Diplomatic Counterculture as a Tool of the Soviet Foreign Policy

Author: Oksana Zakharova
Institution: National Academy of Management of Culture and Arts
ORCID: https:/
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 10-21
DOI Address:
PDF: ksm/27/ksm2701.pdf

The article deals with the study of the issue of diplomatic counterculture the definition of which the author introduces into scientific use. The breach of protocol takes place either due to its ignorance, which is non-typical for professional politicians, or for a public demonstration of zero tolerance to particular political objectives. In this context, the meeting of the Polish charge d’affaires with a representative of the People’s Commissariat for Foreign Affairs (NKID) in Moscow dated February 1, 1995 is of special interest. The latter demanded from the diplomat to comment behavior of some members of the diplomatic corps, who didn’t stand up when signing the Internationale (anthem in that period) during one of the official events. Another NKID’s complaint against the diplomatic corps concerned the reluctance of diplomats to stand up for greeting the Soviet vozhds (leaders), including J.V. Stalin who didn’t hold any official leadership post in the system of the Soviet state. In the author’s opinion, J.V. Stalin was one among Soviet politicians of the most sophisticated improvisers, professionally manipulating the norms of diplomatic protocol and etiquette. In 1939, J. Ribbentrop had talked about vozhd as a man with extraordinary power. Stalin managed to daze Minister of Foreign Affairs of German and, in August 1942, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom W. Churchill marked Stalin’s hospitality at a dinner in the Kremlin and offered to drink to his health. It has been found that one of the blatant cases of diplomatic counterculture is the conduct of N.S. Khrushchev during the meeting at the United Nations General Assembly in 1960. “Shoe diplomacy” didn’t raise the credibility of the Soviet leader in the minds of the global community. The ignorance of protocol rules may lead to the loss of the reputation of a government leader, and as a consequence, negatively affect the country’s image, its attractiveness, which is a hallmark of the “softpower” of the state.

Dostęp do protokołów z rozpraw sądowych w postępowaniu cywilnym w systemie portalu informacyjnego sądów apelacji warszawskiej

Author: Paulina Kosior
Institution: SWPS Uniwersytet Humanistycznospołeczny w Warszawie
Year of publication: 2018
Source: Show
Pages: 238-249
DOI Address:
PDF: tpn/14/TPN2018212.pdf

Legislator in Poland from 2010 started procedure of computerization civil proceedings. The biggest modification of the Civil Code and Civil Code of Procedure was introduced at 8 September 2016, from when both parties to court proceedings have access to electronic protocols, pleadings and have a possibility to submit pleadings via IT system. This article aims to describe the access to electronic protocols in civil proceedings based on the Information portal of courts of the Warsaw Appeal. The Information portal of courts of the Warsaw Appeal is a system, which can be used by both parties in a court proceeding, by attorneys, judges and prosecutors. This information portal includes courts in/on the area of the Warsaw Appeal Court. The Information portal contains documents„ which the courts have made, current information about court proceedings, dates of cases, electronic protocols and recordings. The considerations elaborated in this article relate mainly to the access of the electronic protocol in civil procedure, how the Information portal works and which effect it have on the momentum of the trials. The aim of the computerization done by the Polish Legislator was to accelerate the civil proceedings, allow to deliver documents made by court or by each party of proceeding, lower the costs of proceeding and simplify the proceeding. In conclusion it should be pointed out that the positive aspects of access to the protocols from hearings prevail over the information portal of the Warsaw appeal.

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