security

  • Bezpieczeństwo II Rzeczpospolitej – oceny. 1 wrzesień 1939 r. – „niespodziewana” wojna z III Rzeszą i „zaskoczenie” agresją (17) Związku Sowieckiego

    Author: Aleksander Woźny
    Institution: Polskie Towarzystwo Historyczne, Oddział Opole
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 27-83
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/acno2020102
    PDF: acno/9/acno202002.pdf

    The security of the II Republic – assessments 1 September 1939 – „unexpected” war with the III Reich and the „surprise” of the 17 September aggression by the Soviet Union

    The Wehrmacht (German armed forces) attacked Poland without declaration of war on 1 September 1939, on the orders of the leader of the III Reich. Then, on 17 September, the Red Army forced the borders of the Polish II Republic. The title of the article reflects what Polish historiography will forever struggle with – whether the aggression by its western neighbour was “unexpected” and whether we can consider the invasion from its eastern neighbour a “surprise”. Above all, the question is whether the military (General Staff; military intelligence) and political leadership (Foreign Ministry) of the state foresaw beforehand the possibility of rift in Polish-German relations and the renewal of a German-Soviet alliance/pact (cooperation), which in consequence brought about undeclared war with Poland’s eastern neighbour. The presented article is in sections and presented in chronological order.

  • National Well-Being as a Key Postulate of the National Security

    Author: Valeriy Hnatenko
    E-mail: rdckonst@ukr.net
    Institution: “Scientific and Practical Medical Rehabilitation and Diagnostic Center of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine”
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2659-9202
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 56-66
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ksm20210105
    PDF: ksm/29/ksm2905.pdf

    Under conditions of aggravation of external and internal contradictions of economic character, importance of increase of the state national security level, an urgent need of search of system algorithm for construction of integral paradigm of economic security appears. The main trend of further economic development of society is the connection of economic security of the state and the welfare economy of society in a single target function, which fully reveals and realizes the economic potential of the state and society. The level of the country’s welfare is the basis for making certain government decisions in the socio-economic sphere. It has been noted that economic security of welfare is ensuring the protection of interests and creating favorable conditions for ensuring a high standard of living and welfare of society in the implementation of the State Strategy for Economic Security. The place of economic security of welfare in the system of national security has been determined - the high level of its realization is a springboard for strengthening and further development of other components of the country’s economic life. Improvement of the public administration efficiency is one of the conditions for ensuring sustainable socio-economic development of the country, region and raising of living standards of the population.

  • Ensuring social security at the level of local self-government

    Author: Shamil Faradzhov
    E-mail: faradzhovshamil@gmail.com
    Institution: National Academy for Public Administration under the President of Ukraine
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9230-3399
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 22-33
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/rop2021102
    PDF: rop/15/rop1502.pdf

    The article considers public security as a component of national security. Public security is one of the priorities of state policy in the field of national security. Successful public safety is the implementation of a set of measures in the field of landscaping: installation of traffic lights in appropriate public places, construction of underpasses, construction of indoor stops for citizens waiting for the arrival of public transport, etc. A well-thought-out system of planning and construction of settlements or public places, maintaining them in good condition, which promotes work and recreation of citizens, reduces the degree of threat to public safety from the occurrence of unexpected and dangerous situations. And neglect of public amenities can lead to favorable conditions for those who commit offenses and encroach on public safety. A special place is occupied by local governments, they are the closest power to the population, have the necessary powers and resources to attract citizens to maintain public order, increase their social activity in creating decent living conditions in a given area. The state defines local self-government as an independent level of government to which the people are entitled. First of all, it presupposes the organizational separation and independence of local self-government from state power, its independence in resolving issues of local importance, but independence within its own powers, as provided by the constitution. The main powers of local governments to ensure public safety and public order include: monitoring compliance with the law in the territory; application of measures of state coercion (usually, it is a question of bringing to administrative responsibility for the offenses connected with local government); protection of public order, carried out mainly by the police; ensuring the safety of citizens. Accordingly, local governments may be endowed with additional powers in the field of public order and protection of citizens’ rights. Protecting the rights of citizens is an important component of ensuring security both at the individual level and at the level of the entire state. The sense of security that is transmitted inside and outside the country can be considered part of the attractiveness of the image of the country abroad.

