral relations in the near future and the need for both sides to look for another partner in the region - in Europe through China and in Asia through France. This article aims to highlight the most important aspects of Sino-French relations in the 21st century, with particular emphasis on political and economic cooperation, especially in the context of the coronavirus pandemic. Outlining these aspects in the relations between China and France determines the construction of the article, which consists of three main parts corresponding to the relevant issues. The aim of this article is also to answer a number of research questions, such as: what were the most important controversial issues in Sino-French relations? Has the title of the most important politicians at the head of China and France influenced bilateral relations? Do relations with France’s changing relations affect the international position of the PRC? Among the research materials used in this article, Polish, English and French-language literature can be mentioned, because access to Chinese materials is extremely difficult, including their translation into other languages. A number of research methods have been used to analyze this research problem, including historical analysis and description or decision method.

Prawo gminy do zrzeszania się w świetle obowiązujących rozwiązań prawnych

Author: Emilia Gulińska
Institution: Uniwersytet Technologiczno-Humanistyczny im. Kazimierza Pułaskiego w Radomiu
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1106-5067
Year of publication: 2021
Source: Show
Pages: 189-201
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2021.02.12
PDF: ppk/60/ppk6012.pdf

The right of the commune to associate in the light of applicable legal solutions

The purpose of this study is to analyze the constitutional legal regulation of the right of the commune to associate in the light of the applicable legal system. The starting point is to present the constitutional legal basis of the association. Next, accession to international associations by local government units was discussed. The next considerations concern international cooperation under European Union law. The last part of the work is an analysis of municipal associations in the light of the act on municipal self-government.

Amendments to the Constitution of the Republic of Poland Concerning Poland’s Membership in the European Union

Author: Ilona Grądzka
Institution: Catholic University of Lublin John Paul II
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0127-4970
Year of publication: 2021
Source: Show
Pages: 31-38
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2021.06.02
PDF: ppk/64/ppk6402.pdf

The Treaty of Lisbon strengthened the legal position of national parliaments in their activities at the level of the European Union. It means that the two chambers of the Polish Parliament - Sejm and Senate, each in its own scope, participate in consideration of issues concerning the European Union. They must share the right to participate in legislative processes with the executive authorities at the national level and with the institutions of the Union. The new legal regulation provides national parliaments with new competences, which should have a constitutional basis.

Perfection of Learning Environments Among High, Average and Low Academic Achieving Students

Author: Wuttiporn Suamuang
Institution: King Mongkut’s University of Technology Th onburi
Author: Surachai Suksakulchai
Institution: King Mongkut’s University of Technology Th onburi
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 76-86
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/tner.20.61.3.06
PDF: tner/202003/tner6106.pdf

Academic achievement varies according to the perception of learning environments (LE). The current study aimed to investigate how the perception of LE differs according to level of academic achievement. 1,106 Thai undergraduate students replied to a survey. Analyzing the data with One-way analysis of variance differences were found in perception of the LE in terms of task orientation and instructor feedback. Average-achieving students perceived task orientation higher than high and low-achieving students. High-achieving students perceived instructor feedback the most. This study provides insights into each type of LE applied in the classroom and suggests how individual academic achievers can be suitably enhanced.

Cooperation, Effective Classroom Prevention and Intervention Strategies: Teachers’ and Parents’ Views

Author: Barbara Žužek Lackovič
Institution: Primary school Beltinci, Beltinci, Slovenia
Author: Mateja Pšunder
Institution: University of Maribor
Year of publication: 2019
Source: Show
Pages: 233-243
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/tner.19.56.2.19
PDF: tner/201902/tner5619.pdf

Teachers and parents are partners; each has an important role in achieving a common goal, which is rearing and educating children. Research has shown that successful teacher-parent cooperation positively contributes to holistic child development, academic success and behaviour, as well as reducing disciplinary problems. For teachers and parents to acquire a better mutual understanding and support is striving towards this common goal, it is important that each knows the other’s views and perspectives. The presented study focused on how teachers and parents perceive cooperation when managing disciplinary problems in the classroom and what they believe are the most successful classroom prevention and intervention strategies. The pooled survey used in this research included 107 class teachers and 291 parents from eleven primary schools in the North-East Region of Slovenia. The research has shown some important differences in the attitudes of teachers and parents, which should be taken into account when improving classroom management.

Filipiny okresu prezydentury Rodrigo Duterte jako pole rywalizacji między Stanami Zjednoczonymi a Chińską Republiką Ludową

Author: Krzysztof Szumski
Institution: emerytowany dyplomata
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 63-93
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ap2022.2.04
PDF: ap/26/ap2604.pdf

The Philippines during Rodrigo Duterte’s Rule: Rivalry between the United States and China

The rivalry of great powers between the United States and China embraces all regions of the world, including Southeast Asia and especially the Philippines. The President of the Philippines Rodrigo Duterte (2016–2022) at the beginning of his presidency started to diminish the dependence of the country on former colonial power the US and to improve relations with China. Duterte hoped for the increase of economic cooperation and support of Beijing for modernization of infrastructures. Despite some successes in his policy, Duterte finally started to search again for support from the US. It was the result of extremely strong links and dependency between armed forces of Philippines and United States and generally very strong pro American filling of many Filipinos, the second reason was slowness of realization of some Chinese investments in the country, brutality and aggressiveness of Chinese coast guards towards Philippine fishers, and probably also some weakness in Chinese policy to the Philippines. Finally, Duterte obtained good results. The US confirmed readiness for military support in case of foreign aggression (especially in the South China Sea) and China was involved in political and economic cooperation with the Philippines.

