security

  • Bezpieczeństwo II Rzeczpospolitej – oceny. 1 wrzesień 1939 r. – „niespodziewana” wojna z III Rzeszą i „zaskoczenie” agresją (17) Związku Sowieckiego

    Author: Aleksander Woźny
    Institution: Polskie Towarzystwo Historyczne, Oddział Opole
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 27-83
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/acno2020102
    PDF: acno/9/acno202002.pdf

    The security of the II Republic – assessments 1 September 1939 – „unexpected” war with the III Reich and the „surprise” of the 17 September aggression by the Soviet Union

    The Wehrmacht (German armed forces) attacked Poland without declaration of war on 1 September 1939, on the orders of the leader of the III Reich. Then, on 17 September, the Red Army forced the borders of the Polish II Republic. The title of the article reflects what Polish historiography will forever struggle with – whether the aggression by its western neighbour was “unexpected” and whether we can consider the invasion from its eastern neighbour a “surprise”. Above all, the question is whether the military (General Staff; military intelligence) and political leadership (Foreign Ministry) of the state foresaw beforehand the possibility of rift in Polish-German relations and the renewal of a German-Soviet alliance/pact (cooperation), which in consequence brought about undeclared war with Poland’s eastern neighbour. The presented article is in sections and presented in chronological order.

  • National Well-Being as a Key Postulate of the National Security

    Author: Valeriy Hnatenko
    E-mail: rdckonst@ukr.net
    Institution: “Scientific and Practical Medical Rehabilitation and Diagnostic Center of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine”
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2659-9202
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 56-66
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ksm20210105
    PDF: ksm/29/ksm2905.pdf

    Under conditions of aggravation of external and internal contradictions of economic character, importance of increase of the state national security level, an urgent need of search of system algorithm for construction of integral paradigm of economic security appears. The main trend of further economic development of society is the connection of economic security of the state and the welfare economy of society in a single target function, which fully reveals and realizes the economic potential of the state and society. The level of the country’s welfare is the basis for making certain government decisions in the socio-economic sphere. It has been noted that economic security of welfare is ensuring the protection of interests and creating favorable conditions for ensuring a high standard of living and welfare of society in the implementation of the State Strategy for Economic Security. The place of economic security of welfare in the system of national security has been determined - the high level of its realization is a springboard for strengthening and further development of other components of the country’s economic life. Improvement of the public administration efficiency is one of the conditions for ensuring sustainable socio-economic development of the country, region and raising of living standards of the population.

  • Ensuring social security at the level of local self-government

    Author: Shamil Faradzhov
    E-mail: faradzhovshamil@gmail.com
    Institution: National Academy for Public Administration under the President of Ukraine
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9230-3399
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 22-33
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/rop2021102
    PDF: rop/15/rop1502.pdf

    The article considers public security as a component of national security. Public security is one of the priorities of state policy in the field of national security. Successful public safety is the implementation of a set of measures in the field of landscaping: installation of traffic lights in appropriate public places, construction of underpasses, construction of indoor stops for citizens waiting for the arrival of public transport, etc. A well-thought-out system of planning and construction of settlements or public places, maintaining them in good condition, which promotes work and recreation of citizens, reduces the degree of threat to public safety from the occurrence of unexpected and dangerous situations. And neglect of public amenities can lead to favorable conditions for those who commit offenses and encroach on public safety. A special place is occupied by local governments, they are the closest power to the population, have the necessary powers and resources to attract citizens to maintain public order, increase their social activity in creating decent living conditions in a given area. The state defines local self-government as an independent level of government to which the people are entitled. First of all, it presupposes the organizational separation and independence of local self-government from state power, its independence in resolving issues of local importance, but independence within its own powers, as provided by the constitution. The main powers of local governments to ensure public safety and public order include: monitoring compliance with the law in the territory; application of measures of state coercion (usually, it is a question of bringing to administrative responsibility for the offenses connected with local government); protection of public order, carried out mainly by the police; ensuring the safety of citizens. Accordingly, local governments may be endowed with additional powers in the field of public order and protection of citizens’ rights. Protecting the rights of citizens is an important component of ensuring security both at the individual level and at the level of the entire state. The sense of security that is transmitted inside and outside the country can be considered part of the attractiveness of the image of the country abroad.

  • Poland's Reason of State in the Creation of a New International Order. Foreign Policy as Poland's Reason of State in the 21st Century

    Published online: 19 July 2021
    Final submission: 13 July 2021
    Printed issue: December 2021
    Author: Piotr Lewandowski
    E-mail: p.lewandowski@akademia.mil.pl
    Institution: War Studies University (Poland)
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3664-4815
    Source: Show
    Page no: 16
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy202140
    PDF: ppsy/50/ppsy202140.pdf

    The article analyzes the Polish reason of state in changing international order understood as the loss of hegemon position by the United States. The author defines the reason of state as an analytical operant and relates it to the security and sovereignty of a state in the international environment. The text also outlines possibilities of development of Poland's reason of state in the region and global geopolitics.

