energy policy

  • Russlands Energiepolitik als Teil der russischen Außenpolitik

    Author: Maciej Zblewski
    Year of publication: 2014
    Source: Show
    Pages: 129-164
    DOI Address:
    PDF: npw/06/npw2014107.pdf

    This publication is part of the doctoral thesis, written in German with the title: Die Energiepolitik der Russischen Föderation im Zeitraum 2000–2009 und derem Auswirkungen für die energetische Sicherheit der EU (The Russian energy Policy 2000–2009 and its impact on the European energy security). The article presents how the Russian Federation is using its energy resources to achieve their current and future foreign policy goals. The author makes an attempt to explain a numer of fundamental issues relating on the one hand to the main motives of the Russian Federation in this field and on the other to its methods. He also analyses the Russian energy strategy and its negative impact on the energy security of the European Union. As important elements of this strategy the ”Gas-OPEC” as well as the direct and indirect investments of Gazprom in EU are mentioned. It is claimed that the implementation of pipeline projects by the Russian Federation (Nord-Stream and South-Stream) isn’t carried out at the bilateral relations level randomly – Nord-Stream (Russia-Germany), South-Stream (Russia-Italy) – but rather is seen as an opportunity to strengthen Russia’s relations with selected countries. This can be seen as an attempt to make the European Union weaker as a multilateral organization.

  • Petrol and Natural Gas Market of the Visegrád Group Countries 1993–2016: Current State and Prospects

    Author: Robert Kłaczyński
    Institution: Pedagogical University of Kraków (Poland)
    Year of publication: 2018
    Source: Show
    Pages: 7–19
    DOI Address:
    PDF: ppsy/47-1/ppsy2018101.pdf

    The paper addresses problems related to energy policies pursued by Central European countries. It identifies the amounts of energy resources in individual countries in the Visegrád Group as well as the transmission infrastructures they use for natural gas and crude oil. The author discusses projects aimed at diversifying energy supplies which are of key importance to V4 countries. The article also presents relations between those countries in both within the group and bilaterally. When outlining prospects of a V4 energy strategy, the account is taken of such vital aspects as relations with the Russian Federation and the contribution made by Visegrád countries to EU actions designed to develop a single energy market.

  • Political Technologies of Russian Energy Diplomacy

    Author: Nataliia Slobodian
    Institution: Scholarship of Krzysztof Skubiszewski Foundation
    Year of publication: 2018
    Source: Show
    Pages: 49-65
    DOI Address:
    PDF: npw/16/npw2018103.pdf

    The article focuses on the concept of energy diplomacy. It was proved that the European vector of Russia’s current foreign policy is characterized by an ability to use the energy factor as a tool of power and impact to promote and consolidate the Kremlin’s geopolitical interests in Europe. This article reviewed the political technologies of Russian energy diplomacy in the European space such as uncompromising position during negotiations and predetermined before achieving the results, political exchange, technology of “surprise effect”, barbell strategy, pipeline diplomacy, suppression of competitor and others. The issue of EU–Russian energy conflict communication is in the centre of research. It was analyzed the algorithm of Russia’s actions positioning itself as an energy superpower in building up the socalled system of power relationship on the Eurasian continent. It was presented in the article possible options for European states’ effective countering energy expansionism of Russia.

  • Polityka Norwegii w regionie Dalekiej Północy – konsekwencje dla Unii Europejskiej

    Author: Katarzyna Dośpiał-Borysiak
    Institution: Uniwersytet Łódzki
    Year of publication: 2016
    Source: Show
    Pages: 107–122
    DOI Address:
    PDF: apsp/50/apsp5006.pdf

    Rola Norwegii dla Unii Europejskiej znacznie wzrosła na początku XXI wieku. Po okresie, kiedy kraj postrzegany był jako relatywnie marginalny outsider w zintegrowanej Europie, teraz jest bezpośrednio związany ze wszystkimi procesami zachodzącymi w Brukseli z powodu udziału w Europejskim Obszarze Gospodarczym. Potencjał Norwegii w oczach państw członkowskich Unii Europejskiej kształtowany jest przez pryzmat jej potencjału energetycznego. Norwegia stała się wiodącym eksporterem gazu do UE, z powodzeniem konkurującym z Federacją Rosyjską. Ten status zależeć będzie w dużym stopniu od polityki Norwegii na Dalekiej Północy – regionie o coraz wyraźniejszym znaczeniu strategicznym. Artykuł ma na celu omówienie głównych ról odgrywanych przez Norwegię w kontekście celów i polityk UE, głównie w dziedzinie energii. Przybliża również strategię Norwegii wobec Dalekiej Północy, perspektywy wydobycia w tym regionie ropy i gazu oraz regionalną współpracę z Rosją.

  • Strategic Importance of Natural Gas in Polish Energy Policy: A Critical Analysis

    Author: Krzysztof Tomaszewski
    Institution: University of Warsaw
    Year of publication: 2018
    Source: Show
    Pages: 77-96
    DOI Address:
    PDF: apsp/60/apsp6005.pdf

    This article deals with the importance of natural gas as an energy source in Polish energy policy. Its purpose is to analyze the extent to which natural gas can provide for ensuring state energy security. This article covers issues related to the diagnosis of the gas sector in Poland (the most important economic entities, the functioning of the gas market), its role in the national energy strategy and prospects for future gas use. The article points out that natural gas, although important for maintaining and securing state energy security, is, however, not crucial in this regard. Multiannual strategies envisage diversification of the way of generating energy, which means the opportunity for renewable energy sources (RES) and nuclear energy. Natural gas has a secondary meaning in this context.

  • Ewolucja instrumentów regulacyjnych wspierających rozwój mikroinstalacji w Polsce w latach 2005-2019 - wybrane zagadnienia

    Author: Krzysztof Borkowski
    Institution: badacz niezależny
    Author: Henryk Ćwikliński
    Institution: Uniwersytet Gdański
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 117-141
    DOI Address:
    PDF: so/17/so1708.pdf

    Evolution of Regulatory Instruments Supporting the Development of Micro-Installations in Poland in 2005–2019 – Selected Issues

    This paper analyzes the development of micro-installations in 2005-2019 against the background of changes of the national energy policy, in particular of the introduction and subsequent modifications of the dedicated support schemes. Based on a survey conducted among micro-installations installer companies in 2016, when the future of residential micro-installations was still uncertain, the authors identified key regulatory barriers hindering the growth of the rising market and the effect energy policy changes had on those barriers in 2016-2019. The study is divided into introduction, conclusion and three parts describing the research background, methods and results. The first part contains a description of the energy policy regulations relevant to the development of micro-installations in 2005-2016. The second part presents the methodology and the results of the survey. The third part analyzes the development of micro-installations in 2017-2019 within the context of the identified barriers. In the summary, key regulatory challenges were described and scope for further research on the micro-installation market in Poland was set.

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