Dlaczego jest tak dobrze, skoro jest tak źle – aglomeracyjna aktywność integracyjna samorządów w Czechach i Polsce

Author: Katarzyna Kuć-Czajkowska
Institution: Uniwersytet Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej w Lublinie
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 143-163
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2023.77.08
PDF: apsp/77/apsp7708.pdf

Why is it so good when it is so bad – integration activity of local government units in agglomerations in the Czech Republic and Poland

When pursuing the aim of the paper – to determine the sustainability of cooperation between local governments in agglomerations – an attempt was made to establish: What is the future of cooperation between agglomerations in the Czech Republic and Poland? Do partnerships under Integrated Territorial Investments foster a culture of cooperation? What kind of barriers must be overcome by local governments in connection with integration activities in agglomerations? The paper uses the comparative and diagnostic survey methods (an online survey in the Czech Republic and a postal survey in Poland). The empirical research was conducted among the members of the structures of Integrated Territorial Investments. It was found that integration problems in agglomerations include: financial difficulties of smaller municipalities, dominant position of the main city/cities, leadership style, trust, authorities’ fears about limiting their independence in the field of cooperation, influence of political views on relationships.

The role of the Ukrainian diaspora in preserving the cultural identity and individuality of the Ukrainian nation during the 1960s and 1970s

Author: Nadia Kindrachuk
Institution: Vasyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University, Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7505-0668
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 26-40
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ksm20230102
PDF: ksm/37/ksm3702.pdf

The article found that the Ukrainian diaspora was an integral component of Ukrainian ethnic integrity. Numerous public, cultural and educational institutions created by emigrants in their places of residence stood guard over Ukrainian national interests and, despite all obstacles, conducted fruitful cooperation with Ukrainians in the Motherland. In order to preserve and develop the Ukrainian language, representatives of the diaspora paid great attention to the release of the Ukrainian printed word into the world. Due to total censorship in the Ukrainian SSR, Ukrainians abroad contributed to the publication abroad of many Ukrainian works that were banned in Ukraine. By means of international tourism, international student exchange, and world radio broadcasting, contacts between Ukrainian and foreign youth were gradually established, and the spheres of communication expanded. The main task of the Ukrainian diaspora was to preserve the ethnic and cultural identities of the Ukrainian nation, and consolidate the scattered emigration forces for the sole purpose of preparing a political and professional basis for the acquisition of an independent, cathedral Ukrainian state.

Konstytucyjne i ustawowe podstawy współpracy samorządów gminnych z organizacjami pozarządowymi w zakresie realizacji funkcji świadczącej wobec uchodźców wojennych z Ukrainy

Author: Magdalena Sitek
Institution: Wyższa Szkoła Gospodarki Euroregionalnej im. Alcide De Gasperi
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7686-3617
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 121-133
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2023.04.09
PDF: ppk/74/ppk7409.pdf

Constitutional and Statutory Basis for the Cooperation of Commune Self-Governments with Non-Governmental Organizations in the Implementation of the Providing Function for the War Refugees from Ukraine

The subject of the study is the performance of a providing function by communal governments in Poland in the context of the influx of war refugees from Ukraine in 2022. The work analyzes the legal basis for the operation of Polish local governments in this area. The author adopted as a research hypothesis the statement according to which the implementation of social assistance for war refugees from Ukraine was possible thanks to the cooperation of local governments with non-governmental organizations and parishes. The aim of the study is to show the need and effectiveness of cooperation between local governments and non-governmental organizations in Poland and parishes. The final conclusion of the study is the statement that thanks to the cooperation of local governments with non-governmental organizations and parishes, communal governments could better fulfill their function of providing services to people in need.

Armed Forces and Disaster Risk Reduction: A Theoretical Approach

Author: Paweł Gromek
Institution: Fire University
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 47-69
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2023.79.03
PDF: apsp/79/apsp7903.pdf

This article presents a theoretical connection of armed forces operations and a disaster risk reduction concept. The objective is to elaborate a model of armed forces participation in disaster risk reduction in relation to the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030. The research method bases on a review of the literature and a cognitive design of the participation model. General role of armed forces, potential and societal expectations are factors that place them in a context of disaster risk reduction. Soldiers are said to participate in protection of the most important utilitarian values regardless of circumstances (military hazards and non-military hazards). Their operations might be ascribed into limiting of hazard power, reducing vulnerabilities, shortening exposure, improving resilience, and strengthening capacities to cope with a disaster. They can reduce the risk associated with military hazards and non-military hazards. The concept may be a reference in designing synergy in cooperation between military and non-military entities.

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