individual

Konflikt chińsko-tajwański w ujęciu paradygmatu realistycznego – trzy poziomy analizy Kennetha Waltza

Author: Natalia Sienko
Institution: Uniwersytet Wrocławski
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 59-78
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/so2017204
PDF: so/12/so1204.pdf

The Chinese-Taiwanese conflict in realist paradigm – three levels of Kenneth Waltz’s analysis

This article attempts to systematize the possible sources and causes of the Chinese-Taiwanese conflict based on the three levels of analysis presented by Kenneth Waltz. The author discusses the assumptions of realism theory (structural realism) on the basis of the modes of functioning of the individual, state, and international system. Through this analysis, it will be possible to assess the location of the various elements (forces) driving the war in the international system.

Przemoc ustanawiająca prawo i podtrzymująca prawo a wolne od przemocy środki („czyste środki”) rozwiązywania konfliktów między jednostkami i w polityce – w świetle teorii Waltera Benjamina

Author: Joanna Stepaniuk
Institution: Uniwersytet Warszawski
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4724-7687
Year of publication: 2021
Source: Show
Pages: 179-190
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/cip202110
PDF: cip/19/cip1910.pdf

Problematyka tekstu konkluduje wokół zagadnienia przemocy, którego źródła należy dopatrywać się w tekście „Przyczynek do krytyki przemocy” autorstwa Waltera Benjamina. Przedmiotem refleksji są różne formy przemocy ustanawiającej prawo, jak i przemocy podtrzymującej prawo, a także ich związku z wolnymi od przemocy środkami, a więc „czystymi środkami”. Takie podejście pozwala na krytyczną analizę zależności istniejącej między jednostką (człowiekiem), a funkcjonowaniem instytucji (państwa, władzy) opartej na określonych regulacjach prawnych. Tekst zachęca do zastanowienia się nad tym: czy przemoc rozumiana jako zasadna może być moralna? i czy wszelka przemoc jest środkiem do sprawiedliwego czy też niesprawiedliwego celu? Wydaje się, że część końcowa tekstu poprzez różnicowanie rodzajów przemocy, dzieląc ją na boską, mityczną, wychowawczą, pozwala odpowiedzieć na te dwa kluczowe, przedstawione wcześniej pytania.

Individual in a Traditional Chinese Family

Author: Wang Yun
Institution: Uniwersytet SWPS
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8740-2499
Year of publication: 2021
Source: Show
Pages: 71-84
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ap202105
PDF: ap/24/ap2405.pdf

The article analyzes the relation between the individual and the family in traditional China in a historical and cultural context. It concludes that the family, besides being a source of material support, provides a sense of identity, which is obtained through the performance of family role ethics. The ethics consist in fulfilling one’s specific obligations, such as filial piety, obedience, responsibility for family members, etc. Through practicing them since childhood, individuals shape their personality in a way that enables them to participate in a hierarchical, patriarchal family structure and maintain harmonious relations with its members.

Konstytucyjny wymiar ochrony praw mniejszości narodowych w Austrii

Author: Ewa Godlewska
Institution: Uniwersytet Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej w Lublinie
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2550-7831
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 203-213
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2022.05.16
PDF: ppk/69/ppk6916.pdf

The Constitutional Dimension of the Protection of the Rights of National Minorities in Austria

The article indicates such research problems as the features of the Austrian constitutional order, the history of Austrian constitutionalism and the main legal acts of a constitutional nature. The aim of the analysis was to determine: a) what is the level of protection of national minorities in Austria, resulting from the constitutional order?, b) can we speak of continuity of protection?, and c) what is the balance between legal regulations and practice? The article indicates that the level of protection of national minorities in Austria resulting from the constitutional order should be assessed as high. The minority status has been defined in a number of constitutional legal acts. We are dealing with the continuity of legal protection, and any problems do not concern strictly the law itself, but its practical application.

Reprezentanci Szkoły Austriackiej wobec znaczenia i roli jednostki oraz społecznej kooperacji w rozwoju cywilizacji

Author: Wojciech Szabaciuk
Institution: Uniwersytet Wrocławski
Year of publication: 2015
Source: Show
Pages: 25-36
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/siip201502
PDF: siip/14/siip1402.pdf

The representatives of the Austrian School versus importance and the role of the individual and the social cooperation in the development of the civilization

This article is an attempt to analyze and interpretation of position of the representatives of the Austrian School versus importance and the role of the individual and the social cooperation in the development of the civilization. The aim of this article is examined, according to the representatives of the Austrian School, that the individuals and the social cooperation have influence on the development of the wealth of the society and increase of human liberty and also guarantee of peaceful cooperation between humans. Author focus on political thought of the representatives of the Austrian School in the persons like Ludwig von Mises, Murray Rothbard, Butler Shaffer or Thomas DiLorenzo. Article show that in opinions of the representatives of the Austrian School social institutions like property rights, personal freedom, social cooperation or free market are products of Western Civilization. In the text discuss will be belief that bad ideas are main causes of destructions of civilizations. Author used an interpretative approach and context analysis.

Między epokami. Idea wolności w myśli Hugo Grocjusza

Author: Michał Urbańczyk
Institution: Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 101-124
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/tpn2017.1.07
PDF: tpn/12/TPN2017107.pdf

The purpose of this article is to present Hugo Grotius’s views concerning the idea of freedom. It must be pointed out that the idea of freedom was not the subject of a separate thought, except for the freedom of the seas, which Grotius dedicated a separate work. Theses on freedom were formulated in the light of other issues such as natural law or the essence and scope of state power. For this purpose, the first part of the article presents a historical background. In the second part, Grotius’s views will be presented in three contexts. First, freedom of the individual as power over oneself. Second, freedom in political terms, as a relationship of community. Finally freedom in the global aspect, as freedom of navigation, trade and migration.

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