dyskryminacja

(Nie)równe traktowanie dzieci powracających w polskiej szkole

Author: Paulina Szydłowska
Author: Joanna Durlik
Author: Joanna Grzymała-Moszczyńska
Author: Halina Grzymała-Moszczyńska
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 201-224
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/em.2017.02.13
PDF: em/7/em713.pdf

Celem badań, które zostały przeprowadzone w ramach projektu (Nie)łatwe powroty do domu. Badanie funkcjonowania dzieci i młodzieży powracających z emigracji, było zdiagnozowanie sytuacji dzieci i młodzieży powracających do Polski i opisanie jej z różnych perspektyw: dziecka, rodzica, nauczyciela/ki, a także osób pracujących w poradniach psychologiczno-pedagogicznych. W badaniach wzięło udział 34 dzieci, 27 rodziców oraz 26 nauczycieli. Z respondentami i respondentkami przeprowadzono częściowo pogłębione wywiady, a z pracownikami Poradni Psychologiczno-Pedagogicznych wywiady focusowe oraz badanie ankietowe.Wyniki badań wskazują na występowanie dyskryminacji w stosunku do dzieci powracających w polskich szkołach. Przybiera ona różne formy: od nieuwzględniania przez szkołę ich specjalnych potrzeb edukacyjnych, przez etykietowanie, po przemoc słowną albo fizyczną ze strony rówieśników. Badania pokazują również, że często kadra szkolna nie tylko nie reaguje adekwatnie na przemoc stosowaną względem tej grupy dzieci, ale sama dopuszcza sie takiej przemocy w sposób nieświadomy. Sytuacja ta może wynikać zarówno z braku przygotowania nauczycieli do pracy z dzieckiem z doświadczeniem migracyjnym w ramach studiów, a także z braku dostępu do szkoleń na temat edukacji antydyskryminacyjnej.

Iluzoryczność procesu inkluzji społecznej

Author: Grażyna Dryżałowska
Institution: Uniwersytet Warszawski
Year of publication: 2019
Source: Show
Pages: 91-107
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2019.01.06
PDF: kie/123/kie12306.pdf

Contrary to the huge involvement of various social groups, implementation of numerous aid programmes, social exclusion, discrimination, marginalisation are still present in various social groups all over the world, and various strategies of social inclusion, including administrative and legal tools for its practical implementation, prove to be ineffective. The aim of this article is to indicate mutual dependencies and conditions as well as social contexts determining the illusory nature of inclusion activities undertaken, first of all, in relation to people with disabilities, but also people excluded from reasons other than disability.

Universal and Equal Right to Access to Education for People with Disabilities in the Light of Polish and International Law

Author: Anna Pięta-Szawara
Institution: University of Rzeszow
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7237-295X
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 355-365
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2020.06.29
PDF: ppk/58/ppk5829.pdf

The right to education for persons with disabilities results from the constitutional principle of universal and equal access to education, however, it frequently encounters difficulties in implementation. This issue is particularly important not only from the point of view of Polish law but also due to international guarantees of universal access to education and activities aimed at the elimination of all forms of discrimination. They were included in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, and the Convention on Human Rights. European standards in this respect are set, first of all, by the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, EU regulations and directives, as well as by the case-law of the Court of Justice of the European Union. Moreover, the issue of the universal and equal right to education was also raised in the documents of the Council of Europe: the European Convention on Human Rights and the European Social Charter, judgments of the European Court of Human Rights, and decisions of the European Committee of Social Rights.

Społeczno-kulturowe mechanizmy funkcjonowania osoby transpłciowej

Author: Karolina Czerwiec
Institution: Uniwersytet Pedagogiczny w Krakowie
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3774-6901
Year of publication: 2021
Source: Show
Pages: 344-364
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/em.2021.02.19
PDF: em/15/em1519.pdf

Ze względu na nietolerancję społeczną zachowań związanych z tożsamością płciową, większość osób transpłciowych doświadcza poważnego stresu na różnych etapach swojego życia. Aspekty relacji społecznych są istotne dla godnego i przyjaznego funkcjonowania dziecka transpłciowego w szkole i jego osiągnięć szkolnych, a następnie – już jako osoby dorosłej – ścieżek rozwoju zawodowego i podejmowania relacji społecznych. Podczas gdy niektóre szkoły i miejsca pracy oferują bezpieczne przestrzenie, wiele osób transpłciowych wciąż doświadcza negatywnych, wrogich i niebezpiecznych środowisk. Bez określonych działań mających na celu ochronę osób transpłciowych i szerzenie wiedzy na temat transpłciowości w społeczeństwie, większość osób o nienormatywnej tożsamości płciowej pozostaje podatna na dyskryminację, nękanie i zastraszanie. Dlatego tak ważne jest diagnozowanie trudności w funkcjonowaniu społecznym osób transpłciowych i wskazanie propozycji rozwiązań zmierzających do poprawy ich sytuacji w warunkach wykluczenia.

