migracje

„Otwartość” państwa w warunkach kryzysu migracyjnego – przykład Polski, Czech i Niemiec. Ujęcie teoriopoznawcze

Author: Robert Wiszniowski
Institution: Uniwersytet Wrocławski
Author: Kamil Glinka
Institution: Uniwersytet Wrocławski
Year of publication: 2018
Source: Show
Pages: 216-234
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2018.58.13
PDF: apsp/58/apsp5813.pdf

Celem artykułu jest analiza zależności pomiędzy procesami migracyjnymi zachodzącymi na obszarze państwa a jego „otwartością”. Poziom „otwartości” zostaje zdeterminowany, w zaproponowanym ujęciu, ściśle określonym układem relacji zachodzących na linii religia – społeczeństwo – państwo, które prowadzą do ukształtowania jednego z trzech porządków: asymetrycznego (Polska), pozasymetrycznego (Czechy) i symetrycznego (Niemcy). Zestawienie oraz porównanie trzech sąsiadujących ze sobą krajów członkowskich Unii Europejskiej (metoda komparatystyczna i systemowa) pozwala na uchwycenie i potwierdzenie obustronnych zależności. Pokazuje, że skala i dynamika procesów migracyjnych staje się predyktorem „otwartości” współczesnych systemów demokratycznych. Zdecydowanie najwyższym poziomem tak definiowanej „otwartości” cechują się Niemcy, będące, z jednej strony, przykładem symetrycznego układu relacji religia – społeczeństwo –państwo, a z drugiej, architektem europejskiej polityki wobec masowych ruchów ludności z Bliskiego Wschodu i Afryki Północnej.

Kategoria różnicy kulturowej w społeczeństwie otwartym. Konteksty i kontrowersje

Author: Jarema Drozdowicz
Institution: Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu
Year of publication: 2019
Source: Show
Pages: 55-65
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/em.2019.01.03
PDF: em/10/em1003.pdf

Podjęte w opracowaniu rozważania dostarczają zbornej rekonstrukcji najważniejszych właściwości kategorii różnicy kulturowej w specyficznym kontekście społecznym. Kontekst ten zostaje tu przywołany w odniesieniu do modelu społeczeństwa otwartego. Naczelna teza niniejszego tekstu zawiera się w założeniu mówiącym, że kulturowa odmienność stanowi społeczną konstrukcję zbudowaną ze specyficznych reprezentacji Inności w danych dyskursach narodowych. Narzędziem, na którym opiera się to założenie, jest ukazanie najważniejszych kwestii związanych z pojęciami kluczowymi, takimi jak wielokulturowość, migracje i rosnący poziom heterogeniczności kulturowej uwidaczniającej się w różnych sferach życia publicznego.

„Obywatele sowieccy” w województwie poznańskim w latach 1945–1949

Author: Krzysztof Stryjkowski
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9740-8816
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 112-134
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/hso200107
PDF: hso/24/hso2407.pdf
License: This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license CC BY-NC-ND 4.0.

“Soviet citizens” in Poznań region in 1945–1949

The article discusses the fate of individuals of interest of the Soviet authorities and deemed the USSR citizens. Some of them were forced labourers on their way back home from Germany and the occupied countries. A large part of them were inhabitants of Wielkopolska who used to have Russian or Soviet citizenship. The article presents treatment thereof in Wielkopolska in 1945-1949.

Problem wielokulturowości i kryzysu migracyjnego we współczesnym kinie europejskim

Author: Ewelina Konieczna
Institution: Uniwersytet Śląski w Katowicach
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8042-3956
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 26-37
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2020.01.02
PDF: kie/127/kie12702.pdf

The purpose of the reflections in the article is an attempt to find an answer to the question of whether and how films speaking about the topic of multiculturalism could serve intercultural education and communication, upbringing towards tolerance, preventing racism, prejudice, and negative stereotypes. More and more often, modern cinema audience experiences multiculturalism and is encouraged to reflection about mutual acceptance and tolerance of cultural diversity. Presenting in films ethnical and racial minorities is connected with reflection on migratory movements and the issues of multicultural societies. According to the adopted assumption, films on this subject can support the process of communication and intercultural education.

Migracje jako skutek tożsamości etnicznej w regionie Wielkich Jezior Afrykańskich

Author: Wioleta Gierszewska
Institution: Uniwersytet Gdański
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5024-9379
Year of publication: 2019
Source: Show
Pages: 187-198
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/cip201914
PDF: cip/17/cip1714.pdf

Celem artykułu jest wyjaśnienie problemu migracji jako konsekwencji manipulacji tożsamością etniczną w regionie Wielkich Jezior Afrykańskich. Teza artykułu opiera się na założeniu, że migracje stanowią w dużej mierze skutek tożsamości etnicznej. Problem badawczy, choć nie należy do najnowszych, nadal jest aktualny, czego dowodzą liczne konflikty na tle tożsamościowym w tej części Afryki.

