liberalism

Current Trends in Foreign Trade Theory and Policy

Author: Zdzisław W. Puślecki
Institution: Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań (Poland)
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 135-149
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2017209
PDF: ppsy/46-2/ppsy2017209.pdf

In this research work, Author focus on the current analysis trends in foreign trade theory and policy. Accordance with the foreign trade policy theory further trade liberalisation and improved framework policies would increase trade and promote growth. It must be emphasized that openness to trade is associated with higher incomes and growth and there is the need for new approaches to trade cooperation in light of the forces that are currently re-shaping international business. What indicates the importance and innovativeness of the research is the presentation of the new models of the foreign trade policy and trade interests. First of all, it must underline that in the new theoretical terms in demand for trade policy very important is factor specificity. The low specificity of factors means that factor returns are equalized throughout a region’s economy. On the other hand, some factors are stuck in their present uses; therefore, factor returns are not equalized throughout a region’s economy but are industry specific. The main objective of the research task is to give a comprehensive analysis of current trends in foreign trade theory and policy and in particular models of foreign trade policy, trade interests indicated by export orientation and import sensitivity, foreign trade policy in different types of authoritarian regimes, protectionist pressures in different political system, the level of protectionist pressures, the tendencies to bilateralism in the foreign trade policy. It should be stressed that free trade in itself is not responsible for economic growth, but more significant are the determining macroeconomic stability and increasing investment.

The Aristotelian Criticism of the Liberal Foundations of Modern State

Author: Marcin Gajek
Institution: Collegium Civitas in Warsaw (Poland)
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 272-287
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2016021
PDF: ppsy/45/ppsy2016021.pdf

The paper discusses some fundamental differences between Aristotelian and modern conceptions of the state. It focuses its attention on the early liberal thinkers, such as Thomas Hobbes and John Locke, and contrasts the theory of state developed by them with the classical republican ideal described by Aristotle. As I will demonstrate main differences come down to (1) distinct ideas concerning the state’s origins (and especially human motivations behind establishing the state), (2) divergent convictions about the role of the state and its ethical dimension; and finally (3) different beliefs concerning basic feelings and passions which sustain existence of political community. I argue that on the basis of Stagirite’s philosophy it is possible to question whether civic association described by the precursors of liberal political thought is actually the state. In conclusion, I signalize the problem of serious limitations of contemporary liberal democracies (or even their internal contradictions) resulting from their attempt to follow an ideal of an ideologically neutral state. 

The Myth of Autonomy: Subjectivity, Heteronomy and the Violence of Liberalism Individualism

Author: Jeffrey Stevenson Murer
Institution: University of St Andrews (United Kingdom)
Year of publication: 2010
Source: Show
Pages: 126-148
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2010007
PDF: ppsy/39/ppsy2010007.pdf

Self-actualization is often touted but rarely achieved. The Liberal frame that champions autonomy requires strict conformity: conformity to laws assured by state force, conformity to market transaction assured by privileging private property, conformity to limited collective action assured by the social atomization which comes from the construction of negative rights. This paper explores the many impediments to autonomous self-actualization within the rubric of liberalism, including the superegoistic internalizations of mores and taboos elucidated by Western-oriented psychoanalysis. It further explores the possibility that self-actualization may be more readily achieved through what Gramsci referred to as “heteronomy:” selfconsciously engaged collective social action. By examining the mechanisms of self-limitation through the dynamics of superego development, the paper posits that self-actualization may best be realized through collective articulation of ethics and morality which are constantly situational. In this, the paper takes up the Deleuzian and Guattarian propositions of simultaneous, multiplicitious identities, deterritorialized and evaluated only within the multitude of a given moment in time and space. The dynamic and contextual quality of this discursive engagement is not one of relativity, but characterized by the intersubjectivity of the participants. ! is specifi city – specifi city of interlocutors, specifi city of locality, and specifi city of time – provides for unique self-actualization, which neither reifi es nor objectifi es selves, but suggests that individuals are not essences, but subjective beings which are as dynamic as the social situations they create. Thus self-actualization cannot be achieved alone, but only within a collective discursive context. This context must be characterized as a social forum of praxis, for instrumentality or technical motivations disrupt the contributions not only of the actor guided by techne, but the contributions of the whole for disingenuousness makes intersubjectivity impossible. Collectively articulated ethics and morals cannot be adjudicated by a discursive forum which is tainted by motives of self-gain. Instrumentality of one impedes the ability of all others to self-actualize. Thus, self-actualization only comes within the context of heteronymous action. ! is paper will thus interrogate the consequences of inverting the age-old problem of public action – autonomous self-actualization is threatened by free-loading – and suggests that collective self-actualization is impeded by self-oriented, atomistic, instrumentality.

