hybrid warfare

Western Denial and Russian Control How Russia’s National Security Strategy Threatens a Western-Based Approach to Global Security, the Rule of Law and Globalization

Author: Sascha Dov Bachmann
Institution: Bournemouth University (United Kingdom), Swedish Defence University (Sweden)
Author: Håkan Gunneriusson
Institution: Swedish Defence University (Sweden)
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 9-29
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2017101
PDF: ppsy/46-1/ppsy2017101.pdf

The Russian National Security Strategy of 2015 aims at achieving autarky from Western influences on global security, the rule of law and global trade. Russia aims at attaining this by applying a holistic mix of military, political and economic means to weaken the West and to strengthen its own role as a global player. The Russian approach builds on a strategy of reflexive control which as such is an old method, but the outcome of the application of this approach results in hybrid warfare which as such is a new emerging concept of warfighting. This short article looks at one particular aspect of this Russian strategy, namely using Hybrid, or non-linear, Warfare against its Western direct neighbours in particular and the West in general. We will discuss the underlying cultural logic in Russia’s actions and will reflect on the impact of Russia’s utilization of the existing cultural asymmetry as a form of warfare in regard to the West. The examples used in this text are taken from the context of the conflicts of Ukraine and Syria, but have to be seen as constituting a part of an on-going global conflict aimed at NATO and the EU. The text builds on years of research within the hybrid threat, warfare respectively, context by both authors. 

Зобразити війну

Author: Ярослав Полішук
Institution: Київський університет імені Бориса Грінченка (Kijów, Ukraina)
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 27-50
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/PPUSN.2017.03.03
PDF: pomi/03/pomi201703.pdf

How to Represent War.

The hybrid warfare going on in Donbass has had consequences on the informational and cultural spheres in Ukraine. It is a war for influence where Ukraine cannot adequately confront Russia because it does not have the necessary recourses and a developed media culture. The number of literary works about the war published in the last few years show that Ukrainian writers want to challenge the discourse on war. Between 2014 and 2016 numerous novels, stories, essays, reports, and poems were published by such writers as Halyna Vdovychenko, Yevhen Polozhiy, Sergei Lozko, and Vladyslav Ivchenko. These authors try to show all the horror of the war and the changing attitudes and consciousness of Ukrainians. The issue of forming a new Ukrainian collective identity is reflected in contemporary literature.

The Common Security and Defence Policy of the European Union – in the context of ‘hybrid warfare’, ‘networks’, ‘swarming’ and ‘consolidated hybrid defence

Author: Benon Zbigniew Szałek
Institution: University of Szczecin
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 125-140
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/rop201708
PDF: rop/2017/rop201708.pdf

The aim of this paper is to present some praxiological remarks on the so-called Common Security and Defence Policy (earlier: The European Security and Defence Policy) of the European Union in the light of such terms as ‘hybrid warfare’, ‘networks’, ‘swarming’. The paper emphasizes the problem of consolidated hybrid security and defense.

The Blurred Problem of Foreign Funding of Civil Society Organizations in the Light of Political Marketing, Praxiology and Hybrid Warfare

Author: Benon Zbigniew Szałek
Institution: University of Szczecin
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 195-211
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/rop201613
PDF: rop/2016/rop201613.pdf

This paper deals with the problem of foreign and cryptoforeign funding of civil society organizations (CSOs). The question of foreign funding of CSOs is presented in the light of political marketing (inter alia: identification of global, regional and local market mechanisms (donors – clients)), hybrid warfare (real aims / interests of donors (the question of specific intelligence and counterintelligence)) and praxiology (effects, effectiveness).

Geopolitics, Political Topology and Hybrid Warfare

Author: Benon Zb. Szałek
Institution: University of Szczecin
Year of publication: 2015
Source: Show
Pages: 86-97
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/rop201507
PDF: rop/2015/rop201507.pdf

This paper deals with the concept of political topology in the light of geopolitics and hybrid warfare. Traditional geopolitics can be regarded as a point of departure for the search for better tools for political decision making. Comparison and confrontation of different, theoretical and practical, concepts of hybrid warfare can be heuristically inspiring and lead to a compact system of politically relevant knowledge – to political topology.

Hybrid Warfare and Deniability as Understood by the Military

Author: Håkan Gunneriusson
Institution: Swedish Defense University & Mid Sweden University
Year of publication: 2019
Source: Show
Pages: 267-288
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2019205
PDF: ppsy/48-2/ppsy2019205.pdf

Russia and China are terraforming the maritime environment as part of their warfare. In both cases the actions are illegal and the performance is offensive to its actual nature. In the case of China, the practice is construction of artificial islands in the South Chinese Sea and in the case of Russia it is about the infamous bridge built over the Kerch strait, Ukraine. Neither Russia nor China expects an armed conflict with the West in the near future. That is a reasonable assumption, which is weaponized at the political-strategically level. The attack of this weaponized situation is that the trust in the West. Primarily the EU (European Union) and NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization), is eroded for every day which these countries challenges the international system which the western democracies say that they present and defend. China and Russia offer their authoritarian systems as a replacement and there are a lot of pseudo-democratic or even out-right authoritarian regimes on the sideline watching this challenge unfold. The article highlights the difference for the NATO-countries in logic of practice when it comes to the political social field on one hand and the military political field on the other hand. The article uses material from a previously unpublished survey made on NATO-officers then attending courses at NATO Defense College (NDC).

Some Reflections on the Theory of Hybrid Activities

Author: Benon Zbigniew Szałek
Institution: University of Szczecin
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 7-17
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2020.68.01
PDF: apsp/68/apsp6801.pdf

This paper presents some remarks on the theory of hybrid activities. Analysis of relevant texts indicates that at present there is no real theory of hybrid activities. Interpretations and definitions of hybrid activities differ to some extent and certain important features are missing. For example, some authors opine that hybrid activities consist of simultaneous military and non-military operations. This opinion is not necessarily true as non-military activities can precede military activities. Monitoring this phase of hybrid activities is particularly important. The so-called “crisis management” covers (from the viewpoint of praxeology) a too narrow area.

