film

Polsko-Czechosłowackie kontakty kulturalne i naukowe 1945–1956

Author: Anna Szczepańska-Dudziak
Year of publication: 2015
Source: Show
Pages: 212-235
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/hso150112
PDF: hso/8/hso812.pdf
License: This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license CC BY-NC-ND 4.0.

Polish-Czechoslovakian cultural and scholarly relations between 1945 and 1956

Polish-Czechoslovak relations after World War II were marked by territorial and national disputes. Notwithstanding several contentious issues, the cooperation in the field of education, research and education was initiated as early as in 1945. The paper seeks to analyse official contacts of the scholarly and cultural milieus of Poland and Czechoslovakia between 1945 and 1956.

O skutkach nadmiernej eksploracji stylistyki - „Zerwany kłos”

Author: Marcin Szewczyk
Institution: mszewczyk@wsiz.rzeszow.pl
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3699-5559
Year of publication: 2019
Source: Show
Pages: 163-182
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2019.03.12
PDF: kie/125/kie12512.pdf

Celem analizy Zerwanego kłosa jest zbadanie jego wartości. Badanie to wyróżnia dwa możliwe sposoby oceny filmu. Pierwszy sposób dotyczy jakości filmu jako wyrazu działania estetycznego. Wiąże się ono z traktowaniem filmu jako sztuki. W tym zakresie decydujące znaczenie mają kwestie formalne i umiejętność wykorzystania przez twórców stylistyki filmowej oraz skonstruowania spójnej opowieści. Drugie sposób wiąże się z gatunkowym przyporządkowaniem tego filmu. W kinie religijnym (hagiografia) najważniejsza może być przekazywana idea, choć jednocześnie można zachować zasady konstrukcji znaczeń w filmie. Ogólną ramą metodologiczną są trzy aspekty dyskursu van Dijka. Na poziomie szczegółowym wykorzystane jest klasyczne podejście do języka i stylistyki filmu, podejście neoformalistów amerykańskich oraz koncepcji stylu zerowego. Wnioski z przeprowadzonej analizy wskazują na niską wartość filmu z punktu widzenia sztuki filmowej i wysoką wartość w zakresie realizacji celów gatunkowych (tu: ideologicznych). Negatywna ocena wynika z nadmiaru wykorzystania przez młodych twórców możliwości technicznych i warsztatowego (zbyt licznego) stosowania formalnych rozwiązań możliwych w ramach stylistyki filmowej. Pozytywne wniosek w zakresie realizacji zakładanego celu wiąże się ze skutecznością dotarcia do zdefiniowanego przez producenta odbiorcy, tak pod względem ich liczby, jak i w zakresie przekazanych idei, zgodnych z ich światopoglądem. Pomimo deklaracji twórców o rzetelnym odtworzeniu rzeczywistości życia błogosławionej Karoliny Kózkówny, konieczność przekazu zaplanowanych koncepcji wprowadziła kreacyjne wątki treściowe, wpływając na realność przedstawianej historii i wprowadzając problemy ze spójną i sprawną rekonstrukcja fabuły. Rozszerzyło to zakres promowanych wartości poza te związane z życiem głównej bohaterki filmu, odnosząc je do współczesnego polskiego dyskursu politycznego i społecznego.

Formy niewerbalne w produkcjach filmowych w perspektywie wybranych koncepcji komunikowania społecznego

Author: Urszula Kusio
Institution: Uniwersytet Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8938-7111
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 11-25
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2020.01.01
PDF: kie/127/kie12701.pdf

The so-called new media redefine social relations both on a micro and a macro scale. A media user from five or six decades ago is an entirely different subject to a modern user. Within half a century, the roles of particular media, their social functions, and consequently users’ patterns of perception all changed. A 21st-century recipient is, as far as anthropology is concerned, equipped totally differently to one from the 1960s. Nevertheless, one thing remains unchanged in the real and the media worlds alike. Both confront us with the predominance of sight and hearing while taste, smell, and touch are of peripheral interest in spite of the perceptions conveyed through them being all-encompassing. The article focuses primarily on the sense of smell, but also on the closely related taste. Smell is too elusive and indeterminate and cannot be measured to the same extent sound is measured, for instance. Smell therefore has to give way to the more durable and definite senses. Its presence in films is absolutely marginal which is due to, as I perceive it, the technological capabilities in this area, or rather lack thereof. In this text I argue that certain films should be watched with one’s nose and taste buds, are a source of cognitive confusion, since everything important depicted in them is beyond the viewer’s reach. When scrutinising such films, one arrives at a conclusion that cinematic realism (but not only realism) must be multisensory. Otherwise, a case of epistemic schizophrenia occurs. The above reflection is undertaken in the context of two theories of social communication, namely M. McLuhan’s classic proposal and the cognitive theory of film.

