Migrant Children and Youth “On the Move”: Between the Legacy of the Past and Challenges of the Future

Author: Urszula Markowska-Manista
Institution: University of Warsaw
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0667-4164
Author: Krzysztof Sawicki
Institution: University of Bialystok
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8192-9975
Year of publication: 2019
Source: Show
Pages: 9-23
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2019.02.01
PDF: kie/124/kie12401.pdf

The paper presents thematic analyses relating to migration processes, situated between the Legacy of the Past and Challenges of the Future. The authors focus on a complex migration process referring to key factors that characterise it as well as dominant concepts in host societies: segregation and integration. The theoretical considerations undertaken in the text are primarily oriented towards presenting the diverse situation of Migrant Children and Youth “On the Move” as a category of the young generation affected by migration processes. The text is an attempt to reflect on the functioning of migrant backgrounds in the context of children’s and adolescents’ integration with the new place of residence. Particular attention was drawn to fragile areas generating distance, social exclusion and consequently hindering the process of integration.

Filmowe spotkania z Innym jako forma dialogu międzykulturowego

Author: Ewelina Konieczna
Institution: Uniwersytet Śląski w Katowicach
Year of publication: 2019
Source: Show
Pages: 291-302
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/em.2019.02.20
PDF: em/11/em1120.pdf

Przedmiotem rozważań zawartych w artykule są wybrane obszary kultury filmowej skupiające się na problematyce Innego. Refleksja nad rolą filmu w spotkaniu z Innym stanowi próbę znalezienia odpowiedzi na pytanie, jak i w jakim celu wybrane filmy dokumentalne i fabularne ukazują Innego. Twórcy filmowi coraz częściej poruszają tematykę dotyczącą wielokulturowości, odmienności etnicznych czy kryzysu migracyjnego. W obliczu narastających problemów dotyczących braku tolerancji, szacunku czy wrogości wobec Innego film może być pomocny w kształtowaniu postaw otwartości na inność, opartych na uniwersalnych wartościach, na szacunku do różnorodności kulturowej i etnicznej. Filmy stanowią medium umożliwiające spotkanie z drugą osobą (Innym), pozwalają na prezentację i wymianę rozmaitych wartości i perspektyw. Filmowcy nie proponują systemowych rozwiązań, ale wykorzystują kamerę jako jedno z narzędzi zmiany; przez ilustrację konkretnego problemu starają się budować poczucie sprawiedliwości i odpowiedzialności za Innego.

Dzieci migrantów w polskim systemie edukacji. Problemy w diagnozowaniu i organizowaniu pomocy psychologiczno-pedagogicznej

Author: Barbara Ostafińska-Molik
Institution: Uniwersytet Jagielloński w Krakowie
ORCID: https://orcid.org/ 0000-0001-5093-3069
Author: Joanna Olszewska-Gniadek
Institution: Uniwersytet Jagielloński w Krakowie
ORCID: https://orcid.org/ 0000-0002-3853-6615
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 135-153
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2020.03.08
PDF: kie/129/kie12908.pdf

The article draws attention to the difficulties in functioning as a pupil and peer of children of other cultures (migrants) who have to find themselves in a new educational and social reality after coming to Poland. There will be special analysis made of migrant children (of other nationalities), who mainly face language competence deficits and, consequently, adaptation and educational problems. The educational system has to more often face the new challenges of teaching and bringing up multicultural students (belonging to different national, ethnic, linguistic, and religious). For them, Polish is usually a foreign language that significantly influences the quality of their social contacts and educational achievements. Language proficiency is therefore crucial for school success and integration. One of these challenges is to accurately and reliably identify the needs of students with multiple difficulties at different levels of education to organize effective psychological and pedagogical assistance. The article draws attention to the key elements of the diagnostic process which include: a diagnostician, a child, a parent (subjects in the research relationship), and research methods and tools (subjects). The issue of limitations of the process of diagnosing specific learning and social difficulties becomes particularly important here, as well as identification of barriers resulting from the search for effective assistance solutions.

