Japan

Ex oriente lux: Roman Dmowski w Japonii

Author: Michihro Yasui
Year of publication: 2014
Source: Show
Pages: 241-254
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2014113
PDF: npw/06/npw2014113.pdf

Roman Dmowski’s journey to Japan after the outbreak of the Russo-Japanese War is a well-known episode in the modern history of Poland. As far as we know, Dmowski, after his arrival in Japan, wrote two memorandum in English (one is about political and social relations in Russia and the another is about the political situation in Poland) for the Japanese General Staff, and in the name of the Japanese government wrote an appeal to Polish soldiers in the Russian army to leave it and surrender. In a street in Tokyo Dmowski by chance met Józef Piłsudski, a member of the Polish Socialist Party and Dmowski’s political opponent, who was also visiting Japan, seeking for military aid from the Japanese government. Three days later they had their famous „nineteen hours’ talk” at the hotel. After it Dmowski sent a memorandum to Baron Jutarō Komura, Japanese Minister of Foreign Affairs, in which he expounded how harmful it would be for the war strategy of Japan if an insurrection breaks out in Poland. Besides these activities, we should pay due attention to the effect of Dmowski’s stay in Japan on his view of nation or society. Dmowski’s nine weeks stay in Japan (from 15 May to 22 July, 1904) was only in a part of the first stage of the war which broke out in February 1904 and ended in June 1905. Despite this fact, it should be emphasized that Dmowski’s knowledge about Japanese people was so much richer than we suppose. This paper presents some interesting episodes with a special Focus on the conversation with General Gentarō Kodama and his experience of his visits to Japanese prisoner-of-war camps in Matsuyama, where he interviewed Polish soldiers. Dmowski was strongly impressed by the behavior and way of thinking of Japanese people and stated later that it influenced his views immensely, among others his view on society and the nation. The effect of his experience in Japan mostly ap pears in his work „Essentials of Polish Politics” which was published in „The All- Polish Review” in May 1905 and was added as supplementary chapters to the third edition of „Thoughts of a Modern Pole” (1907). In this important article the father of modern Polish nationalism could clarify his views on „national instinct” and „national ethics”.

Polsko-japońska współpraca polityczna oraz gospodarcza w latach 2003–2017

Author: Piotr Andrzej Głogowski
Institution: Uniwersytet Ekonomiczny w Krakowie
Year of publication: 2018
Source: Show
Pages: 91-107
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ksm201805
PDF: ksm/23/ksm201805.pdf

The East Asian region has never been among the priority directions of Polish foreign policy – only a few percent of Polish diplomatic engagement was focused on the entire Asian continent. In turn, this small percentage of Polish commitment was divided among all countries in the region. Nonetheless, it is worth noting, that in the examined period (2003–2017), a several very important bilateral agreements were concluded – including agreements that Japan decided to make only with a narrow group of countries.
In the following paper I decided to analyze the last 14 years of bilateral relations between Poland and Japan. The article uses both language sources (Polish and Japanese), as well as a statistical data.
At the end of the paper will be shown, that even though relations are developing in the right direction, it should be considered whether the pace of their development will not prevent them from intensification.

Institutionalization of Strategic Partnerships : Comparative Analysis of Established European Union Partnerships with the United States, Japan and Canada

Author: Agata Domachowska
Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8521-9399
Author: Karolina Gawron-Tabor
Institution: WSB University in Toruń
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8535-913X
Author: Joanna Piechowiak-Lamparska
Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0021-2519
Year of publication: 2018
Source: Show
Pages: 200-222
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2018.60.12
PDF: apsp/60/apsp6012.pdf

Strategic partnerships are nowadays one of the tools most willingly applied in foreign policy. The subject of the presented analysis is the institutionalization process of a strategic partnership understood as the functioning of certain norms and rules in a given relationship (expressed in the founding documents of partnerships) and the regularization of joint bodies and meeting formats. The aim of the article is a comparative analysis of institutional solutions applied in the European Union’s strategic partnerships with its established partners: the United States, Japan, and Canada. The results show that it is possible to identify a pattern of institutionalization process used by the European Union in its relations with strategic partners; they also reveal how great importance contemporary players in the international arena attach to institutionalization processes in their mutual relations.