  • Integrated Space Situational Awareness Systems: SDA and SSA – Advantages and Limitations

    Author: Małgorzata Polkowska
    E-mail: mpolkowska@wp.pl
    Institution: War Studies Academy (Poland)
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6633-2222
    Published online: 30 June 2021
    Final submission: 12 March 2021
    Printed issue: December 2021
    Source: Show
    Page no: 16
    Pages: 133-148
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy202124
    PDF: ppsy/50/ppsy202124.pdf

    SDA (Space Domain Awareness) and SSA (Space Situational Awareness – SSA) have been defined as comprehensive knowledge of space objects and the ability to track, understand, and predict their future location. The purpose of the article is to present SSA initiatives to protect space systems, which are now recognized as fundamental assets of the sustainable development of each country. The destruction of even a part of the space infrastructure can have severe consequences for the security of citizens and economic activity. These systems assume the combination of all data obtained by various entities operating in space and Earth to create a common database. The SSA system was created based on the US military programme SDA (Space Domain Awareness); SSA and SDA are almost similar, but SDA is a new term replacing SSA, which existed previously. SDA is a better and improved SSA. Increasingly, the SSA programme is part of national and EU space strategies, but it is not yet possible to include it in international space law.

  • Poland's Reason of State in the Creation of a New International Order. Foreign Policy as Poland's Reason of State in the 21st Century

    Author: Piotr Lewandowski
    E-mail: p.lewandowski@akademia.mil.pl
    Institution: War Studies University (Poland)
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3664-4815
    Published online: 19 July 2021
    Final submission: 13 July 2021
    Printed issue: December 2021
    Source: Show
    Page no: 16
    Pages: 133-147
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy202140
    PDF: ppsy/50/ppsy202140.pdf

    The article analyzes the Polish reason of state in changing international order understood as the loss of hegemon position by the United States. The author defines the reason of state as an analytical operant and relates it to the security and sovereignty of a state in the international environment. The text also outlines possibilities of development of Poland's reason of state in the region and global geopolitics.

  • Konflikt w Górskim Karabachu – implikacje dla bezpieczeństwa Republiki Azerbejdżanu

    Author: Justyna Misiągiewicz
    Institution: Uniwersytet Marii Curie – Skłodowskiej w Lublinie
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 196-209
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2021.70.12
    PDF: apsp/70/apsp7012.pdf

    Celem opracowania jest analiza specyfiki konfliktu w Górskim Karabachu oraz jego implikacji dla bezpieczeństwa Azerbejdżanu. Określono tym samym genezę konfliktu, jego przedmiot oraz proces pokojowy. Azerbejdżan postrzegał konflikt karabaski jako zagrażający jego integralności terytorialnej i niepodległości oraz roli międzynarodowej. Porozumienie z listopada 2020 roku można traktować jako sukces polityki Azerbejdżanu, gdyż sankcjonuje prawnie przyłączenie większości terytorium Górskiego Karabachu.

  • Problem bezpieczeństwa w wybranych polskich konstytucjach

    Author: Marcin Jurgilewicz
    E-mail: m.jurgilewicz@prz.edu.pl
    Institution: Politechnika Rzeszowska im. I. Łukasiewicza
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2243-2165
    Author: Jolanta Itrich-Drabarek
    E-mail: j.itrich-draba@uw.edu.pl
    Institution: Uniwersytet Warszawski
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7509-3561
    Author: Andrzej Misiuk
    E-mail: amisiuk@wp.pl
    Institution: Uniwersytet Warszawski
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1371-6270
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 347-358
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2021.04.22
    PDF: ppk/62/ppk6222.pdf

    Security problem in selected polish constitutions

    The Republic of Poland is a democratic state ruled by law, and the normative basis of its functioning is legal acts of the highest order – the Constitution of the Republic of Poland of April 2, 1997. The Basic Law has the highest rank and force among all sources of universally binding law. In the constitution, the legislator granted certain norms the status of constitutional principles, which are fulfilled by the function of program norms while being the basis for the interpretation of other regulations. Among the constitutional principles, the obligation to ensure the safety of citizens was distinguished. The article in general presents the problem of security not only in the currently binding constitution, but also in selected other Polish constitutions.

  • Odmienność a poczucie bezpieczeństwa, czyli co możemy i co powinniśmy zmienić w naszym myśleniu o Innych w ilustracji filmowo-teatralnej

    Author: Agata Rzymełka-Frąckiewicz
    Institution: Uniwersytet Śląski w Katowicach
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7173-2407
    Author: Teresa Wilk
    Institution: Uniweresytet Śląski w Katowicach
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7356-6502
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 326-343
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/em.2021.02.18
    PDF: em/15/em1518.pdf