Problem wielokulturowości i kryzysu migracyjnego we współczesnym kinie europejskim

Author: Ewelina Konieczna
Institution: Uniwersytet Śląski w Katowicach
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8042-3956
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 26-37
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2020.01.02
PDF: kie/127/kie12702.pdf

The purpose of the reflections in the article is an attempt to find an answer to the question of whether and how films speaking about the topic of multiculturalism could serve intercultural education and communication, upbringing towards tolerance, preventing racism, prejudice, and negative stereotypes. More and more often, modern cinema audience experiences multiculturalism and is encouraged to reflection about mutual acceptance and tolerance of cultural diversity. Presenting in films ethnical and racial minorities is connected with reflection on migratory movements and the issues of multicultural societies. According to the adopted assumption, films on this subject can support the process of communication and intercultural education.

Filmowe spotkania z Innym jako forma dialogu międzykulturowego

Author: Ewelina Konieczna
Institution: Uniwersytet Śląski w Katowicach
Year of publication: 2019
Source: Show
Pages: 291-302
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/em.2019.02.20
PDF: em/11/em1120.pdf

Przedmiotem rozważań zawartych w artykule są wybrane obszary kultury filmowej skupiające się na problematyce Innego. Refleksja nad rolą filmu w spotkaniu z Innym stanowi próbę znalezienia odpowiedzi na pytanie, jak i w jakim celu wybrane filmy dokumentalne i fabularne ukazują Innego. Twórcy filmowi coraz częściej poruszają tematykę dotyczącą wielokulturowości, odmienności etnicznych czy kryzysu migracyjnego. W obliczu narastających problemów dotyczących braku tolerancji, szacunku czy wrogości wobec Innego film może być pomocny w kształtowaniu postaw otwartości na inność, opartych na uniwersalnych wartościach, na szacunku do różnorodności kulturowej i etnicznej. Filmy stanowią medium umożliwiające spotkanie z drugą osobą (Innym), pozwalają na prezentację i wymianę rozmaitych wartości i perspektyw. Filmowcy nie proponują systemowych rozwiązań, ale wykorzystują kamerę jako jedno z narzędzi zmiany; przez ilustrację konkretnego problemu starają się budować poczucie sprawiedliwości i odpowiedzialności za Innego.

Lament nad światem. O ludzkiej godności, nierównościach i niepokojach społecznych w kinie najnowszym

Author: Ewelina Konieczna
Institution: Uniwersytet Śląski w Katowicach, Polska
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8042-3956
Year of publication: 2021
Source: Show
Pages: 143-155
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2021.01.08
PDF: kie/131/kie13108.pdf

The subject-matter of my consideration covers chosen films about social inequalities and the resulting unrest in various parts of the world at the turn of the second and third decade of the 21st century. Film characters deprived of education, work, medical care and a dignified place to live have no hope of improving their existence. Growing frustration leads to aggression, breaking the law, brutal violence as well as riots and street fights. The purpose of this article is to reflect on the issues raised in film discourses and to try to find answers to questions about the causes and factors that cause social unrest. The category of human dignity was used to analysis the studied issues.