Analiza porównawcza frakcji w Partii Liberalno-Demokratycznej oraz grup w Partii Demokratycznej po alternacji władzy w Japonii w 2009 roku

Author: Karol Żakowski
Institution: Uniwersytet Łódzki
Year of publication: 2015
Source: Show
Pages: 32-45
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2015.45.02
PDF: apsp/45/apsp4502.pdf

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF FACTIONS IN THE LIBERAL DEMOCRATIC PARTY AND GROUPS INSIDE THE DEMOCRATIC PARTY OF JAPAN AFTER ALTERNATION OF POWER IN 2009

The article examines the changes in factional system of the Democratic Party of Japan (DPJ) after electoral victory in 2009. During opposition period, DPJ factions were believed to be much less significant groups than their counterparts in the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP). Nevertheless, after the DPJ assumed power, its intra-party groups, to a certain degree, started functioning as LDP factions. Over the years, their ideological leanings weakened and instead of realizing distinctive political vision, they started focusing on pragmatic struggle for power in the party. In 2009 – 2012 period, the competition between intra-party mainstreams and anti-mainstreams increased, challenging the unity of the DPJ. The significance of factional divisions was also clearly visible in the distribution of governmental portfolios by succeeding prime ministers. Although DPJ factions were still not as powerful as LDP factions, they played a much greater role than before in maintaining intra-party balance and structuring intra-party competition.

Profilaktyka presuicydalna w Polsce i Japonii. Analiza na przykładzie kampanii „Zobacz… Znikam” oraz „Sleep Campaign” – „Tato, jak spałeś?”

Author: Marlena Stradomska
Institution: Uniwersytet Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej w Lublinie
Year of publication: 2019
Source: Show
Pages: 87-97
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kimwe2019107
PDF: kim/2019_1/kim2019107.pdf

Suicidal prevention in Poland and Japan. Analysis on the example campaign “Look… I disappearing”, “Sleep Campaign” - “Dad, how did you sleep?”

Japan appears as a distant, modern and highly developed country, as compared to Poland is an economic power. These countries divide ten thousand kilometers, the Land of the Rising Sun is the only place in the world where you can interact with unique culture and modern technology. However, despite the many differences associated with the functioning of both countries, they share many common components, for example those that relate to health care. The suicide problem occurs both in Japan and Poland. There is no single cause of suicide, which is why prevention, protection of the health and lives of citizens is so important. The article includes preventive programs and social campaigns on the example of each state. Social campaign of the Foundation “Zobacz… Jestem”-“Look.. I disappearing” and Campaign Otōsan, genkidesuka? (お父さん、元気ですか) called Sleep Campaing – “Dad, how did you sleep?”, which is implemented in Japan.

Strategic Use of Early Elections in Japan : Comparison of the Koizumi and Abe Cabinets

Author: Karol Żakowski
Institution: University of Łódź
Year of publication: 2019
Source: Show
Pages: 78-91
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2019.63.06
PDF: apsp/63/apsp6306.pdf

The aim of this article is to analyze political objectives and repercussions of the dissolutions of the House of Representatives by Prime Ministers Koizumi Jun’ichirō in 2005 and Abe Shinzō in 2014. In both cases dissolutions took place less than two years after the previous elections. The paper argues that the strengthened power of the heads of government after electoral and administrative reforms facilitated them to take advantage of Diet dissolution to overcome opposition by veto players. By appealing to the public Koizumi planned to privatize the Japan Post and Abe intended to postpone the consumption tax hike. In both cases the prime ministers used early elections to enhance their position in the ruling party. As a result, Koizumi managed to overcome pressure from postal employees and Abe gained leverage over Ministry of Finance (MOF) bureaucrats.

Nierozwiązane dwudziestowieczne problemy polityczne w stosunkach japońsko-chińskich w XXI wieku

Author: Robert Jakimowicz
Institution: Uniwersytet Ekonomiczny w Krakowie
Year of publication: 2019
Source: Show
Pages: 142-167
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ksm201908
PDF: ksm/24/ksm201908.pdf

The article is focused on four problems in Japanese-Chinese relations in two first decades of the 21st century. These problems were not solved by the last three decades of the 20th century. They are following: the dispute about Senkaku (Diaoyu) Islands, the matter of the textbooks, the visits in the Yasukuni Shrine, the problem of Japanese- -Taiwanese relations. The author carries out the short analysis of their evolution and meaning for the present Japanese-Chinese relations.

