After regaining independence, different legal systems remaining after the partitioners were in force in the lands of the forming Polish state. Reconstruction of statehood began with a disastrous state of education. The issue of education and the fight against widespread illiteracy was a very important issue both for society and the emerging authorities during the partitions. After regaining independence, the first task of educational authorities was to unify the school system, i.e. to define its organization, tasks, ideological foundations and programs. This process began in 1914, and the implementation of a general obligation to learn began intensively from 1917. However, due to the multitude of problems of the reviving state, including primarily financial, but also due to the lack of staff, buildings or school equipment, they resulted in the fact that general obligation to educate was not fulfilled. This meant that despite the efforts of authorities, the fundamental problem of illiteracy in the Polish society in indicated period was not eliminated.