Podróże edukacyjne dziewcząt w Galicji w XIX i XX w.- studium przypadku rodziny Załuskich

Author: Małgorzata Gumper
Institution: Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4715-0447
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 68-86
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/hso200304
PDF: hso/26/hso2604.pdf
License: This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license CC BY-NC-ND 4.0.

Educational trips made by girls in Galicia, Eastern Europe, in the 19th and 20th centuries – a case study of the Załuski family

The article shows the changes in the education of girls from magnate families in Galicia in the 19th century. The memories of didactic travels of the women from the Załuski family were analyzed. Studies shows how young ladies learned under the tutelage of governess.

Ku globalnemu paradygmatowi współistnienia kultur w warunkach ustawicznych migracji

Author: Jerzy Nikitorowicz
Institution: Uniwersytet w Białymstoku
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4371-8322
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 17-31
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2020.03.02
PDF: kie/129/kie12902.pdf

The author assumes that the problem of migration is inscribed in the development of man and cultures. Treating inherited culture as an inalienable value, the basis for awareness and creation of the paradigm of the coexistence of cultures. Author points to the currently dominant principles of global politics. Points out that people belonging to the same global civilization should actively participate in the process of creating a global paradigm of the coexistence of cultures by planning and undertaking educational activities supporting the adaptation processes, shaping awareness of borderland functioning and related intercultural competences. The final effect in the proposed model is a balanced identity system that the Author perceives and analyzes in three areas (inherited, individually shaped and socially realized), in three time periods (past, present, anticipated future) and many dimensions of individual identity (biological, psychological, economic, cultural, intellectual, existential, etc.) and also many dimensions of socio-cultural identity (family, parish, local, regional, religious, ethnic, national, state, continental, global).

Diagnostyka psychopedagogiczna problemów przystosowawczych i(e)migrantów o charakterze transkulturowym

Author: Marta Guziuk-Tkacz
Institution: Uniwersytet Warmińsko-Mazurski w Olsztynie
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3829-6025
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 76-93
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2020.03.05
PDF: kie/129/kie12905.pdf

The article presents a proposal of the psycho-pedagogical transcultural diagnosis model of migrant’s problems. A ground to this type of models and procedures, based on the main assumptions of contemporary theories of transculturalism, creates a consequence of the fact, that it is one of the most significant characteristics of our times, as well as the fact that the transculturation process among this social group is currently a very dynamic one. In the model presented hereby (due to the practical and innovative nature of pedagogy and in response to the need of diagnostic models and procedures modification postulated by migration experts) the specificity of progress and blockades symptoms of immigrants’ adaptation were also taken into account - with regard to phases of adaptation and integration processes in the social, psychological, didactic, care and educational spheres.

Małżeństwa mieszane w przestrzeni społecznej - przegląd aktualnych doniesień

Author: Alicja Hruzd-Matuszczyk
Institution: Uniwersytet Śląski w Katowicach
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7731-7979
Year of publication: 2021
Source: Show
Pages: 311-325
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/em.2021.02.17
PDF: em/15/em1517.pdf

Atrakcyjność i aktualność badań prowadzonych wokół życia rodzinnego związana jest z dynamicznymi przemianami społeczno-kulturowymi, gospodarczymi, a także politycznymi zachodzącymi w skali globalnej. Nie bez znaczenia dla funkcjonowania rodziny i jej członków jest również sytuacja światowej pandemii, która znacząco wpłynęła na strukturę rodziny oraz potrzeby i wartości cenione przez jej członków. Żywotność tematu skłania do refleksji nad kondycją współczesnej rodziny i rodzi potrzebę poznania skutków oddziaływań zewnętrznych na jej kształt i środowisko wewnętrzne. W zaprezentowanym opracowaniu podejmuję rozważania wokół problematyki rodziny, interesują mnie przede wszystkim małżeństwa mieszane, które stają się coraz bardziej widoczne, nie tylko w statystykach zawieranych małżeństw, a przede wszystkim w życiu społecznym. Zawiązywanie małżeństw mieszanych znajduje swoje uzasadnienie w zwiększonej mobilności społecznej, pozbawieniu barier świata komunikacji interpersonalnej (powszechne wykorzystanie nowoczesnych technologii w życiu zawodowym oraz osobistym), może również wynikać z indywidualnych potrzeb i preferencji osób zawierających takie związki małżeńskie. Małżeństwo mieszane samo w sobie może być wartością, jednak fakt bycia w takim związku może stanowić swego rodzaju balast. Zaprezentowane opracowanie jest próbą uchwycenia pewnych tendencji zachodzących w doświadczeniach życia społecznego przez małżeństwa mieszane. W artykule wyróżniam trzy części, w których kolejno wprowadzam w problematykę życia rodzinnego i funkcjonowania małżeństw mieszanych, następnie analizuję dane i materiały, nakreślając pewne tendencje odnoszące się do różnych aspektów życia rodzinnego i życia w społeczeństwie. Opracowanie kończę podsumowaniem i wskazaniem wniosków.