Przede wszystkim honor. Przyczyny i przejawy specyficznego postrzegania jeniectwa w kulturze Japonii – w kontraście do norm społeczeństw zachodnich

Author: Kamil Weber
Institution: Centralne Muzeum Jeńców Wojennych
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6904-0073
Year of publication: 2021
Source: Show
Pages: 25-41
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/so2021202
PDF: so/20/so2002.pdf

Above All, Honor. Reasons Behind the Specific Perception of War Prisoners in Japanese Culture – A Comparison with Western Societies

Cultural differences between Western and Eastern civilizations are noticeable in the system of professed values and in many aspects of life. This also applies to the approach to captives, which was clearly demonstrated by the events of the first years after the end of World War II. An example could be the way in which former Japanese and German soldiers, who were captured after the end of the war, were treated after their return to homeland. This article aims to show the sources of these differences and, to a lesser extent, examples of behaviors which they caused. The analysis consists of references to historical, economic, social, religious, and psychological conditions, which, as intertwined, resulted in the emergence of different perceptions of an individual’s role in a society and his obligations toward the community. These conditions determined the specific attitudes of representatives of each culture in difficult war and post-war circumstances. Explaining the Japanese soldiers’ willingness to sacrifice and the importance of honor for them, reference was made to the influences of Confucianism, Buddhism, Shinto, and the bushido tradition. Showing the deeply rooted reasons for the attitudes described in the article was therefore supposed to enable their explanation.

Balancing the Win-Sets: Agricultural Lobby and Japan’s Accession to the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement

Author: Karol Żakowski
Institution: University of Łódź
Year of publication: 2021
Source: Show
Pages: 198-216
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2021.71.12
PDF: apsp/71/apsp7112.pdf

Due to strong connections with the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) and the Democratic Party of Japan (DPJ), the agricultural lobby constituted a considerable obstacle in liberalization of trade by Japan. Nevertheless, in the last years, its influence on governmental policy has been waning. Referring to the theory of two-level games, the article analyzes the discourse on accession to the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) Agreement to examine the weakening dependence of Japanese politicians on support from the Central Union of Agricultural Cooperatives. It is argued that the Japanese government managed to sign both the TPP Agreement in 2016 and its successor, the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership in 2018, thanks to the institutional strength and negotiation strategy of the Abe administration.

Hentai – erotyka z mangi i anime

Author: Tomasz Burdzik
Institution: Uniwersytet Śląski
Year of publication: 2014
Source: Show
Pages: 340-353
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2014.03.17
PDF: kie/103/kie10317.pdf

The aim of this paper is to present Japanese comics (manga) and cartoons (anime) with sexual content called hentai. I briefly review some history of Japanese art and culture, in which sexuality has always been a legitimate subject for art and which forms the cultural underpinnings of manga. I summarize the erotic themes and visions of manga with sexual content, including female and male homosexuality (yuri, yaoi), heterosexuality (ecchi, bakunyū/kyonyuu), BDSM (kinbari), transvestitism (futanari), children (lolicon, shotakon). In conclusion, I pose the question of the need to adopt the right perspective to understand the often surprising manifestations of Japanese sexuality.

Działania lądowe pod Portem Artura pod koniec lipca 1904 roku podczas wojny japońsko-rosyjskiej na łamach „Gońca Porannego” i „Gońca Wieczornego

Author: Marek Janczurewicz
Institution: Uniwersytet Poznański
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7129-1229
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 117-132
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/so2022208
PDF: so/22/so2208.pdf

Land Operations at Port Artur at the End of July 1904 During the Japanese- Russian War in “Goniec Poranny” and “Goniec Wieczorny”

The paper discusses ground troops’ actions during the Russo-Japanese War’s siege of Port Arthur, as shown in “Goniec Poranny” [Morning Messenger] and “Goniec Wieczorny” [Evening Messenger]. First, the author presents the conflict’s background and the aspects he will discuss. Then, he presents what could be learned from the newspaper about Japanese assaults taking place in July 1904. The author highlights disinformation present in the newspaper, especially concerning the battle course. Following that, the author describes casualties of both sides of the conflict – noting that these are not in line with what historians found out, often being times higher than in reality, although there are some exceptions on the Russian side. Following that, the author discusses civilian escape attempts during the siege – a matter not present in the literature. Due to the inclusion of this section, the reader can take a look at the battle from a different perspective. In the article’s final part, the author summarises opinions of the people of conflicted sides. They often presented themselves as superior, not considering the actual strength of the armies. For example, a Japanese professor mentions prohibitive demands of the Russian side in the plan of a peace treaty. In reality, even after multiple lost battles and defeats of tzar Nikolai II, the demands were never considered. In the conclusion, the author presents how reliable was the information from the Messenger, compared to the subject literature.

