opinion

Challenges of Fight Against Terrorism with Reference to the Last Amendment of the New Hungarian Criminal Code

Author: Robert Bartko
Institution: University of Győr (Hungary)
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 315-327
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2017120
PDF: ppsy/46-1/ppsy2017120.pdf

During the codification of the new Hungarian Criminal Code, the Hungarian Legislator passed amendment of several criminal offences. Among other criminal offences, this rethinking concerned the regulation of acts of terrorism. The number of terrorist offences relating to illegal migration has increased in the past few years in the territory of the European Union, therefore the attitude of the Member States – including Hungary, as well – has changed with reference to the statutory definition of the acts of terrorism. The connection between irregular border crossings and terrorism was recognized by the European Union. Terrorist offences have proved the vulnerability of the European Union and the democratic, rule-of-law States. Furthermore, the last few years have also clearly proved that Europe cannot cope with the influx of refugees set out for the Western Europe from various parts of the world. In this respect, illegal migration cannot be only a tool, but also a catalyst for terrorist offences. It means that case conflicts and violent affairs are caused by the migration, and the illegal entry and the integration of terrorists are supported by migratory networks at the same time. In 2015 and 2016, the European Union experienced a massive number of casualties caused by terrorist attacks. The most affected Member State was France. It had to cope with attacks which caused 148 citizens’ death and more than 350 people injured only in January and November 2015 (TE-SAT 2016, p. 5.). For the abovementioned recognition, many regulations (included but not limited to the Fundamental Law of Hungary, the Hungarian Criminal Code and the Act on Criminal Procedure) were passed in 2016 by the Hungarian legislator in order to stop illegal migration and to strengthen the fight against the new forms of terrorism. In the context of the present paper, the Act LXIX of 2016, which came into force on 17 July 2016, is of importance. Not only the General Part, but also the Special Part of the Hungarian Criminal Code was amended by the above Act. However, many new rules may be challenged from the perspective of the rule of law and the European commitments of Hungary. The aim of the paper is to describe the new regulations regarding the Hungarian statutory definition of acts of terrorism, and to analyse them within the Hungarian criminal legal frame and the abovementioned European requirements. Therefore, the characteristic of the paper will be the analytical method with the aim of creating de lege ferenda proposals for the Hungarian legislator, as well. In our paper, we are going to deal with the new European directive, as well, which will replace the Council Framework Decision 2002/475/JHA and will amend the Council Decision 2005/671/JHA from 20 April 2017. 

International Law and the Nagorno–Karabakh War: Opinion on Political Aspects

Author: Sadir Surkhay Mammadov
Institution: Baku Slavic University (Azerbaijan)
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 385-390
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2016028
PDF: ppsy/45/ppsy2016028.pdf

The opinion report considers relations between international norms, Azerbaijan’s national legal system and political understandings of the Nagorno–Karabakh conflict. It discusses classification of Armenian actions in a context of the international law’s development and an impact of international regulations on national criminal codes. Therefore, it presents the Azerbaijani perspective on major political aspects of the Nagorno–Karabakh War and international response to Armenian occupation of Azerbaijan’s territories. Moreover, it evaluates Armenian actions in the region with reference to the definition of genocide and international policy of its prevention. In general, the opinion report shows how the Azerbaijani society understands the conflict and how it may be classified on the basis of the Soviet law (as acts of terror has started in the late 1980s), the international law and the contemporary Criminal Code of the Republic of Azerbaijan. As a result, it is not only a report that introduces the Azerbaijan’s perspective on the issue, but it can also be recognised as an interesting source to understand how the Azerbaijani people label actions of their neighbouring nation. 

The New Journalism: an Attempt at the Model Reconstruction

Author: Iwona Hofman
Institution: Maria Curie–Skłodowska University in Lublin (Poland)
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 391-398
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2016029
PDF: ppsy/45/ppsy2016029.pdf

An attempt at reconstruction of the New Journalism model results from the observation of the crisis symptoms of journalism as a profession and mission (social responsibility). On the grounds of journalists’ and theoreticians’ statements, it is possible to establish a hierarchy of values of the serious journalism, which a social demand is growing for. The New Journalism is most frequently described as the conscious journalism, which provides spectrum of needs and views of recipients. This type of journalism is committed, independent, functioning in the public sphere, credible, realizing educational role. These attributes pertain to journalism. The paper includes standpoints, for example, of S. Michalczyk, B. Hennessy, P. Mancini, S. Russ–Mohl, S. Bratkowski, R. Kapuściński. 

The Political Leadership Section of the Polish Political Science Association: Origins and Activity

Author: Maciej Hartliński
Institution: University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn (Poland)
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 399-403
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2016030
PDF: ppsy/45/ppsy2016030.pdf

One of the most important aspects of academic life is cooperation between researchers from different centres. Different levels of experience, approaches and paradigms enable researchers to observe the complete image of categories. The Political Leadership Section of the Polish Political Science Association has been formed during the Second Nationwide Congress of Political Science in Poznań (2012). The Association’s Board has established it on February 7, 2013. Since that day the section integrates scholars from different universities interested in issues of political leadership, it supports development of this research field in Poland, it collects published monographs, editions and papers relevant to this field and it coordinates development of teaching standards in education on political leadership. The section’s activity and its role in Polish academic community proves that this topic has become a significant aspect of social sciences in the country. 

Znaczenie opinii biegłego z zakresu informatyki w postępowaniu cywilnym

Author: Zuzanna Miazga
Institution: Uniwersytet Humanistycznospołeczny SWPS w Warszawie
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 245-262
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/tpn2017.1.13
PDF: tpn/12/TPN2017113.pdf

In civil proceedings, experts are appointed representing different scientific areas offering wide-ranging expertise on issues requiring expert opinion. This article aims to describe the role and importance of experts in the informatics area who are appointed in civil proceedings. The contribution of expert opinions in informatics has been defined on the basis of their practical use in judicial proceedings under the rules of civil procedure. The importance of an informatics expert opinion can be seen only through the analysis of case-studies. It is possible to see on the basis of the analysis of selected rulings in which cases the courts considered it necessary to appoint an expert in informatics, and in which situations the court considered it as unjustified. The considerations elaborated upon in this article relate mainly to the type of specific information required from court experts in informatics including the purpose for which the parties requested the appointment of an expert together with the influence of the expert opinion on the content of a court ruling. Despite a limited number of years so far in appointing court experts in informatics, in line with the continued developments in technology, their contribution in civil proceedings has been growing steadily. Judges can use opinions made in this area in many cases which are drawn from a very broad range of legal and factual bases. There are more and more cases which require the involvement of court experts in informatics. The subject matter investigated by a court expert in informatics is constantly evolving and broadening in scope. It may be assumed that over time court experts in informatics will be among the most frequently appointed experts to prepare opinions in court proceedings.

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