Mass Migration as a Hybrid Threat? – A Legal Perspective

Author: Sascha-Dominik Dov Bachmann
Institution: Canberra Law School (Australia)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8742-0766
Author: Anthony Paphiti
Institution: Former officer with the UK Army Legal Services (United Kingdom)
Published online: 30 June 2021
Final submission: 16 June 2021
Printed issue: December 2021
Source: Show
Page no: 27
Pages: 119-145
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy202122
PDF: ppsy/50/ppsy202122.pdf

Migration as a weapon sounds like a policy statement by resurgent nationalistic parties (and governments) in the West. However, politics and the human cost aside, what if an adversary (both state and non-state actor) does exploit the current global crisis of mass migration due to globalization, war, and political unrest? This article will look at the ongoing mass migration to the European Union within the wider security context of the so-called hybrid threats and/or ‘grey zone’ tactics. It looks at the various legal categories of migration as how the law can be weaponized as so-called ‘lawfare’ to undermine the existing legal frameworks distinguishing between legal and illegal migration. The authors recognize the possibility that this article will be used as an argument by the political actors involved for their nationalistic and anti-migration politics and policies. Yet, we believe that the potential of abusing the current vacuum for political gains along ideological party lines makes it necessary to provide a wider legal-security focused perspective on mass migration.

Długa droga do wolności - problemy adaptacyjne północnokoreańskich uciekinierów w Korei Południowej

Author: Natalia Matiaszczyk
Institution: Uniwersytet Łódzki
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1310-0732
Year of publication: 2021
Source: Show
Pages: 145-163
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20212907
PDF: npw/29/npw2907.pdf

The long way to freedom - adaptation problems of North Korean defectors in South Korea

Although South Korea and North Korea have shared a common national and cultural heritage for thousands of years, they have become de facto stranger to each other in the last few decades. They differ not only in a different political and economic system, but also in the mentality and lifestyle of ordinary citizens, and in language. Since the 1990s, the number of North Korean defectors has increased. Those who decide to escape to South Korea encounter many problems in their new homeland. The aims of this article is to present the main adaptation problems faced by North Korean defectors, such as trauma, discrimination and problems with assimilation in South Korean society. There are also shown the examples of how to overcome or reduce them, as well as what support from the South Korean authorities looks like.

Migracja zarobkowa z Azji Centralnej do Rosji w dobie pandemii COVID-19

Author: Andrzej Stopczyński
Institution: Uniwersytet Łódzki
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9795-725X
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 90-108
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223305
PDF: npw/33/npw3305.pdf

Labor migration from Central Asia to Russia during the COVID-19 pandemic

Like most countries in the world, the Russian Federation has also been struggling with the coronavirus pandemic that causes the COVID-19 disease since the beginning of 2020. The pandemic has harmed many areas of life in Russia, including social, demographic and economic issues. The changes also affected the labor market, which to a large extent is shaped by economic migrants from Central Asia. The situation of the economic migrants themselves has also changed significantly. Many of them lost their jobs, especially in the first half of 2020. Due to sanitary restrictions and the closure of borders, the number of Central Asian residents who decided to leave for Russia has significantly decreased. Experts emphasize that economic migrants make a significant contribution to the development of the Russian economy and the economies of Central Asian countries. This article aims to present how the Covid-19 pandemic influenced the shape of economic migration from Central Asia to Russia in the context of changing employment conditions and the socio-economic situation, both in Russia and the countries of the region.

The Criminality of Foreign Nationals in Switzerland as a Security Threat in the Context of Swiss Migration Policy

Author: Paweł Olbrycht
Institution: General Tadeusz Kościuszko Military University of Land Forces (Poland)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8362-5644
Published online: 30 December 2022
Final submission: 5 December 2022
Printed issue: 2023
Source: Show
Page no: 16
Pages: 181-196
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy202269
PDF: ppsy/51/ppsy202269.pdf

The purpose of the research was to investigate the scale of crime by foreign nationals in Switzerland in the context of the effectiveness of the assumptions of the migration policy of that state in the area of security. Materials and methods: The research uses literature sources and statistical data on the crime of foreign nationals in Switzerland and its migration policy. The author used qualitative research methods, including the query of literature and strategic documents (using the content analysis technique) and the analysis of statistical data (using the desk research technique). Results: In the context of the three analysed factors, the following trends can be observed: steadily declining crime in Switzerland; the relatively constant level of crime by foreign nationals, especially since 2018; constant, although relatively mildly growing, percentage of foreign nationals’ crime in the overall crime scale. Conclusions: In the context of the assessment of the effectiveness of the implementation of the assumptions of Switzerland’s migration policy in the area of security, it should be noted that the relatively constant level of the crime rate of foreign nationals, despite their constantly growing population, proves the optimality of these assumptions and their highly effective implementation.