Contemplating Japanese and Korean Relations in Historical, Regional and International Relations Theoretical Contexts

Author: Grażyna Strnad
Year of publication: 2011
Source: Show
Pages: 269-286
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2011.29.14
PDF: apsp/29/apsp2914.pdf

This paper focuses on relations between Japan and the two Koreas, the Republic of Korea and the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea. Relations between Japan and the two Koreas can be simultaneously examined in three related contexts: the history of the national entities which is still subject to divergent interpretations, the post-Cold War East Asian security environment, and international relations (IR) theory, particularly the contrasts between neorealism, neoliberalism and neoclassical realism. In addition to traditional relations, the Japanese occupation of Korea (1910–1945) still serves as a relevant area of sensitivity between all three nations. The post-Cold War East Asian security environment is a complex mixture of vestiges of the Cold War and new regional paradigms and shifts of power, particularly against the backdrop of competing big-power interests converging on the region. Both the relations between these three nations and as well as the regional concerns of other state-actors have often been focused in recent years by North Korea’s developing nuclear weapons and missile technologies. Japanese-Korean relations present a contentious subject for IR scholars to debate the respective merits of various theoretical approaches. It is the opinion of the author that on balance, at least for the time being, neoclassical realism is a better lens through which to view these relations.

Uwarunkowania krótkotrwałych rządów w Japonii: przykład premiera Sugi Yoshihide

Author: Karol Żakowski
Institution: Uniwersytet Łódzki
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2715-570X
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 9-28
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233701
PDF: npw/37/npw3701.pdf

Determinants of short-lived governments in Japan: the example of Prime Minister Suga Yoshihide

Japan is one of the countries with the most frequently changing heads of government in the world. The aim of this article is to examine both the structural and individual causes of this situation by using the example of the short term in office of Prime Minister Suga Yoshihide from 2020 to 2021. While such factors as strong ministerial sectionalism in the government, factionalism in the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP), high frequency of parliamentary and ruling party presidential elections, as well as consensual political culture made it difficult for prime ministers to remain in office for a longer period of time, the electoral and administrative reforms of the 1990s facilitated the heads of government to stabilize the government’s social and party base of support. Nevertheless, the usage of the new institutional instruments to remain in power depended on the prime minister’s ability to create his/her positive image among voters. This article analyzes why Prime Minister Suga, despite leading a stable ruling coalition in both houses of the parliament and having extensive experience in decision-making process, was unable to maintain the government’s initially high popularity and resigned only one year after having formed his cabinet.

To the Brighter Side. New Tendencies in Erecting Statues of Bodhisattva Jizō in Japanese Buddhist Temples

Author: Alīse Eishō Donnere
Institution: Tohoku Gakuin University
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0009-0002-0210-4981
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 72-90
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233703
PDF: npw/37/npw3703.pdf

To the Brighter Side. New Tendencies in Erecting Statues of Bodhisattva Jizō in Japanese Buddhist Temples

Japan is a predominantly atheistic country, however, Buddhism is still keeping its influence on society. Firstly, funerals are mostly performed according to the Buddhist ritual. Secondly, several times a year the majority of Japanese families visit their relatives’s graves in cemeteries, belonging to Buddhist temples. As a result, Buddhism is associated first of all with death and funeral. Buddhist priests try to make the image of Buddhism brighter in many ways. In this article, we will look at one of these ways – erecting statues that depict simultaneously the beloved bodhisattva Jizo, the priests themselves, visitors and the dead relatives.

Rozważania na temat państwowości Riukiu czasów nowożytnych

Author: Stanisław Meyer
Institution: Uniwersytet Jagielloński w Krakowie
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3075-5677
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 91-109
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233704
PDF: npw/37/npw3704.pdf

Reflections on the statehood of Ryukyu of modern times

In this article, I argue against the widely accepted view among Japanese historians that the Ryukyu Kingdom of early modern times belonged to the Japanese bakuhan system while retaining its status as a foreign country. Placing Ryukyu within the bakuhan framework corresponds with the deterministic narrative of history that justifies Japan’s annexation of Ryukyu on one side, and Okinawan people’s choice of Japanese identity on the other. The claim of “foreign country inside the bakuhan system” is difficult to defend in light of theories of state that emphasize the importance of the interaction between society and state institutions. Ryukyu, as a separate social entity, had no influence on the shape of the bakuhan system and, conversely, the bakuhan system did not shape the Ryukyuan society.

