Intermarium

  • International Political and Security Potential of Ukraine within the Baltic-Black Sea Region and Ukraine’s Participation in Regional Military-Political Cooperation and Integration Processes

    Author: Roman Panchuk
    E-mail: panchuk.r.m@gmail.com
    Institution: Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0334-7176
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 136-152
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ksm20200107
    PDF: ksm/25/ksm2507.pdf

    The article presents the Baltic-Black Sea region in the military-political dimension, as well as explores the potential benefits of this cooperation for European security. The study offers some important insights into the historical preconditions for the formation of the Union according to the Baltic-Black Sea Arc. This paper attempts to show the importance of international political and security potential of Ukraine and its influence on the formation of the Baltic-Black Sea Union. The Baltic-Black Sea Union is seen as an effective counterweight to Russia’s expansion into the West, whereby Ukraine could serve as a guarantor of European stability. The article analyzes opinions of international experts on the implementation of the Baltic-Black Sea Union, as well as compares the military power of potential members of the union with the military forces of advanced countries. This study provides an important opportunity to advance the understanding of the benefits for Union members and European countries and how the United States can help implement the idea of project. The analysis emphasizes the functions of the Baltic-Black Sea Union, potential NATO assistance and how the Union will ensure the stability of its forces in Europe. It is summarized why the countries of the Baltic-Black Sea arc can act as a guarantor of protection against Russian aggression.

  • Possibility of Implementing the Concept of the Intermarium in the Context of Militant Democracy in Poland During and After the Coronavirus Pandemic

    Author: Kamila Rezmer-Płotka
    E-mail: kamila.rezmer@onet.pl
    Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University, Poland
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1458-5076
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 96-110
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2020306
    PDF: ppsy/49-3/ppsy2020306.pdf

    Intermarium is one of the most important Polish geopolitical concepts. This article considers it within the category of militant democracy. It allows to explore the process of militant democracy, that is, introducing restrictions by legal means. Most restrictions have recently been introduced due to a coronavirus pandemic. Therefore, the article undertakes to examine the potential for implementation of the concept of the Intermarium during the pandemic and shortly after its end. The study uses a qualitative analysis of sources. Indicators relevant to the study of the process of militant democracy were distinguished based on the body of literature. Results: The traditional concept of the Intermarium erodes due to natural causes. Currently, Poland is more inclined to the concept of the Three Seas. In addition, in the face of the analysis that was carried out, it seems that in a pandemic situation we are observing the end of the paradigm of liberal democracy in this case.

  • Концепция «Mеждуморья» во внешней политике Польши

    Author: Rafał Czachor
    E-mail: rczachor@afm.edu.pl
    Institution: Krakowska Akademia im. Andrzeja Frycza Modrzewskiego
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 9-26
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20202601
    PDF: npw/26/npw2601.pdf

    A Concept of “Intermarium” in the Foreign Policy of Poland

    The paper tackles the problem of the most important Polish geopolitical concept - “Intermarium” (“Międzymorze”). The attention was paid to the historical roots, the evolution in the mid-war period and after WWII. It also discusses the current state of this conception and its links with a project “Three seas’ initiative”, actively run by Polish authorities since 2016. The paper consists of four main chapters. It starts with presenting scientific roots of the “Intermarium”, that was developed at the beginning of the XX century by a famous geographer Eugeniusz Romer and included in Polish political discourse in the mid-war period. The “Inermarium” was planned to be an alliance of Central European countries to oppose the influences of stronger neighboring countries - the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany. Then the paper discusses the concept of “ULB”, that in the period of “cold war” to some extend revived the concept of Intermarium”. Authors of the “ULB” Jerzy Giedroyc and Juliusz Mieroszewski paid particular attention to the reconciliation and mutual understanding among nations of Central and Eastern Europe. Consecutively, the paper discusses the current state of “Intermarium”. Under the national-conservative government of the Law and Justice Party, since 2016 this concept is for the first time in its history implemented as an official part of Poland’s foreign policy. However, there are significant changes in the concept, starting with its name - “Three seas initiative”, that refers to Baltic, Black and Adriatic Seas. Within the concept, Poland is strengthening relations with other countries of Central Europe. Therefore, it can be understood as a new “North-South” geopolitical axis, that, to some extent should replace an “East-West” geopolitical axis, that for ages has played a crucial role in Polish foreign policy. The final conclusion of the paper is that currently Poland’s geopolitical interests are evolving into the North-South axis and the Eastern direction is losing its previous importance. Nevertheless, the future success or failure of the implementation of the concept will depend on the involvement of other Central European countries as well as of the interests of external political actors (USA, Russia).

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