Liberalism vs. Solidarity or Freedom vs. Socialism? Conflicting and Misleading Framings of Mediated Messages in the 2005 Polish Presidential Campaign: A Political Communication Perspective

Author: Tomasz Płudowski
Institution: University of Warszawa (Poland)
Year of publication: 2006
Source: Show
Pages: 140-159
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2006011
PDF: ppsy/35/ppsy2006011.pdf

For most of September and October 2005, the Polish news media were busy covering the parliamentary and the presidential elections in that country. Beginning two weeks apart from one another, with the presidential run-off election following two weeks later, these overlapping campaigns became the most important media and political events of the year. Their conjunction was an occurrence expected to happen once in 20 years because of Poland’s five-year presidential term and a four-year parliamentary term. For the first time since 1989, the result was that the President, the upper house of the parliament (Senat) and the lower house (Sejm) of the parliament are now controlled by the same party, Law and Justice (PiS). For the first time since Solidarity swept both elections, the Polish electorate has also made a definite turn to the right, voting for a political party that supports radical change, the symbolic setting up of a Fourth Republic which will be a morally superior country in contrast to the third Republic, the independent Polish state established after the Solidarity revolution when Poland was the first country in the former Soviet Block to end communism. This essay analyzes the 2005 presidential campaign from the point of view of agenda setting theory of how political communication is framed in campaign messages, media use and media coverage.

Is Left-Wing Liberalism Possible in Poland?

Author: Danuta Plecka
Institution: University of Zielona Góra
Year of publication: 2018
Source: Show
Pages: 18-30
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2018.59.02
PDF: apsp/59/apsp5902.pdf

The liberal trend which emerged in Poland was not a doctrine deeply rooted in social awareness. Quite the opposite, its essence and meaning were alien to Polish tradition or hardly recognizable. The interpretation of the concept of freedom only in the negative sense was imposed on the public opinion by the elites. Thus, as new ideas were adopted without any reflection, the state’s function was reduced to the role of a “night watchman”, and citizens were to adapt to it. Both sides did not enter into discussion on the possible creation of the role of the state as an institution involved in the social sphere. This seems to have been the main cause of the failure of the liberals and of the values they advocated in the public space. The Polish model of liberalism was not on the path towards modernity, but – by treating values selectively – it represented the anachronistic approach to liberal ideas. Polish liberals forgot that in the second half of the 20th century, the welfare state came into being owing to the recognition of Berlin’s notion of positive freedom and his unquestioning attitude to the plurality of values. Unfortunately, these two elements did not appear (or appeared too rarely) in the liberals’ concepts, so left-wing liberalism could not develop in Poland, and its foundations in the economic sphere were taken over by political options other than liberal ones.

Aksjologiczne i ideowe fundamenty doktryn liberalnych wobec kwestii ekonomicznych

Author: Łukasz Rozen
Institution: Uniwersytet Kardynała Stefana Wyszyńskiego w Warszawie
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 27-50
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/siip201602
PDF: siip/15/siip1502.pdf

The axiological and ideological foundations of liberal doctrines to economical issues

Classical political liberalism was not related with some economic concepts, although John Locke accept right to property as the fundamental law of nature. Later liberalism began involve to economic and social issues. Utilitarian liberalism of J. Bentham and John Stuart Mill created the foundations to social justice. Evolutionary liberalism of H. Spencer affirm human egoism and rivalry as the fundamental social principles, also he was proponent minimum and limited state in political economic. And social liberalism, introducing new concept of positive freedom, was for interventionism and social policy. In XX a. J. Rawls and egalitarian liberalism also was for such economical and social concepts. For this liberalism the primate values are justice as fairness and equality. Liberal doctrines was differently to economical concepts, because they have specific and various ideas and values.

Multiculturalism and Liberal Democracy

Author: Andrzej Szahaj
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 209-220
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2016.02.15
PDF: kie/112/kie11215.pdf

The main goal of the article is to show the possible ways of thinking about the relation between multiculturalism and liberal democracy. Author of the article tries to present some troubles with reconciliation of such political culture and elements of multicultural ideology which supports rights of member of foreign (nonwestern) communities to manifest their cultural convictions freely. In his opinion that would be a little bit naïve to think that all elements of political culture connected with liberal democracy can be accepted by members of the communities in questions. That is why he articulates the thesis that some conflicts between them and people faithful to the ideas of liberal democracy are inevitable and that it cannot be found possible solution of these conflicts which can be gladly accepted by all sides. Someone will have to give up some parts of cultural heritage of a given community if we are supposed to live in peace together. Although the author of the article believes that this resignation should not be limited to only one side of the potential conflict he argues that a political culture of liberal democracy is so precious that its defenders should not abandon it for the sake of ideas of multicultural society even if this brings about some pain on the side of their interlocutors.