Dimensions of Populist Networked Communication about Migrants

Author: Grażyna Piechota
Institution: Andrzej Frycz Modrzewski Cracow University
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 208-224
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2022.75.12
PDF: apsp/75/apsp7512.pdf

The aim of the article is to analyze how the German party Alternative für Deutschland (AfD), defined as right-wing and populist, positions the issues of migrants in virtual communication. The conducted research (content analysis) encompassed posts published by the party in 2020 on Facebook. The results of the research revealed that migrants appeared in AfD messages in two contexts. They were presented as a source of various threats and their presence in Germany being the result of wrong political decisions. The affective dimension of communication is associated with emphasizing the risk related to crime and threats to the German national identity and cultural values that bind the community together. The political dimension, on the other hand, focuses on the criticism of the government, which, in the AfD’s opinion, has taken poor decisions, which resulted in an uncontrolled influx of migrants.

Forced Migration from Ukraine during the Russian-Ukrainian War: impact on the EU and Ukraine

Author: Alla Atamanenko
Institution: National University of Ostroh Academy
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4940-1625
Author: Mariia Avhustiuk
Institution: National University of Ostroh Academy
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9510-5715
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 38-59
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20233802
PDF: npw/38/npw3802.pdf

The full-scale invasion of Russia into Ukraine on February 24, 2022, which was accompanied by the violation of humanitarian law and the demolition of civilian infrastructure, has led to the emergence of forced migration. Millions of people left the country within a short period. On March 4, the EU Temporary Protection Directive was reactivated in response to the unprecedented flow of migrants from Ukraine. EU countries have opened their borders to migrants from Ukraine, providing them with shelter and assistance. Poland and its neighbouring states, such as Romania, Moldova, Hungary, as well as the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Germany, Austria, received the highest quantity of migrants. The wave of migration has had a noticeable influence on the functioning of labour markets and employment, even in those regions of Ukraine which have not been exposed to military activity. Comprehensive studies show that external migration, among other factors, will significantly affect the demographic situation in Ukraine due to the increase in the number of people who do not plan to return from abroad. A key factor in the crisis is the fact that the majority of these people is youth of employable age and children. Besides, educational migration from Ukraine to EU countries has also increased significantly. The influx of immigrants who have established themselves in the nations of the European Union have significantly impacted the labour markets of these countries, putting a considerable strain on the public funds of the host countries. The question of Ukrainian immigrants’ ability to engage in activities such as schooling (including access to educational opportunities for children), employment, residence, and healthcare in both the immediate and long-term future is coming to the fore. Ukrainian and international scholars alike have done numerous studies on external migration from Ukraine; nonetheless, the forced migration resulting from the full-scale military invasion of Ukraine has yet to be adequately examined. Subsequently, the article is intended to examine the displacement circumstances in Ukraine and the EU and to evaluate the consequence of compulsory external migration in Ukraine and the EU.

Internally Displaced Persons in Ukraine: Socio-Economic Situation and Educational, Cultural Challenges

Author: Olga Horpynych
Institution: State University of Trade and Economics, Ukraine
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6101-4612
Author: Nikita Omelchenko
Institution: State University of Trade and Economics, Ukraine
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0009-0000-9033-3586
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 61-69
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/CPLS.2023406
PDF: cpls/8/cpls806.pdf

The article examines a new social group in Ukrainian society that emerged after the events of 2014, related to the aggressive actions of the Russian Federation against Ukraine and the annexation of Crimea. This social group became even larger after Russia’s criminal full-scale invasion of the territory of sovereign Ukraine. Internally displaced people have become the face of the crisis of social, economic and psychological stresses that modern society has faced against the backdrop of war. The authors examine the main issues faced by internally displaced persons, drawing attention to the fact that the indicators of this category are increasingly changing the structure of Ukrainian society. The article defines the category of IDPs, focuses on the consideration of IDPs as two instances: a special social status that is a determinant of behavior/socio-cultural determination and creation of their own conditions in the socio-economic situation, or a special social group that has received legal shelter with the help of the authorities according to the established status.

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