human trafficking

Uchodźcy XXI wieku. Przestrzeń zagrożeń – przestrzeń wyzwań

Author: Adam Hołub
Institution: Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8865-6543
Author: Beata Tomaszewska-Hołub
Institution: Uniwersytet Warmińsko-Mazurski w Olsztynie
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5829-5986
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 32-50
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223502
PDF: npw/35/npw3502.pdf

Refugees of the 21st Century. Area of threats – Area of challenges

Current migratory movements have been mostly connected with the refugee crisis initiated in 2015, the deliberate actions of the government of Belarus in 2021 and the Russian invasion of Ukraine in 2022. It should be assumed that the pursuit of people towards the area of security is associated with multiple threats and challenges both for themselves and for their surroundings. The problems concern countries of departure, transit and destination. In each of these “stages” there are multiple threats affecting not only the refugees themselves. The main problem is the identification and analysis of threats, which would allow to define the conditions for strengthening the area of security related to migration. Threats concern both the life and health of people on the move (death in transit, loss of health, exposure to criminal and extreme political circles, involvement in criminal activities, economic exploitation, ethnic and religious animosities and conflicts) and for the institutions of states (social assistance, internal security). Global events indicate that threats, problems and challenges will continue to exist. It is therefore necessary to adapt the forms of institutional actions towards the problem in order to neutralize the indicated threats.

Prawnokarna ochrona wolności w wybranych państwach europejskich w ujęciu porównawczym, cz. II.

Author: Marek Kulik
Institution: Uniwersytet Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej w Lublinie
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 24-48
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/tpn2016.1.02
PDF: tpn/10/TPN2016102.pdf

The article is to discuss models of accountability for crimes against freedom in selected European countries in the continental system of criminal law. In turn discussed the system of offenses against freedom and then crimes of illegal deprivation of freedom, human trafficking, threat, stalking and impersonation, coercion, taking the image of a naked person, medical treatment without consent and violation of domestic peace in different countries. The whole discussion is an attempt to extract the model solutions.

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