Economic Sanctions as a Tool of China’s Hybrid Strategies

Author: Rafał Wiśniewski
Institution: Adam Mickiewicz University (Poland)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0155-246X
Published online: 10 July 2021
Final submission: 30 June 2021
Printed issue: December 2021
Source: Show
Page no: 13
Pages: 91-103
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy202133
PDF: ppsy/50/ppsy202133.pdf

The article aims to analyze the role of economic sanctions in the People’s Republic of China’s overall approach to achieving its security objectives in the international arena. During the last two decades, Beijing used this instrument on numerous occasions to exert pressure on a varied group of actors. China’s current strategy toward a range of disputes and conflicts it is engaged in (the South China Sea territorial disputes most prominently stand out) is often described using the popular vocabulary of “hybrid warfare” or “grey zone conflicts”. Putting the conceptual complications aside, the author agrees that the PRC’s approach can be viewed as part of a growing trend for great powers to employ what can be called “hybrid strategies” toward its opponents. As part of a broader category of economic statecraft, economic sanctions form an important element of this approach. Considering current scholarship on both “hybrid” (or “grey area”) warfare and economic sanctions, the article answers the question of why the PRC increasingly resorts to hybrid strategies (including economic coercion) and identifies the main characteristics of Chinese economic sanctions. It also provides preliminary conclusions on their effectiveness.

Terrorism and the Hybrid Warfare in Aspect of War in Ukraine

Author: Wojciech Wróblewski
Institution: The Main School of Fire Service in Warsaw (Poland)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3415-9485
Published online: 30 October 2022
Final submission: 10 September 2022
Printed issue: December 2022
Source: Show
Page no: 13
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy202254
PDF: ppsy/51/ppsy202254.pdf

Contemporary terrorism is characterised by a complex and networked model of operation. While the main objectives of terrorist acts remain the same, the attack environment, tactics and tools are changing. The international community is taking steps to strengthen counter-terrorism systems, but these are peaceful solutions. These models do not consider the conditions of hybrid armed conflicts in which terrorism is an element of combat tactics. It is a relatively new phenomenon and particularly dangerous for the civilian population. The acts of terror in hybrid warfare are not mechanisms with a simple scheme of action, and, as we try to show in this article, they represent a deliberate and broad spectrum of action. Therefore, there is an urgent need to understand terrorism in the context of the threat of hybrid war (especially when terrorist acts complement hybrid tactics or significantly replace conventional tactics). This type of threat must be recognised before achieving its strategic goals. From the substantive point of view, the article studies the problem of terrorism as one of the threats of an armed conflict in Ukraine, commonly known as hybrid war.

The Wagner Group as a Tool of Russian Hybrid Warfare

Author: Marek Górka
Institution: Koszalin University of Technology (Poland)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6964-1581
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 83-98
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy202324
PDF: ppsy/52/ppsy202324-5.pdf

Unrest, conflicts, and wars in various parts of the world have created huge political and business opportunities for private military companies. They can gather intelligence, provide security for rich and powerful political actors, and provide mercenaries to interest groups worldwide. Private Russian military forces with close ties to President Vladimir Putin are used in war zones and continue expanding their presence in many regions worldwide. The Wagner Group is the most famous Russian mercenary unit. It gained notoriety mainly by supporting Russian forces in the conflict in Ukraine in 2014. At that time, it also provided one of the services that the authorities in the Kremlin particularly appreciate in their actions, and that is the lack of attribution for conducting armed conflicts, thanks to which mercenaries play the role of separatist fighters. Since then, the organisation has been deployed in many countries, including Syria, Libya, Mali, the Central African Republic, Sudan, and Venezuela, always to covertly support representatives of regimes favoured by Putin. Like all other mercenary units in Russia, the Wagner Group does not officially exist, because Russian law does not allow mercenary activities. The article has two main objectives: first, to present an analysis of the activities of the Wagner Group, using the currently available information; second, to prove that the concept of hybrid warfare could best explain the Kremlin’s use of Russian mercenaries.

Cybersecurity in the context of Hybrid Warfare in Ukraine: Analysis of its impact on the public sector and society in Poland

Author: Wojciech Wróblewski
Institution: The Fire University, Poland
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3415-9485
Author: Michał Wiśniewski
Institution: Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3435-3114
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 48-60
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/CEJSS.2023105
PDF: cejss/1/cejss105.pdf

In the face of the rapidly changing landscape of armed conflicts around the world, particular attention is paid to the development and application of new forms of warfare, especially in the context of hybrid wars. A characteristic feature of these conflicts is the combination of traditional military methods with modern information and communication technologies, which poses complex challenges for international security. This article focuses on the new challenges posed by contemporary armed conflicts, particularly the hybrid war we are witnessing in Ukraine. The article emphasizes the significant role of advancing technology in hybrid warfare tactics, focusing on including communication and information technologies. These advances have facilitated cyberattacks, disinformation, and rapid coordination in military operations. The conflict in Ukraine serves as a case study, illustrating the use of digital technologies and cyberspace as the main battlefields, making it the first cyberwar on such a scale. The article also examines the broader implications of this warfighting tactic, particularly its impact on the international community and Poland. Due to Poland’s geopolitical situation, the conflict increases the risk of such cyberattacks, posing a significant threat to national security and social stability. The article aims to analyze the consequences of the challenges related to cybersecurity and hybrid warfare activities in Ukraine in the context of the public sector and society in Poland.

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