Szekspir w animacji. Filmowe adaptacje dramatów w kontekście młodego widza

Author: Michał Pruszak
Institution: Uniwersytet Gdański
Year of publication: 2014
Source: Show
Pages: 75-93
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2014.03.05
PDF: kie/103/kie10305.pdf

With the passage of time William Shakespeare’s dramatic works became a great inspiration to artists from the area of popular culture. The bard’s masterpieces are often used by filmmakers, including those who create animated movies. The Shakespearian motifs can appear in animated movies in many different ways: starting from accurate adaptations, through movies just slightly inspired by the plot of the dramatic works, ending up with films that refer only to particular characters or popular scenes from the plays. The elements of Shakespearian works may serve as an inspiration for completely new stories, they may also act as an insignificant quirkiness or as a sign of intellectual curiosity. This article’s aim is to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the animated adaptations of Shakespeare’s plays, indicated for young viewers. On the one hand the techniques used by animators give a chance to find new visual expression of the bard’s plays and let us watch well-known, classic stories in a modern context. On the other hand – what is confirmed by the survey presented in this article – casual approach to Shakespeare’s works, instead of bridging the gaps between the dramatist and young participants in media and culture, may increase the distance between them.

Wizerunek współczesnej szkoły w artystycznym obrazie wybranych dziedzin sztuki. Wybrane aspekty

Author: Teresa Wilk
Institution: Uniwersytet Śląski w Katowicach
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7356-6502
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 33-47
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2022.01.02
PDF: kie/135/kie13502.pdf

The image of the modern school in the artistic view of selected fields of art. Selected aspects

The school institution has always been subject to social criticism. The negative image of the school was not always fully justified and true. It happened that the words of criticism contributed to the improvement of school’s image. The school is one of the most important social institutions, it is therefore essential that its assessment be objective and the difficulties encountered / shortcomings have become an impulse for discussion, dialogue, and then for correction and supplementation. This text is an attempt to indicate the role of the art that presents selected areas of the functioning of the school. In the text, I refer to historical examples of art involvement in the educational and upbringing process at school, thus trying to signal that art was already an important element of education in the past. It was creating the image of the school. Today we can notice a similar practice. On the one hand, the presence of art in school creates its image, and on the other hand, art that works outside also creates its image. In the text, I present a number of examples of how school is perceived in an artistic image of fine arts, film and theater.

Żuławski – asocjacje

Author: Maciej Kowalski
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 169-182
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/pbs.2017.08
PDF: pbs/5/pbs508.pdf

Żuławski – associations

In my short essay, I wanted to address the issues of Andrzej Żuławski’s „Shamanka”. Especially in the context of critical voices that consider this work to be iconoclastic. I was especially interested in the issue of transgression, understood as the ability to defend against the system. The essence of taboo collapse, also seen in other artist- -directors, exploits the potential of primordial violence, coming closer to relations that are not conditioned by economics or matter, but purely Nature’s laws, based on predators and victims, whose sources of behavior and characteristics pass. To the next stages of human evolution, only in fuzzy clarity. Because of new environment conditions, caused by culture, then civilization. Hence the great metaphorical values of the heroes of Żuławski’s production, and above all the character of „Italians”. The film’s content is her relationship with the anthropologist Michal, fascinated by archaic epochs, but with a completely different approach to them. Similar transgressive meaning, though on a different personal background, can be seen in Italian director Paolo Pasolini’s reminiscence, which may be recalled during the screening. Equally controversial was his last venture – Salo 120 days of Sodomy – a free adaptation of the novel of the Marquis de Sade. I set up both films to signal the polemic approach of both directors to postmodern societies.

Muzyczne języki bajek Walta Disneya w procesie edukacji międzykulturowej

Author: Katarzyna Maria Forecka-Waśko
Institution: Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8133-5512
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 196-207
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/em.2023.01.14
PDF: em/20/em2014.pdf

The musical languages of Walt Disney’s animations in the process of intercultural education

Music from Walt Disney’s animations is an element of pop culture. However, it is not a world limited to popular music but a space where ethnic music meets new sounds. The world of contemporary music enters a dialogue with the music of the sources, becoming its new translator. Thanks to Walt Disney’s film productions, multicultural music education opens up a new dimension in which globalization becomes an ally of local culture. The article addresses how both sound and word are used to present a different culture. In the cited examples, the language with its rhythm and melody is treated as an interesting musical material. Selected Walt Disney films were analyzed – their soundtracks as well as articles and reviews, blogs about the studio’s musical productions. In the considerations, a lot of attention was devoted to the song, which is the carrier of the main content of the film and the most frequently played element of the film image. Some attempts were made to indicate its functions in intercultural education, but also the ways of its use in child education.