Polityka migracyjna Republiki Włoskiej

Author: Marek Podraza
Institution: Uniwersytet Rzeszowski
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2889-1277
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 215-231
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2022.01.16
PDF: ppk/65/ppk6516.pdf

Italian Migration Policy

Italy, due to it is geographical location, is extremely exposed to migratory movements. Over the past few decades, the Republic has undergone a far-reaching transformation from sending to receiving country. A country in which a migration policy practically did not exist had to build it from scratch quite quickly, which was associated with many of its disadvantages, reformed over time. A breakthrough moment was the migration crisis initiated in 2011 and caused by the Arab Spring in North Africa. It was a real test not only for the Italian migration policy, but in retrospect also for the entire European Union, where, unfortunately, there was no enough solidarity.

Polityka migracyjna Polski wobec europejskiego kryzysu migracyjnego

Author: Grzegorz Tutak
Institution: Uniwersytet Lubelski Jana Pawła II w Lublinie
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4705-0446
Year of publication: 2018
Source: Show
Pages: 460-484
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/siip201823
PDF: siip/17/siip1723.pdf

Migration policy of Poland towards European migration crisis

The state policy is a derivative of many factors, both internal and external. It is implemented through appropriate activities in various fields of its functioning. From 2015, there has been a revival of the debate over migration issues that are the result of the humanitarian crisis that Europe has been struggling with. According to data from the International Organization for Migration, the number of people seeking a refuge or a better life in Europe has increased fourfold in one year. This situation has forced action by the European Union and individual states aimed at limiting the scale of illegal immigration. The aim of the article is to analyze Poland’s migration policy in the context of actions taken by EU institutions. The first part of the work contains theoretical considerations regarding migration policy. In the second one, the author presented attempts to solve the migration crisis by the European Union together with the attitudes of Polish governments towards immigrants and the issue of their relocation. The article presents the changes that have been made in the Polish legal and institutional system. The undertaken analysis indicates that in the migration policy, which is largely reactionary in nature, the chief value is safety.

Problemy demograficzne Polski

Author: Adam Gwiazda
Institution: Uniwersytet Kazimierza Wielkiego w Bydgoszczy
Year of publication: 2015
Source: Show
Pages: 372-390
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/siip201520
PDF: siip/14/siip1420.pdf

Demographic problems of Poland

This paper analyses and discusses the basic demographic problems of Poland in the recent years. The decreasing number of Poles is the result of a rapid decline in the total fertility rate of Polish women and the emigration of mostly young people to West European and other countries in search of work and better conditions for living Those highly negative phenomena accelerate the process of ageing of Poland’s population which has the grave consequences to further socio-economic development of this country. Some solutions of those problems were discussed and assessed in the second part of this paper with special emphasis on the recent demographic policy carried out in Poland.

Uwarunkowania i konsekwencje migracji zarobkowych z Polski do innych państw Unii Europejskiej w perspektywie społeczno-ekonomicznej

Author: Michał Kubiak
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 132-149
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/cip201610
PDF: cip/14/cip1410.pdf

Determinants and consequences of migrations from Poland to other European Union Countries in socio-economic view

The subject of this article is the question of the social consequences of economic migration. Migrant workers contribute to growth and development in their countries but in the long term perspective mass migrations of citizens abroad may cause serious social crisis. Migrations are a serious threat to family policy, employment policy and social security of citizens. Migration strategy the state should find a solution which on the one hand will make use of the gains offered by the free movement of persons on the other hand will stop the negative social effects of migration.