  • Konflikt w Górskim Karabachu – implikacje dla bezpieczeństwa Republiki Azerbejdżanu

    Author: Justyna Misiągiewicz
    Institution: Uniwersytet Marii Curie – Skłodowskiej w Lublinie
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 196-209
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2021.70.12
    PDF: apsp/70/apsp7012.pdf

    Celem opracowania jest analiza specyfiki konfliktu w Górskim Karabachu oraz jego implikacji dla bezpieczeństwa Azerbejdżanu. Określono tym samym genezę konfliktu, jego przedmiot oraz proces pokojowy. Azerbejdżan postrzegał konflikt karabaski jako zagrażający jego integralności terytorialnej i niepodległości oraz roli międzynarodowej. Porozumienie z listopada 2020 roku można traktować jako sukces polityki Azerbejdżanu, gdyż sankcjonuje prawnie przyłączenie większości terytorium Górskiego Karabachu.

  • Problem bezpieczeństwa w wybranych polskich konstytucjach

    Author: Marcin Jurgilewicz
    E-mail: m.jurgilewicz@prz.edu.pl
    Institution: Politechnika Rzeszowska im. I. Łukasiewicza
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2243-2165
    Author: Jolanta Itrich-Drabarek
    E-mail: j.itrich-draba@uw.edu.pl
    Institution: Uniwersytet Warszawski
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7509-3561
    Author: Andrzej Misiuk
    E-mail: amisiuk@wp.pl
    Institution: Uniwersytet Warszawski
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1371-6270
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 347-358
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2021.04.22
    PDF: ppk/62/ppk6222.pdf

    Security problem in selected polish constitutions

    The Republic of Poland is a democratic state ruled by law, and the normative basis of its functioning is legal acts of the highest order – the Constitution of the Republic of Poland of April 2, 1997. The Basic Law has the highest rank and force among all sources of universally binding law. In the constitution, the legislator granted certain norms the status of constitutional principles, which are fulfilled by the function of program norms while being the basis for the interpretation of other regulations. Among the constitutional principles, the obligation to ensure the safety of citizens was distinguished. The article in general presents the problem of security not only in the currently binding constitution, but also in selected other Polish constitutions.

  • Odmienność a poczucie bezpieczeństwa, czyli co możemy i co powinniśmy zmienić w naszym myśleniu o Innych w ilustracji filmowo-teatralnej

    Author: Agata Rzymełka-Frąckiewicz
    Institution: Uniwersytet Śląski w Katowicach
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7173-2407
    Author: Teresa Wilk
    Institution: Uniweresytet Śląski w Katowicach
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7356-6502
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 326-343
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/em.2021.02.18
    PDF: em/15/em1518.pdf

    Jednym z wielu obrazów współczesności jest wzajemne funkcjonowanie osób reprezentujących odmienne kultury, narodowość, rasę czy religię. To sprawia, że w poszczególnych społecznościach pojawia się szereg nieporozumień czy konfliktów, powodowanych brakiem wiedzy o wzajemnej kulturze. Rysująca się coraz powszechniej odmienność we współczesnych społeczeństwach generując wielorakie obawy i lęk uniemożliwia zachowanie poczucia bezpieczeństwa. Tymczasem odmienność/różnorodność kulturowa, etniczna, narodowa winna być postrzegana jako wspólne dobro służące budującym się wspólnotom. Tym samym ujawnia się brak świadomości, że odmienność kulturowa to wartość, swoiste bogactwo warunkujące szerokie możliwości holistycznego rozwoju, a nie zagrożenie tożsamości czy wolności. By stan taki osiągną potrzeba świadomości i wiedzy. Niniejszy tekst jest zatem próbą zainteresowania społeczeństwa przedmiotowym zagadnieniem, które można oswoić i rozwinąć dzięki edukacji międzykulturowej, która może przybrać różne formy edukacji, także poprzez poszczególne dziedziny sztuki, takie jak teatr czy film. Wspomniane dziedziny sztuki stanowią nie tylko pole edukacji, poznania różnorodności, ale są narzędziem kształtowania postaw, zainteresowań, wyrażania emocji czy modelowania sposobu myślenia o odmienności. Propozycje konkretnych (wybranych) spektakli czy filmów, oparto zasadniczo na pełnym przekonaniu, że sztuka stanowi nie tylko wartość autoteliczną, artystyczną, ale jest narzędziem formującym kierunek myślenia w określonym zakresie.

  • The Military Perspective on the Strategic Planning Process in the United States within 2017–2018 Timeframe

    Author: Maciej Klisz
    E-mail: mklisz@mon.gov.pl
    Institution: The Polish Armed Forces
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0672-2501
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 147-169
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/siip202007
    PDF: siip/19/siip1907.pdf

    The article examines the development process of the national level security strategies in the United States. It explains the basic theory of the strategy-making, as well as the primary processes and relations among the major security enterprises. The author focuses on the 2017–2018 timeframe due to the significant changes in the U.S. legislative system and exceptional personalities involved in the strategy-making process. However, the article delivers a military perspective on strategy development. Still, it does not exclude general information on the U.S. political arena, legal framework, scope of the documents, or historical facts. These data facilitate a more comprehensive understanding of the complex political-military relations during the strategy-making process. The primary purpose of the article is to analyze coherent, layered strategic planning process during President Donald Trump administration (2017–2020) and draw significant conclusions, which other countries might implement in their planning system.

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