pandemic

  • Possibility of Implementing the Concept of the Intermarium in the Context of Militant Democracy in Poland During and After the Coronavirus Pandemic

    Author: Kamila Rezmer-Płotka
    E-mail: kamila.rezmer@onet.pl
    Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University, Poland
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1458-5076
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 96-110
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2020306
    PDF: ppsy/49-3/ppsy2020306.pdf

    Intermarium is one of the most important Polish geopolitical concepts. This article considers it within the category of militant democracy. It allows to explore the process of militant democracy, that is, introducing restrictions by legal means. Most restrictions have recently been introduced due to a coronavirus pandemic. Therefore, the article undertakes to examine the potential for implementation of the concept of the Intermarium during the pandemic and shortly after its end. The study uses a qualitative analysis of sources. Indicators relevant to the study of the process of militant democracy were distinguished based on the body of literature. Results: The traditional concept of the Intermarium erodes due to natural causes. Currently, Poland is more inclined to the concept of the Three Seas. In addition, in the face of the analysis that was carried out, it seems that in a pandemic situation we are observing the end of the paradigm of liberal democracy in this case.

  • Limitation of Human Rights During the Crisis Events in Ukraine: Lessons and Outlooks

    Author: Iryna Symonova
    E-mail: simohova02@gmail.com
    Institution: Yaroslav Mudryi National Law University
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1771-0511
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 67-82
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ksm20200204
    PDF: ksm/26/ksm2604.pdf

    The paper reveals modern problems of limiting, ensuring, and realizing human rights during crisis events in Ukraine. The unsatisfactory state of the social protection system of Ukraine in the pre-crisis period is revealed (including problems of unstructured legislation, excessive financial burden, etc.). The article analyzes the existing guarantees and standards of human rights during the pandemic (included in the selected international documents and the Constitution of Ukraine). Several negative factors faced by the most vulnerable social groups during the crisis were addressed (for IDPs – problems of displacement, residence, job search; for the older population – problems of social security, treatment of chronic diseases, movement restrictions, and relevant age-based discrimination; for the homeless – absolute insecurity from all manifestations of the COVIDfueled crisis; for the detained and imprisoned – problems of penitentiary medical care, postponement of amnesty and subsequent rehabilitation). The paper assesses the relevant normative documents regulating social relations during the pandemic in terms of their positive and negative impact on the above risk groups (facilitated with the analysis of additional financial aid and payments, legal restrictions, the impact of the increasing financial burden on state and local budgets due to quarantine, the unconstitutionality of certain provisions and the lack of adequate legal response from the Constitutional Court of Ukraine). Conclusions were drawn based on the analysis of the officially established strategy to combat COVID-19, supplemented by a prognosis of the long-term consequences of its implementation (the pros and cons of the selected strategy of simultaneous “hard” and “soft” quarantine measures, the lack of long-term care policy, unpreparedness for vaccination and the restoration of the pre-pandemic way of everyday life).

  • Disinformation Virus: Fake News in the Pandemic Era

    Author: Karolina Pałka-Suchojad
    Institution: Jan Kochanowski University in Kielce
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 32-41
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2020.68.03
    PDF: apsp/68/apsp6803.pdf

    This article describes the issue of misinformation during the SARS CoV-2 pandemic, which WHO called ‘infodemic’. The outbreak of the pandemic has changed the constellation of the information environment, where there is a noticeable increase in fake news, conspiracy theories and the hate speech they generate. The modified architecture of digital space causes the formation of new instruments, influence factors, phenomena – previously recognized, but never before so intense. The article focuses on fake news that appeared in connection with the ongoing pandemic and which is present in Polish public discourse. The adopted perspective allowed to look at the phenomenon of false information through the prism of the theory of information laundering.

  • Challenges to the realization of human rights under the pandemic

    Author: Vasyl Kostytsky
    E-mail: v.kostytsky@yahoo.com
    Institution: National Academy of Legal Sciences of Ukraine
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1692-9810
    Author: Victoria Sydor
    E-mail: victoria.sydor@outlook.com
    Institution: Kyiv Institute of Intellectual Property and Law of the National University „Odessa Law Academy”
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1794-2577
    Author: Iryna Kostytska
    E-mail: iryna-kostytska@ukr.net
    Institution: Institute of Legislation of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2336-1426.
    Author: Anastasia Sukhodolska
    E-mail: a.suhodols@gmail.com
    Institution: National Aviation University
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5794-9167
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 90-104
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/rop2020406
    PDF: rop/14/rop1406.pdf

    The article deals with the problematic issues of human and civil rights under pandemic on the example of the practice of combating the spread of respiratory disease COVID-19 caused by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 civil society in Ukraine in 2020. Account has been taken of the fact that the human, his life and health are the highest social value, and that human rights and freedoms determine the content and orientation of State activities. Since every State functioned for the human, in order to protect universally recognized rights and freedoms, it was a feature of a modern democratic State governed by the rule of law. At the same time, in legal science in recent years there has been a debate about the problems of human and civil rights against the background of widespread abuse of rights, individual selfishness, conflict of rights of one person and group of people, human and society. That is to say, in the order of the day came an all-civilizational discussion about the appointment of the State, the idea of humanocentrism and sociocentrism as the fundamental foundation and expediency of the State. The problem is posed by the global challenges faced by present-day civilization: climate protection and freshwater, poverty and corruption, terrorism and military conflicts, massive ethnic displacement and pandemics. In one way or another these problems are present on all continents today, both for the world community and for each State in particular, but there is no well-established mechanism for dealing with them. With regard to combating the spread of coronavirus, it is clear that the problem is a global one in the field of medical law, and that it must be addressed both at the level of the novelization of legislation and at the level of philosophy and sociology of law, ‘cause that’s the kind of system-wide results you can use in complex under the state-creative practice today.

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