Studenci pedagogiki Akademii Pedagogiki Specjalnej w Warszawie i ich orientacje edukacyjne. Prezentacja wyników badań własnych

Author: Błażej Przybylski
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 192-209
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2016.03.11
PDF: kie/113/kie11311.pdf

The following article comprises the description of methodology and the presentation of the results of individual research. The aim of the realised project was recognising and characterising the educational orientations of pedagogy students. The author used the Polish adapted version of W.F. O’Neill’s questionnaire on ideological orientations to survey the educational orientations of students. The questionnaire estimates six detailed educational ideologies. This article presents the results of a survey concluded on a group of 506 students of the Maria Grzegorzewska University in Warsaw. Among students the choice of liberal educational ideology is predominant. The number of followers of radical right-wing educational ideologies is marginal.

W przededniu narodzin nowoczesnej doktryny państwa prawa? Stosunek polskich liberałów do idei rządów prawa w początkach XIX wieku

Author: Michał Gałędek
Institution: Uniwersytet Gdański
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9538-6860
Year of publication: 2021
Source: Show
Pages: 15-29
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2021.03.01
PDF: ppk/61/ppk6101.pdf

On the Eve of the Birth of the Modern Doctrine of the Legal State? The Attitude of Polish Liberals to the Idea of the Rule of Law at the Beginning of the 19th Century

The article analyzes the problem of the attitude towards the idea of the rule of law of representatives of the Polish elite at the beginning of the 19th century. The author presents the development of the idea of the rule of law in the introduction. He verifies the thesis that the ideological basis for the concept of the rule of law was the Enlightenment thought on the basis of which the liberal doctrine developed. He used it to seek an answer to the question about the characteristics of the model of government established by the Constitution of the Kingdom of Poland of 1815. The author attempted to prove that, since the Kingdom (existing until 1831) with one of the most liberal constitutions in the first half of the 19th century was in force, then this act met all the conditions required for the establishment of the rule of law according to the standards adopted in that century. These considerations conclude with remarks on the further evolution of Polish liberal thought in the 1820s. It began to differ from the liberal assumptions on which the German Rechtstaat doctrine was built. Paradoxically, Rechtstaat concept had much more in common to Polish liberalism in the earlier (proto-liberal) stage of its development in the times of the Duchy of Warsaw (1807–1815) than of the Kingdom of Poland (1815–1831).

Right-wing and left-wing populist parties as a threat to modern liberal democracies

Author: Maksym Burdiuh
Institution: National University of Kyiv
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0017-3588
Year of publication: 2021
Source: Show
Pages: 11-21
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/rop2021101
PDF: rop/15/rop1501.pdf

The article analyses modern populism as a challenge to liberal democracy in terms of the activities of right-wing and left-wing political parties. An important factor in the growth of populism is the lack of effectiveness of constitutionalism and other formal limited institutions, procedures to ensure the principles of people’s sovereignty, democracy, justice, guarantee the interests of the majority in the modern world. It is noted that populism emerged in the late 19th century as a social movement, ideology, and political activity, and since then has firmly taken its place in the political consciousness of the masses, gaining new features and intensifying at times when countries are experiencing turning points in their history. The main factors in the growth of populism include the insufficient effectiveness of the institutions of indirect democracy in modern consolidated democracies. Another reason for the rise of populism is related to the tendency of ideological deradicalization, which manifested itself in the activities of different parties. Today, populism does not have a developed fundamental theoretical background and conceptual texts like nationalism and conservatism. However, it has a holistic structure as a political phenomenon and a set of ideological positions. The goal of modern populism is the introduction of “illiberal democracy” – a government that ensures smooth transformation of people’s preferences into public policy (unlike liberal democracies, which are almost always hindered by certain obstacles to responding effectively to pressing problems). From this point of view, populism is not a threat to democracy as such, but the leading liberal version of democracy. The possibilities of constitutionalism are treated with scepticism in the populist ideology, as formal, limited institutions and procedures prevent the majority from executing their will. Liberal democracy is not strong enough and constantly needs strengthening elements in response to new challenges and threats. But liberal democracy, more than any other political form, contains the potential for development, a synergistic resource, and the power of self-correction. A strong parliament and a developed civil society remain effective counterweight to populism.