    Jednym z wielu obrazów współczesności jest wzajemne funkcjonowanie osób reprezentujących odmienne kultury, narodowość, rasę czy religię. To sprawia, że w poszczególnych społecznościach pojawia się szereg nieporozumień czy konfliktów, powodowanych brakiem wiedzy o wzajemnej kulturze. Rysująca się coraz powszechniej odmienność we współczesnych społeczeństwach generując wielorakie obawy i lęk uniemożliwia zachowanie poczucia bezpieczeństwa. Tymczasem odmienność/różnorodność kulturowa, etniczna, narodowa winna być postrzegana jako wspólne dobro służące budującym się wspólnotom. Tym samym ujawnia się brak świadomości, że odmienność kulturowa to wartość, swoiste bogactwo warunkujące szerokie możliwości holistycznego rozwoju, a nie zagrożenie tożsamości czy wolności. By stan taki osiągną potrzeba świadomości i wiedzy. Niniejszy tekst jest zatem próbą zainteresowania społeczeństwa przedmiotowym zagadnieniem, które można oswoić i rozwinąć dzięki edukacji międzykulturowej, która może przybrać różne formy edukacji, także poprzez poszczególne dziedziny sztuki, takie jak teatr czy film. Wspomniane dziedziny sztuki stanowią nie tylko pole edukacji, poznania różnorodności, ale są narzędziem kształtowania postaw, zainteresowań, wyrażania emocji czy modelowania sposobu myślenia o odmienności. Propozycje konkretnych (wybranych) spektakli czy filmów, oparto zasadniczo na pełnym przekonaniu, że sztuka stanowi nie tylko wartość autoteliczną, artystyczną, ale jest narzędziem formującym kierunek myślenia w określonym zakresie.

  • The Military Perspective on the Strategic Planning Process in the United States within 2017–2018 Timeframe

    Author: Maciej Klisz
    E-mail: mklisz@mon.gov.pl
    Institution: The Polish Armed Forces
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0672-2501
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 147-169
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/siip202007
    PDF: siip/19/siip1907.pdf

    The article examines the development process of the national level security strategies in the United States. It explains the basic theory of the strategy-making, as well as the primary processes and relations among the major security enterprises. The author focuses on the 2017–2018 timeframe due to the significant changes in the U.S. legislative system and exceptional personalities involved in the strategy-making process. However, the article delivers a military perspective on strategy development. Still, it does not exclude general information on the U.S. political arena, legal framework, scope of the documents, or historical facts. These data facilitate a more comprehensive understanding of the complex political-military relations during the strategy-making process. The primary purpose of the article is to analyze coherent, layered strategic planning process during President Donald Trump administration (2017–2020) and draw significant conclusions, which other countries might implement in their planning system.

  • United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals and the Most Important Utilitarian Values. Social Security Approach

    Author: Pawel Gromek
    E-mail: pgromek@sgsp.edu.pl
    Institution: Main School of Fire Service
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0997-5069
    Author: Tadeusz Kęsoń
    E-mail: tkeson@sgsp.edu.pl
    Institution: Main School of Fire Service
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7047-7811
    Published online: 17 September 2021
    Final submission: 17 September 2021
    Printed issue: 2021
    Source: Show
    Page no: 18
    Pages: 157-174
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy202146
    PDF: ppsy/50/ppsy202146.pdf

    2030 Agenda constitutes a comprehensive framework for sustainable development. Nevertheless, not all sustainable development goals properly match the most important utilitarian values (human life and health). It is especially noticeable in terms of disasters and crises, which commonly determine social security. The research objective is to indicate the placement of the values in the particular goals. The systematic literature review indicates 47 information sources. That enables an in-depth analysis of the goals and social security specification elements, highlighting the direct or indirect character of relevant relations. The gaps can be identified considering the social character of the goals, characteristic hazards, danger to human life, and health and urgency of the response. In most cases, the relations between the goals and the values are indirect. They can be improved with a potentially positive influence on sustainable development in all circumstances (including the most dangerous ones). The goals specification states many references for the improvement in a synergistic way respecting the most important utilitarian values, especially in zero hunger, good health and well-being, sustainable cities and communities, climate action, partnership for the goals.

  • Bezpieczeństwo jako dobro publiczne w świetle prawa konstytucyjnego

    Author: Barbara Szykuła-Piec
    E-mail: bpiec@sgsp.edu.pl
    Institution: Szkoła Główna Służby Pożarniczej
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4533-232X
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 323-334
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2021.05.25
    PDF: ppk/63/ppk6325.pdf

    Security as a public good in the light of constitutional law

    The study is a voice in the discussion: security as a good. In the light of the constitutional principle of the common good, a redefinition of security was proposed as the sum of the conditions of social life enabling and facilitating the integral development of all members of the community. The common and public good are products produced by state structures and their members. In order to minimize the attitudes of „common – nobody’s” and free-riders, in order to create dependence, responsibility to care for good, the topic of the theory of group solidarity was raised.

