France

  • François Hollande – a Hope for Change the First Year’s Balance of the Government at the Elysee Palace

    Author: Fabrice Morin
    Institution: University of Franche-Comté in Besançon (France)
    Author: Joanna Marszałek–Kawa
    Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń (Poland)
    Year of publication: 2014
    Source: Show
    Pages: 141–154
    DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2014008
    PDF: ppsy/43/ppsy2014008.pdf

    In the very first years of his presidency, François Mitterrand thought that he will really be successful on a day that another socialist was elected as a president of the Republic. This statement seemed to be prophetic with the victory of François Hollande, which took place 24 years after the victory of François Mitterrand and – after the sequential defeats of the Socialist Party’s candidates Lionel Jospin (in 1995 and 20022) and Ségolène Royal (in 2007) – allowed them finally to take the helm of the French government. The election of François Hollande was not a surprise. The very first opinion polls designated him as a winner showing the small popularity of Nicolas Sarkozy. Then one should estimate that the final electoral result obtained by François Hollande (i.e. 51.7% of the votes), from the point of view of the pre-election predictions of research institutes for the public opinion was a rather weak performance.

  • Compulsory Partnership Activities: the Biggest Challenges for Local Governments in the Local Democracy in France. The Case of the Implementation of the Local Directive on Advertising (RLP)

    Author: Fabrice Morin
    Institution: University of Franche-Comté in Besançon (France)
    Author: Joanna Marszałek–Kawa
    Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń (Poland)
    Year of publication: 2013
    Source: Show
    Pages: 47-59
    DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2013004
    PDF: ppsy/42/ppsy2013004.pdf

    The 5th French Republic was established after a period of parliamentary instability of the 4th Republic. It emerged from the concept of Charles de Gaulle, who presented its main ideas in his speech in Bayeux in 1946. As researchers indicate, the Constitution of the 5th Republic of 1958 met a wave of criticism after it came into force. For some it meant the introduction of the authoritarian political system in the state; others saw it as a system that will stabilize the situation in France and will prompt its development. It must also be noted that, although the French constitution has been amended a few times, its structure has never been questioned – even when some politicians changed their political stance and electorate. It is also worth pointing out that the critics of the existing political system focus on the excessive centralization of power in the executive bodies and on the minor role of public opinion in the formation of state ss policy. It should be noted here that until the constitutional reform of 2008, only the executive branch had initiated a referendum.

  • Cohabitation: the Parliamentary Aspect of the French Semi–Presidential System

    Author: Małgorzata Madej
    Institution: University of Wrocław (Poland)
    Year of publication: 2008
    Source: Show
    Pages: 184-207
    DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2008012
    PDF: ppsy/37/ppsy2008012.pdf

    The political system of the French Fi€fth Republic is referred to as “semi-presidentialism”. This is is to indicate its mixed nature – of a system presidential and parliamentary at a time. The Constitution grants broad prerogatives – and assigns serious tasks to both the head of state – le Président de la République – and the chief of government – le Premier ministre. When the prime minister represented the pro-presidential political camp, the head of state gained very serious in! uence on governing the state and political strategy (first, when the French political scene was dominated by the right – 1958–1981; then by the le€ – 1981–1986 and 1988–1993; and finally by the right again 1995–1997 and since 2002). As early as during Charles de Gaulle presidency (1958–1969) the idea called domaine reservée came into existence. According to this political concept, the widelyinterpreted external policies – including foreign affairs and defence were recognised as presidential prerogatives, regardless the of literal construction of legal provisions. Relations within the executive changed radically with the end of political unity. During the so-called cohabitation French political practices were different and they ultimately led to an amendment of the Constitution.

  • The Convergence of Presidential and Parliamentary Elections in France: Analysis of Systemic Tendencies from the Perspective of Sixty Years of the Fifth Republic

    Author: Łukasz Jakubiak
    E-mail: lukasz.jakubiak@uj.edu.pl
    Institution: Jagiellonian University
    Year of publication: 2019
    Source: Show
    Pages: 135-154
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2019108
    PDF: ppsy/48-1/ppsy2019108.pdf

    The paper deals with specific links between presidential and parliamentary elections in contemporary France. The main goal is to demonstrate that the timing of the two types of political events is a significant factor preserving the configuration of a pro-presidential majority fact as one of the possible variants of French semi-presidentialism. This raises the question of the role of both elections as instruments for controlling the process of setting up a space of political rivalry that could be perceived as optimal from the viewpoint of ruling camps. The author analyses possibilities to provide the convergence of presidential and parliamentary elections under the conditions of a seven-year presidential term as well as after its shortening to five years in 2000. Hence, of particular importance is the impact of some mechanisms used in this field on the institutional logic of the French political system. Specific application of constitutional tools and some normative changes introduced in previous years cause the extent of the aforementioned control to be now much greater than in the first decades of the Fifth Republic. Looking at the convergence of both types of elections from the perspective of the evolution of the existing political system, the author argues that it is legitimate to divide the whole period of the Fifth Republic into three sub-periods: 1. the absence of electoral convergence (1958–1981); 2. partial electoral convergence (1981– –2002); full electoral convergence (since 2002). Due to the acceptance of the pro-presidential paradigm, the latter formula is now definitely preferred and supported by legal regulations, which affects the flexibility of French semi-presidentialism (significantly reduced, but not fully eliminated, probability of cohabitation).