Mowa nienawiści w stosunku do mniejszości rasowych, narodowych i etnicznych jako granica wolności wypowiedzi. Uwagi na tle wybranych orzeczeń Europejskiego Trybunału Praw Człowieka

Author: Agnieszka Łukaszczuk
Institution: Akademia Ekonomiczno-Humanistyczna w Warszawie
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5350-3272
Year of publication: 2021
Source: Show
Pages: 217-226
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2021.05.16
PDF: ppk/63/ppk6316.pdf

Hate speech in relation to racial, national and ethnic minorities as the limitation of freedom of expression. Notes on the example of selected judgments of the European Court of Human Rights

Hate speech in relation to racial, national and ethnic minorities is a common matter, appearing more and more frequently in public space and taking different forms depending on its brutality. There is a very thin line between hate speech and freedom of expression. Confronted with the wider freedom of speech and expression, hate speech requires taking some critical steps by both domestic and international authorities. The European Court of Human Rights, while examining the complaints concerning violations of the freedom of expression, verifies whether its limitations have certain grounds in the applicable law. The past jurisprudence of the Court clearly indicates when freedom of speech ends and hate speech begins, especially when offensive content is formulated in the mass media, e.g., on the Internet.

Glosa do wyroku Federalnego Sądu Najwyższego Szwajcarii z 8 września 2020 r. (sprawa Caster Semenyi)

Author: Beata Stępień-Załucka
Institution: Uniwersytet Rzeszowski
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1802-680X
Year of publication: 2021
Source: Show
Pages: 587-597
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2021.05.48
PDF: ppk/63/ppk6348.pdf

Some remarks on the judgment of the Swiss Federal Tribunal of 8 September 2020 (Caster Semenya case)

This article deals with an important for the world of sport ruling of the Swiss Federal Tribunal of 2020 (in the case of the athlete Caster Semenya) decided against the background of the legal aspects of gender differences and sports competition. It presents an overview of the problem and its resolution, as well as possible further implications of the case, related to the standards of human rights protection existing under the European Convention on Human Rights. The author presents the principles of the prohibition of inhuman and degrading treatment, respect for private and family life and the prohibition of discrimination and makes a legal assessment of the judgment in the case from their perspective. The analysis results in conclusions concerning legal aspects of gender differences and sports competition. These conclusions have a universal dimension and apply to the broadly defined sub-discipline of law, which is the sports law.

Sytuacja Romów w Słowacji podczas pandemii COVID-19

Author: Ivan Rác
Institution: Uniwersytet Konstantyna Filozofa w Nitrze
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8957-215X
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 91-98
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/em.2022.03.06
PDF: em/18/em1806.pdf

Situation of Roma in Slovakia during COVID-19 pandemic

The article presented here presents the most important state measures directed at Roma and marginalized communities during the CoOVID-19 pandemic. In March 2020, a state of emergency was declared in Slovakia in connection with the spread of the pandemic, which for the residents of the Slovak Republic resulted in an immediate restriction of contacts, manifested in the closure of all types of schools, institutions and many workplaces. The mandatory mass quarantine of entire marginalized communities has raised NGO concerns about the equal treatment of people living in Roma communities in Slovakia. It is estimated that up to 70 percent of Roma children were not receiving distance education during the first wave of the pandemic, and up to 60 percent had no contact with an educator. Technical equipment, access to educational systems, but also Internet coverage in cities and municipalities became obstacles to education.

Rasa, płeć i status społeczny: intersekcjonalna analiza wizerunków kobiet pozaeuropejskich w polskim podróżopisarstwie romantycznym

Author: Joanna Nowak
Institution: Instytut Slawistyki PAN
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9706-9271
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 64-86
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/hso220303
PDF: hso/34/hso3403.pdf
License: This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license CC BY-NC-ND 4.0.

Race, gender, and social status: an intersectional analysis of images of non-European women in Polish romantic travel writing

The article analyses the image of non-European women in Polish Romantic travel writing, adopting an intersectional lens to focus on differences in the women’s descriptions due to the race, gender, and social status.