Utwór audiowizualny w orzecznictwie

Author: Jakub Cywiński
Institution: Uniwersytet Humanistyczspołeczny SWPS w Warszawie
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 248-265
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/tpn2016.2.13
PDF: tpn/11/TPN2016213.pdf

The article in the eight paragraphs analyzes the issue of audiovisual work, in particular focusing on movie feature, providing the court rulings, in majority the Polish ones. The first section focuses on the clarification of the concept of an audiovisual work, using the textbook knowledge, the knowledge resulting from the polish Act of 4th February 1994 On Copyright and Related Rights and contained in the judgments of Polish courts, concluding that there is no leading definition of audiovisual work in the Polish legal system. Furthermore it considers the issue of co-authorship – who and to what extent has the right to call itself the creator of the audiovisual work. In this respect, it undertakes to clarify the contribution parts which pull together up the final image of an audiovisual work. In the next two sections it analyzes the beneficent of the audiovisual piece and defines the principles governing the relationship of beneficent and the author and the issue of remuneration for the authors work. In the fifth section it introduces the concept of collective management organizations, which is an organization that mediates the process of payment of accumulated remuneration to the creator. Section Six focuses on the issues of copyright protection and potential infringement, and states the rulings of courts, which allows reader to obtain a more practical understanding of the problem. Paragraph seventh evokes a complicated Polish case (the creator of „Stawka większa niż życie” vs. the creator of „Halo Hans!”). Finally paragraph eight focuses on a few cases executed in the field of copyright law in audiovisual work area in the United States.

Zjawisko prekariatu w filmie fabularnym

Author: Ewelina Konieczna
Institution: Uniwersytet Śląski w Katowicach, Polska
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8042-3956
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 87-100
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2023.01.06
PDF: kie/139/kie13906.pdf

The precariat in the feature film

This paper discusses selecting films (realized shortly before the COVID-19 pandemic) portraying the precariat in today’s world. Working poor in lowwage jobs cannot secure a livelihood, which creates frustration and leads to a loss of personal and social dignity among this social class. My main focus is human dignity in the face of poverty and economic and social marginalization, enabled by a political system allowing contemporary forms of exploitation. In this paper, I refer to social scientists and filmmakers who warn against the escalation of aggression brought on by this phenomenon. The research aim of my study was to acquire knowledge of how the precariat has been presented in selected films and whether and why this phenomenon is the cause of human dignity and social exclusion. The first part covers definitions of the terms involved (precariat, human dignity), while the second discusses three selected films that explore the subject above.

Rola (post)pamięci i filmu w południowokoreańskiej narracji narodowej oraz jej wpływ na relacje z Japonią

Author: Joanna Beczkowska
Institution: Ośrodek Spraw Azjatyckich, Uniwersytet Łódzki
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5918-5677
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 55-77
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ap2023.2.03
PDF: ap/28/ap2803.pdf

The Role of (Post)memory and Film in the South Korean National Narrative and its Impact on Relations with Japan

There seems to be a barrier in relations between Japan and South Korea that, despite shared interests and values, is an obstacle to building a lasting reconciliation. Political solutions that are supposed to be permanent and unchangeable (such as the agreement on comfort women) are being undermined. The idea of unresolved historical disputes and the lack of sufficient apologies has been ingrained in South Korea, which influences the perception of Japan as a dishonest partner. Subsequently, the brutality of authoritarian rule and the restriction of civil rights became associated with the legacy of the colonial period. Although political elites on both sides agree on the need to build future- oriented relationships, these efforts encounter internal resistance. Analysis of the role played by the collective memory of the colonial period allows us to notice antagonisms that lead to the reification of reality in which lasting reconciliation without solving historical disputes is impossible. Using the film, a post-memory with a strongly emotional tone is constructed, reinforcing anti-Japanese resentments. The analysis of the development of film narratives about the colonial period serves to capture changes in the national discourse and leads to conclusions regarding the impact not only on relations with Japan, but also on the connection between the anti-colonial discourse and the criticism of authoritarian power. The rhetorical vision presented in the films has been so deeply rooted in the national narrative that changing it seems extremely difficult - which is why it constantly threatens the building of lasting reconciliation with Japan.

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