Młoda polska emigracja do Holandii

Author: Joanna Leska-Ślęzak
Author: Jarosław Ślęzak
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 174-182
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/cip201613
PDF: cip/14/cip1413.pdf

Young Polish migration to the Netherlands

Life of Polish community abroad is hard to define, due to globalization and another process, which are creating the culture and civilization reality. Polish immigrants in the Netherlands are the representatives of specific migration waves. Young Polish emigration come to the Netherlands thanks to job agencies. Polish immigrants works in agriculture, architecture or they are self-employed. In Dutch people opinion Polish immigrants are considered to be drinkers, bad drivers, people, who don’t speak Dutch. 30% of Dutch society have skeptic view of Polish immigrants. In 2014 28% of European citizens are Polish.

Postawy antyuchodźcze uczestników social mediów a cele edukacji międzykulturowej

Author: Ewa Kozik
Institution: Uniwersytet Śląski w Katowicach
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1129-0536
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 28-40
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/em.2023.02.02
PDF: em/21/em2102.pdf

Anti-refugee attitudes of social media participants and the goals of intercultural education

The purpose of this article is to present anti-refugee attitudes observed on the Internet which show the influence of virtual space on the formation of opinions on refugees. The data collected during the ethnographic research in the period 2015–2019 concern attitudes, behaviors and narratives negating the reception of refugees from the Middle East and North Africa, as well as the grassroots criticism of Internet users against sheltering refugees in the Polish territories. Social media were shown as a tool for expressing public opposition to the prospect of accepting refugees into Poland. Among the data, there were contents that comprised an indirect or direct negation of the goals of intercultural education. An analysis was conducted of the content posted on the Facebook platform on the website “No to the Islamization of Europe”, the functioning of which focuses on informing and commenting on the events related to the “migration crisis”. The research material includes the data from 2018 – a period when the attention of the creators of this medium focused on the potentially negative consequences of accepting refugees into Europe. The conclusions of the research justify and explain the need for the goals of cultural education, which is shown here as a way to counteract stereotypes.

Nomadowie w przestrzeni mongolskiej

Author: Marian Tadeusz Mencel
Year of publication: 2015
Source: Show
Pages: 174-192
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/cip201513
PDF: cip/13/cip1313.pdf

Nomads in Mongolian space

Since the down of time, the Mongolian space has been fulfilled with the nomadic people activity, the reality of whom was generally focused on breeding pigs and the nomadic activity of many tribes. Boundaries of their expansion were set by natural conditions and, to much extent, Chinese agriculture that was better developed. Cultural differences and the internal market that was limited to products of animal origin, forced nomads to trade with Chinese settled farmers. Self-assessment of their own higher culture resulted in frequent acts of aggression that mainly aimed at seizing craft products of the settled people by force. It was also an attempt to politically subordinate them and impose tributary relations upon them. China – a country with huge territorial range – was undertaking fight to protect its peripheral population, generally without taking any military activities against nomads outside the territory of its own country, the borders of which has never been recognized by nomads as lines indicating the range of their own activity. These groups of nomads that managed to establish their own bodies that had characteristic of a country and that were able to influence the northern regions of China more strongly, were split as a result of the reaction of China and in times of their weakness, they underwent the process of assimilation or/and sinicization by taking over a model of socio-political organization of the much more developed Chinese civilization.

Mobilność młodych dorosłych z krajów Europy Środkowo-Wschodniej – polsko-czesko-słowacko-ukraińskie studium porównawcze

Author: Anna Szafrańska
Institution: Uniwersytet Śląski w Katowicach
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9797-2591
Year of publication: 2024
Source: Show
Pages: 91-103
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/em.2024.01.06
PDF: em/24/em2406.pdf

Mobility of young adults from Central and Eastern European countries – a Polish-Czech-Slovak-Ukrainian comparative study

The young generation is treated as the future of society. This generation’s size, skills and knowledge, as well as economic activity, socio-cultural involvement, marital intentions and family (procreation) plans determine the quality of society. Thus, an important issue is the outflow of young people who decide to migrate abroad. It is therefore important to recognize both the current experiences and the life plans of the young generation in this field. In post-communist countries, the fall of the communist system had a major impact on the increase in mobility. Political, sociocultural and economic changes have contributed to the emergence of new migration-related phenomena and the so-called fluid migration, characterized by free movement of labour, massiveness, diversity and plasticity. The surveyed youth from Poland, the Czech Republic and Slovakia have experiences related to functioning within open borders, unlike the youth from Ukraine, where the borders are closed. Wioletta Danilewicz notices the existence of the so-called migration culture, i.e. the acceptance (by the participants of migration processes) that these are phenomena constituting an inherent element of their lives, despite their awareness of the unfavourable co-occurring elements. The research results presented in the text indicate that the surveyed young adults do not fully follow this trend.

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