Glosa do wyroku Naczelnego Sądu Administracyjnego z 16 lutego 2022 r., sygn. akt II OSK 128/19

Author: Paweł Kuczma
Institution: Uniwersytet Zielonogórski
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1443-4742
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 333-339
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2023.03.24
PDF: ppk/73/ppk7324.pdf

Gloss to the Decision of the Supreme Administrative Court of February 16, 2022, file ref. no. II OSK 128/19

In the commented order, the Supreme Administrative Court held that the state is obliged to grant Polish citizenship to a person whose parents are of the same sex, which results from the birth certificate submitted by them, and that the implementation of this obligation does not threaten the public order of the Republic of Poland. The use of the public order clause in such a case is not legally justified and constitutes a form of discrimination against the child on the basis of the content of international instruments.

Poszukiwanie i doświadczanie wsparcia społecznego przez osoby o orientacji homoseksualnej

Author: Sylwia Ryszawy
Institution: Uniwersytet Śląski w Katowicach, Polska
ORCID: https:// orcid.org/0000-0001-8519-4796
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 191-207
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2023.01.12
PDF: kie/139/kie13912.pdf

Seeking and experiencing the social support by people with a homosexual orientation

The article presents the results of a study on the subject of seeking and experiencing the social support by homosexual people and the social attitudes they experience (fear of rejection, lack of understanding, discrimination, acceptance). The study used the original questionnaire, which was completed by 108 people with a homosexual orientation. The research material was collected using the snowball method. The research of the results indicate the search for support in various people/groups depending on the crisis situation affecting homosexuals. The group by which they feel supported and accepted are primarily their friends, and the person with whom they most often seek and experience support in the family environment is their mother. A significant percentage of the respondents also benefit/ed from the support of specialists. Most homosexual people don’t feel accepted in Poland, pay attention to the sense of social exclusion, discrimination, fear of revealing their homosexual orientation in the sphere of social life and their own family. All these factors can cause an increased need to seek and receive social support.

Perspektywa intersekcjonalna w pedagogice międzykulturowej

Author: Urszula Klajmon-Lech
Institution: Uniwersytet Śląski w Katowicach
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4195-2094
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 82-92
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/em.2023.03.05
PDF: em/22/em2205.pdf

Intersectional perspective in intercultural pedagogy

A meeting with the Other is related to the attitude of interest, dialogue, cooperation and understanding. However, negative reactions to otherness may give rise to different attitudes as well. These include discrimination and exclusion. In this article, the problem of multiple discrimination is addressed and intersectionality is presented as both an important method in intercultural research and an idea worth raising and developing in the practice of intercultural education. Multiple discrimination pertains to people who experience two or more forms of oppression at the same time (due to gender and disability; due to disability and residence place; due to ethnic origin, gender and place of residence, etc.). Intersectionality introduces a new quality to intercultural studies. As a research paradigm, it enables a critical analysis of these areas of exclusion and discrimination which have so far been shown mainly from the perspective of the needs and views of majority groups. Intersectional analysis can also become useful in educational practice: in preparing individualized assistance programs for people affected by discrimination, as well as in creating preventive projects to keep stigmatization and discrimination away.

Przemoc rówieśnicza motywowana uprzedzeniami wobec mniejszości. O roli pochodzenia imigranckiego i procesów międzygrupowych w wyjaśnianiu i ograniczaniu zjawiska

Author: Aleksandra Tłuściak-Deliowska
Institution: Akademia Pedagogiki Specjalnej im. Marii Grzegorzewskiej
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0952-8931
Year of publication: 2024
Source: Show
Pages: 47-58
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/em.2024.01.03
PDF: em/24/em2403.pdf

Prejudice-based bullying against minorities. On the role of immigrant background and intergroup processes in explaining and limiting the phenomenon

Societies are becoming more ethnically and culturally diverse. This growing diversity offers new opportunities for both individuals and societies. At the same time, it also creates challenges such as a polarized political climate and an increase in hostile behaviour based on prejudice, such as ethnic discrimination and peer violence against immigrants. Recent research on the forms of bullying of minority groups by peers suggests that prejudice has some influence on specific patterns of bullying, but not enough attention has yet been given to this either in the conceptualization of bullying itself or in the design of intervention and prevention programs. It is therefore suggested that further research and the design of prevention programs could be targeted to give more attention to prejudice as one of the factors underlying this form of peer violence. The article is of a review nature and has been organized in a conceptual way, i.e. the focus is on prejudice-based bullying, which is the subject of research, but at the same time, arguments for the presented point of view will be presented to justify further empirical research in this problem area.

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