Socrates

  • Confucian Thought Affecting Education in South-East Asian Countries vs. Socratic Education Philosophy in Western Countries

    Author: Stanisław Juszczyk
    Institution: University of Silesia in Katowice
    Author: Yong Deog Kim
    Institution: Hankuk University of Foreign Studies in Seoul
    Year of publication: 2017
    Source: Show
    Pages: 97-110
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2017.56.06
    PDF: apsp/56/apsp5606.pdf

    Socrates and Confucius constitute roots of western and eastern civilization respectively and represent very different cultural values and educational traditions. Both of the philosophers lived around 4 – 5th century B.C.E., but there were huge differences in the social and cultural environments in which they lived. Different cultural and social factors in ancient Greece and China led to differences in Socratic and Confucian approaches to learning. Their educational philosophies have been discussed on the base of the aim of education, the content of education, the teaching process, and the nature of the contemporary education. The method used in the described study is hermeneutics, or interpretation of the literary (here scientific) texts, thus the study is cross-cultural in nature and concerns the features of the contemporary education in both cultures.

  • Jeździec polski Rembrandta, czyli o nas

    Author: Wojciech Kaute
    Institution: Uniwersytet Jana Kochanowskiego w Kielcach
    Year of publication: 2018
    Source: Show
    Pages: 43-56
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/tpom2018203
    PDF: tpom/28/tpom2803.pdf

    The Polish Rider by Rembrandt, that is about us

    In the recent years the French author Yannick Haenel published in Paris a book entitled Jan Karski which in France proved to be a bestseller. Its first two chapters are of a documentary character. They present the history of the title character – a hero of the Polish resistance movement who as the first one informed F.D. Roosevelt about the cruelty of the Holocaust (Shoah). The third chapter is a literary fiction. In this chapter Karski finds out just after the war in the museum in New York, a picture by Rembrandt – The Polish Rider. This picture can be treated as an artistic image of an archetype of the Polish culture. Poland belongs to Europe. The Socrates’ thought underlies the base of the European culture. According to it the rules of the social life must be established based on “the essence of things”. And this means according to the Aristotle’s thought that the human community is the commonwealth. At the threshold of the modernity a change of this paradigm occurs. It is the thought of the Descartes; cogito. Here the starting point is I, an individual undertaking the economic activity (Th. Hobbes, J. Locke). The face of the rider expresses the conviction that the market is not everything. In the archetype of the Polish culture which accepts the European heritage, there is a need to take the “values” into account. And this is the imperative of every single individual; and at the same time of all. It is, as Lelewel put it into words, “the public spirit”; “crowd”… And it is our “code”. Poland is an “eternal sensitivity”.

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