  • Fake news jako narzędzie dezinformacji

    Author: Mateusz Żoch
    Institution: Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 219-234
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/cip202113
    PDF: cip/19/cip1913.pdf

    Fake news był obecny w życiu człowieka już od czasów starożytnych. Jednakże rozwój technologii, globalizacja doprowadził do zwiększenia zasięgu jego rozprzestrzeniania. Masowość mediów doprowadziła do przeinaczeń, nadinterpretacji, szerzenia nieprawidłowości na określony temat. W ten sposób zaczęła się szerzyć dezinformacja przeprowadzana różnymi metodami. Określana jest ogólnie jako fake news. Celem artykułu jest ukazanie jak ważną rolę w współczesnym świecie pełni fake news oraz jak jest wykorzystywany w celach manipulacji. Przeinaczona informacja może wywołać niepokój w jednostce bądź grupie, a tym samym zdestabilizować bezpieczeństwo. Masowy dostęp do mediów społecznościowych i Internetu prowadzi do zwiększonej ilości różnych, błędnych, celowo zmanipulowanych informacji, co może wpływać negatywnie na nasze postrzeganie rzeczywistości, a w konsekwencji na nasze bezpieczeństwo.

  • COVID-19 and security-development nexus : Vietnam’s perspectives

    Author: Chu Minh Thao
    Institution: Diplomatic Academy of Vietnam
    Year of publication: 2022
    Source: Show
    Pages: 113-131
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/rop2022107
    PDF: rop/19/rop1907.pdf

    Covid-19 is considered as an important factor that impacts largely on the security and development. Covid-19 has caused the shiftin the definition of the national security and significance of new emerging non-traditional security issues, for instance the health security, and human security. Accordingly, Covid-19 has had devastating effects on the poor and human development, due to the economic recession and diversion of resources to focus on coping with the virus, stressing the accomplishment of sustainable development goals. It is anticipated that the entanglement of security and development issues gives rise to more complex challenges to ensure the stability and progress of sustainable economic development. This context has raised a question of how countries, especially lower middle-income countries like Vietnam, could cope with arising challenges and opportunities in the new context. This research concludes that Vietnam, as a perfect case study, has strongly supported global and regional cooperation to reset development agenda to focus on quick economic recovery towards resilient, green inclusive, and sustainable development. Internally, Vietnam was successful in controlling the pandemic, and become one of few countries that achieved positive GDP growth in the region in 2020. The key to overcome these challenges remains with the Communist Party of Vietnam’s strong political leadership to control Covid-19, and to take advantages of development trends such as globalization, shifting of supply chain, digital economy, and green recovery and green growth.

  • Education for Security: What Every EU Citizen Should Know about CSDP?

    Author: Rafał Willa
    E-mail: rafalw@umk.pl
    Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University
    Year of publication: 2015
    Source: Show
    Pages: 85-101
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2015.04.05
    PDF: kie/110/kie11005.pdf

    The contemporary world is full of threats. Their scale, variety and dynamics make single countries, especially those smaller and less wealthy, unable to prevent them. Also former leaders of world politics such as France and Great Britain find this harder and harder. That is why, among integrating European countries there appeared the idea of Common Security and Defence Policy. Its assumption was strenghtening cooperation in these spheres, coordination of positions or the creation of rapid reaction forces, which may lead to common defence. Bearing in mind the events happening just outside the EU (North Africa, Middle East, Ukraine) and inside the EU (Paris terrorist attacks in 2015) there is a question what assumptions have been accomplished? What can the EU do to protect its citizens? These are the issues the article deals with.

  • Unmanned Aerial Vehicle - a Lethal Weapon of Tomorrow for Terrorists

    Author: Aleksander Olech
    E-mail: aleksander.olech@baltdefcol.org
    Institution: Baltic Defence College
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3793-5913
    Year of publication: 2022
    Source: Show
    Pages: 44-60
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223203
    PDF: npw/32/npw3203.pdf

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicle - a Lethal Weapon of Tomorrow for Terrorists

    Terrorism has been used as a form of combat for centuries. Over the years, the tools used by terrorists have evolved. While attacks with cold weapons still take place, nowadays terrorists also use explosives, machine guns, guided missiles and increasingly often drones. The present growth of the arms market has led to terrorist groups being heavily militarized, as they can successfully acquire modern weapons and subsequently use them in their attacks. This state of affairs has directly affected the security of states and societies, and subsequently became a principal subject of discussion on international security forums. Contemporary global terrorist threats also harness artificial intelligence that supports weaponized robots, missiles, as well as clusters of killer drones. This narrative arose a few years ago, indicating that terrorists may have a vastly greater array of options at their disposal because they may cooperate with some states that would back them up. The chance for terrorist organisations to gain access to artificial intelligence technologies only increased due to the global competition surrounding it. Due to this potential spreading, terrorists will have a chance to operate weapons supported by AI. These events then merge into a deeply concerning scenario which conceivably may have to be confronted. The threat of terrorist organisations possessing and using swarms of drones does not seem to be very distant.

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