Global Governance – a Perspective on World Politics. Four Theoretical Approaches

Author: Magdalena Kozub-Karkut
Institution: Th e School of Administration in Bielsko-Biala
Year of publication: 2014
Source: Show
Pages: 22-42
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2014.44.02
PDF: apsp/44/apsp4402.pdf

The objective of this article is to demonstrate the place of the global governance concept in four international relations theories: realism, liberalism, neoliberal institutionalism and social constructivism. Global governance is defined as the sum of ways that institutions and international organizations, both public and private, use to try to cooperate at the global level in order to manage their common affairs. In addition, the paper defines global governance as being a specific perspective on world politics that offers a tool for understanding global change in an era of shifting boundaries and relocated authorities. The main research questions of the article are: how the most influential IR theories have reacted to the global governance concept and why the term ‘global governance’, so popularly and so frequently used in the 1990’s, has not resulted in a stable concept. Conclusions and suggestions presented in the summary point out that global governance held the promise of a radical transformation (predicted by almost every IR theory) of world order at the end of the Cold War. However, this great institutional transformation has never taken place. Therefore, current global politics still remain resistant to any form of world (or global) governance.

Współczesne nacjonalizmy jako przejaw paradoksu globalizacji

Author: Katarzyna Grabowska
Institution: Uniwersytet Kazimierza Wielkiego w Bydgoszczy
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5320-6518
Year of publication: 2018
Source: Show
Pages: 172-191
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/siip201809
PDF: siip/17/siip1709.pdf

Contemporary nationalisms as a manifestation of the paradox of globalization

Transformations within national and international policies influenced by globalization, cause changes in value systems and related modifications in the conditions of functioning of political entities, contributing to their evolution. This publication is an attempt to show new directions in international relations and to show certain regularities that follow periodically, determining the behavior of political participants. The starting point for the research is the indication of contemporary manifestations of nationalism, analysis of progressing globalization and the relationship that exists between them. On this basis will be indicated regularities, which influence the shaping of the structure of social support for liberal or nationalist postulates. The publication may contribute to changing the perception of the nature of globalization and understanding the reasons for the increase in support for liberalism and nationalism.

Wymiar antropologii filozoficznej w liberalnych ujęciach teorii racjonalnego wyboru

Author: Bartosz Hordecki
Institution: Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 125-157
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/tpn2017.1.08
PDF: tpn/12/TPN2017108.pdf

One of the aims of this paper was to characterize liberal theories of rational choice which emerged in XX century, especially theory of public choice. It ought to be noticed that such a task was realized many times by many authors. Due to this fact the text is devoted mostly to review the positions presented by the leading representatives of the intellectual circle mentioned above. Especially the shortages of their philosophical anthropology were pointed out. Moreover, the critique of the linguistic dimension of the rational choice theory was proposed. It was also shown that their endeavours of grounding their works in a long lasting tradition is profoundly disputable.

Edukacja liberalna we współczesnej myśli politycznej

Author: Janusz Grygieńć
Institution: Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu
Year of publication: 2013
Source: Show
Pages: 7-27
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2013.03.01
PDF: kie/96/kie9601.pdf

Liberal Education in the Contemporary Political Thought

The article is devoted to the problem of the place ascribed to liberal education (and most of all to humanities as constituting its essential part) in contemporary political thought. In times when many rightist as well as leftist thinkers diagnose a crisis of liberal democracy and its educational system, displaying much anxiety about the still-lowering level of citizens’ willingness to participate in a public sphere, some of them propose their diagnosis of such situation and postulates of reform aimed at raising the level of citizens’ engagement in democratic life. One of the means to achieving that goal is implementation of the idea of liberal education, which might work in favor of students’ character development, their acquisition of a holistic view of reality, and their consciousness of the fact of overlapping character of relations binding individual and communal wellbeing. The article aims at presenting theoretical ways of defending humanities in face of contemporary restatement of the role of liberal education in Western societies. The course of argument is following: firstly the transition made in XXth century from “liberal education” to “education to liberalism” (resulting in specialization and vocational character of science) will be traced. Then the opinions of critics to such model of education will be shown, focusing on the representatives of three political doctrines: republicanism, communitarianism and liberalism. In case of each of these group of thinkers their characteristic attitude towards humanities, will be displayed.

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