  • Muzułmanie we Francji – aspekty religijne i organizacyjne

    Author: Stanisław Musiał
    Institution: Akademia Marynarki Wojennej w Gdyni
    Year of publication: 2015
    Source: Show
    Pages: 53-67
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2015.46.04
    PDF: apsp/46/apsp4604.pdf

    MUSLIMS IN FRANCE IN TERMS OF RELIGIOUS AND ORGANIZATIONAL BACKGROUNDS

    At the turn of the twentieth and twenty-first century, the problem of the Muslim minority in Europe became a significant problem in religious, social and political terms. In this publication, we present the characteristics of the presence of Muslims in France only in terms of religious and organizational backgrounds. By analyzing the first aspect, the importance of Islam as the second religion in terms of the number of believers in France is shown. The second aspect describes the characteristics of some important Muslim organizations in France.

  • Trzy Deklaracje praw człowieka i obywatela zmienne pryncypia Wielkiej Rewolucji Francuskiej

    Author: Zbigniew Filipiak
    Year of publication: 2017
    Source: Show
    Pages: 74-91
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2017.03.05
    PDF: kie/117/kie11705.pdf

    One of the symbols of the Great French Revolution was the Declarations of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen-a document adopted by the National Constituent Assembly on August 26, 1789, collecting fundamental rights and the constitutional principles of a democratic state. It later became a lofty introduction to the 1791 constitution. The French had yet to receive two declarations, attached to the following basic acts-from 1793 and 1795. Their content was different, and even when some of their rights were repeated, they often differed in their approach, which indicated the changing ruling teams, their political programs, and their social background. In addition to indicating the differences between the three declarations, the article shows in particular the inspirations of the first (most important) of them-basically the influence of the Enlightenment thought and the declaration of the laws of the states of North America. The author draws attention to the differences between the American and French approaches to human rights. Despite the fact that after 1795 no further declaration of rights was ever made in France, the achievements of the Great French Revolution, and especially the 1789 document, remain today a point of reference for democrats in France and all over the world.

  • Maritime Biodiversity from the French State’s Perspective

    Author: Joanna Siekiera
    E-mail: joanna.siekiera@uib.no
    Institution: University of Bergen (Norway)
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0125-9121
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 199-202
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2020213
    PDF: ppsy/49-2/ppsy2020213.pdf

    “Together, protecting marine biodiversity: know how to act” was the French governmental conference organized by three ministries in Paris on 12 March 2020. Ministry of Higher Education, Research and Innovation, Ministry of Agriculture and Alimentation, and Ministry for the Ecological and Inclusive Transition along with two research think tanks, Ifremer and OFB have organized the “day of biodiversity”. Participants were mostly researchers, governmental and local officials, business leaders, fishermen, representatives of associations and foundations, all from France. Thus, the language of the conference was French. The conference took place in the 13th century Collège of Bernardins, a former Cistercian college of the historic University of Paris. Experts and audience shared reflections and discussions on major research issues on ocean change, as well as the French position towards global maritime policy in order to find proposals for sustainable management and protection of the ocean.

  • Wybrane aspekty stosunków chińsko-francuskich w XXI wieku

    Author: Marzena Mruk
    E-mail: mmruk@us.edu.pl
    Institution: Uniwersytet Śląski w Katowicach
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3529-0365
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 77-94
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20202705
    PDF: npw/27/npw2705.pdf

    Selected Aspects of Chinese-French Relations in the 21st Century

    The relationship of the People’s Republic of China with the French Republic was initiated in 1964 and has been constantly evolving since then. The 21st century and the changes taking place in the international system have contributed to the growth of China’s position in the international arena as a superpower, while France has been trying to maintain its dominant position in the European Union for two decades. Both countries have a lot in common and divide. The element that binds both countries together is their status in the UN Security Council, their ambivalent attitude to the superpower status of the United States, and the mutual willingness to expand economic cooperation. Among the factors that differ Beijing and Paris, there are rivalries in Africa and the approach to human rights. This does not change the fact that France is one of the main directions of China’s European policy and makes it one of Beijing’s most important political and economic partners. The international situation that both the Chinese and French governments have to face may contribute to a change in bilateral relations in the near future and the need for both sides to look for another partner in the region - in Europe through China and in Asia through France. This article aims to highlight the most important aspects of Sino-French relations in the 21st century, with particular emphasis on political and economic cooperation, especially in the context of the coronavirus pandemic. Outlining these aspects in the relations between China and France determines the construction of the article, which consists of three main parts corresponding to the relevant issues. The aim of this article is also to answer a number of research questions, such as: what were the most important controversial issues in Sino-French relations? Has the title of the most important politicians at the head of China and France influenced bilateral relations? Do relations with France’s changing relations affect the international position of the PRC? Among the research materials used in this article, Polish, English and French-language literature can be mentioned, because access to Chinese materials is extremely difficult, including their translation into other languages. A number of research methods have been used to analyze this research problem, including historical analysis and description or decision method.

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