Rola (post)pamięci i filmu w południowokoreańskiej narracji narodowej oraz jej wpływ na relacje z Japonią

Author: Joanna Beczkowska
Institution: Ośrodek Spraw Azjatyckich, Uniwersytet Łódzki
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5918-5677
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 55-77
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ap2023.2.03
PDF: ap/28/ap2803.pdf

The Role of (Post)memory and Film in the South Korean National Narrative and its Impact on Relations with Japan

There seems to be a barrier in relations between Japan and South Korea that, despite shared interests and values, is an obstacle to building a lasting reconciliation. Political solutions that are supposed to be permanent and unchangeable (such as the agreement on comfort women) are being undermined. The idea of unresolved historical disputes and the lack of sufficient apologies has been ingrained in South Korea, which influences the perception of Japan as a dishonest partner. Subsequently, the brutality of authoritarian rule and the restriction of civil rights became associated with the legacy of the colonial period. Although political elites on both sides agree on the need to build future- oriented relationships, these efforts encounter internal resistance. Analysis of the role played by the collective memory of the colonial period allows us to notice antagonisms that lead to the reification of reality in which lasting reconciliation without solving historical disputes is impossible. Using the film, a post-memory with a strongly emotional tone is constructed, reinforcing anti-Japanese resentments. The analysis of the development of film narratives about the colonial period serves to capture changes in the national discourse and leads to conclusions regarding the impact not only on relations with Japan, but also on the connection between the anti-colonial discourse and the criticism of authoritarian power. The rhetorical vision presented in the films has been so deeply rooted in the national narrative that changing it seems extremely difficult - which is why it constantly threatens the building of lasting reconciliation with Japan.

History Issues of Japan in Politics and Education

Author: Paulina Rogoziecka
Institution: Uniwersytet Łódzki, Poland
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2529-4741
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 105-119
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/so2023207
PDF: so/26/so2607.pdf

Many scholars have researched Japan’s historical issues, connected to politics and education. Nevertheless, they mostly studied one issue from one perspective, such as international law or human rights. As a part of ongoing doctoral thesis research, this paper aims to discern if and how the historical issues and the Japanese government’s stance on those issues changed between 1982 and 2022 and interacted with each other. By comparing official statements with textbook contents on historical issues, the connection between them can bring a fuller understanding of Japan’s historical policy as a system. This paper hypothesises that history politics indirectly influences education policies and textbook writing. At this stage of research, it can be concluded that there are numerous historical issues recognised as such by Japan, but recognition has been an effect of other actors’ claims. Various actors have made those claims at opportune times, using history as a tool. Nonetheless, policy and statements by politicians and overall discernible history politics, such as counterclaims on particular issues, seem to have at least some correlation with the contents of textbooks. Further research into those connections may better understand Japan’s history politics as a system and how they influence history education.

Komunikacja w kulturze japońskiego kolektywizmu – wybrane koncepty

Author: Justyna Pilarska
Institution: Uniwersytet Wrocławski, Polska
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5646-597X
Year of publication: 2024
Source: Show
Pages: 225-241
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2024.02.12
PDF: kie/144/kie14412.pdf

Communication in Japanese collectivist culture – selected concepts

Japan is one of the most ethnically homogeneous countries in the world. Although there is an indigenous minority Ainu ethnic group from Hokkaido Prefecture and indigeneous inhabitants of the Riukiu (Okinawa) archipelago, the Japanese communally share the core values that form the core of their sense of cultural and national identity. Hall and Hofstede’s concepts provide a reference point for the present reflections on specific aspects of the Japanese cultural code, encompassing the sociological and psychological concepts of uchi-soto, honne-tatemae, and wa. Awareness of the role the Japanese attribute to social harmony helps sensitise the unique communicative culture of the Japanese and, under certain circumstances, to break down cultural barriers. Internalising this attitude can help a non- Japanese demonstrate proper social etiquette and maintain communicative harmony. My own experience of experiencing cultural difference in Japan from the perspective of a woman, a European, and a Polish researcher, provided a direct impetus to analyse the underlying cultural concepts that underlie Japanese communicative culture, as well as the perception of the dichotomy of Self versus the Other.

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