Is Electronic Voting a Panacea for Low Election Turnout? Examples of Estonian e–Elections and Swiss e–Referendums

Author: Magdalena Musiał–Karg
Institution: Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań (Poland)
Year of publication: 2012
Source: Show
Pages: 428-443
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2012021
PDF: ppsy/41/ppsy2012021.pdf

One of the most apparent signs of the crisis of the democratic system is a systematically decreasing turnout level in national and supranational elections and referenda. In reports and analyses concerning the level of political participation, experts more and more frequently notice a decreasing tendency of the citizen’s involvement in numerous types of elections. As Ola Pettersson points out, “according to the sources, less and less citizens appear at the ballot boxes”. Jacek Raciborski indicates that one of the most signifi cant consequences of the low citizen’s participation at the election procedures is the considerable legitimacy deficit. A number of countries attempt to prevent these phenomena from happening by undertaking various actions aimed at increasing the level of citizens’ involvement in political life (notably by increasing their participation in elections). That would infl uence the growth of the legitimacy level of the undertaken political decisions. It is worth noticing, that apart from the commonly used ways of increasing election attendance (such as correspondence voting, mobile ballot boxes), over the last few years politicians in many countries have had numerous discussions aimed at the implementation of electronic voting (e-voting). Its followers claim that thanks to e-voting, election and referenda turnout may be increased, as this method enables disabled people and people who are abroad to take part in elections. Furthermore, a considerable advantage of e voting, compared to traditional voting in polling stations is of greater convenience than the former. The aim of the following text is to attempt to provide an answer to the question whether electronic voting can be treated as a panacea for low election turnouts, whether this form of voting may be a warranty of a higher level of voter’s attendance than before. In the article, the author bases on the experience connected with e voting in two European countries – Estonia and Switzerland, which can be referred to as the pioneers in the use of e voting.

Polityka Szwajcarii wobec Unii Europejskiej

Author: Marek Żejmo
Year of publication: 2014
Source: Show
Pages: 144-165
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm201412
PDF: ksm/19/ksm201412.pdf

Despite the fact that Switzerland does not formally belong to the European Union, it has always been strongly associated with the above organization at various levels. At first, after World War II, the contact was established with considerable caution which resulted from economic and trade contacts of Swiss government with Germany and Italy maintained during the war. First international contracts were related to the economic sphere and later on expanded by addressing the sphere of social issues such as legal system, culture, charity, science and education. At present, due to bilateral agreements, Switzerland has been integrated with the European Union even more than its newest Member States, i.e. Bulgaria, Romania and Croatia, which confirms the significant flexibility of this Community as well as its great possibility to adapt to each of its Members.

According to the Swiss, the greatest obstacle preventing this country from joining the EU is the upholding principle of eternal neutrality, although the importance of which has decreased over the years, it has been deeply rooted in Swiss mentality. Moreover, another factor preventing Switzerland from joining the EU is its strong economy as Swiss membership would result in the need to pay relatively higher contributions than that of other Member States of the Community. Although the contacts between the EU and Switzerland have been significantly intensified, the prospect of membership still seems relatively remote, all the more as bilateral agreements as well as participation in the Schengen area since 2008 make both parties satisfied and for now none of them intends to seek new solutions.

Planowany anschluss Szwajcarii w czasie Drugiej Wojny Światowej

Author: Marek Żejmo
Year of publication: 2015
Source: Show
Pages: 185-209
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/hso150210
PDF: hso/9/hso910.pdf
License: This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license CC BY-NC-ND 4.0.

Plans for the Anschluss of Switzerland during the Second World War

Since 1933, when Adolf Hitler became the Chancellor of Germany, to the end of World War II the independence of Switzerland was constantly threatened. Nazi propaganda from the beginning talked about the unification of the German peoples under the banners of the Third Reich. However, Swiss neutrality gave the Germans such great material benefits that it ultimately stopped them before the execution of the annexation plans.

The Criminality of Foreign Nationals in Switzerland as a Security Threat in the Context of Swiss Migration Policy

Author: Paweł Olbrycht
Institution: General Tadeusz Kościuszko Military University of Land Forces (Poland)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8362-5644
Published online: 30 December 2022
Final submission: 5 December 2022
Printed issue: 2023
Source: Show
Page no: 16
Pages: 181-196
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy202269
PDF: ppsy/51/ppsy202269.pdf

The purpose of the research was to investigate the scale of crime by foreign nationals in Switzerland in the context of the effectiveness of the assumptions of the migration policy of that state in the area of security. Materials and methods: The research uses literature sources and statistical data on the crime of foreign nationals in Switzerland and its migration policy. The author used qualitative research methods, including the query of literature and strategic documents (using the content analysis technique) and the analysis of statistical data (using the desk research technique). Results: In the context of the three analysed factors, the following trends can be observed: steadily declining crime in Switzerland; the relatively constant level of crime by foreign nationals, especially since 2018; constant, although relatively mildly growing, percentage of foreign nationals’ crime in the overall crime scale. Conclusions: In the context of the assessment of the effectiveness of the implementation of the assumptions of Switzerland’s migration policy in the area of security, it should be noted that the relatively constant level of the crime rate of foreign nationals, despite their constantly growing population, proves the optimality of these assumptions and their highly effective implementation.

Criminality of Foreign Nationals in Switzerland in the Years 2009–2015 as a Threat to Public Security: A Risk Assessment

Author: Paweł Olbrycht
Institution: General Tadeusz Kościuszko Military University of Land Forces
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 68-83
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2022.76.04
PDF: apsp/76/apsp7604.pdf

The scientific objective of the study was to assess the risk associated with crime of foreign nationals in Switzerland in the years 2009–2015 as a threat to public security, including predictions concerning the development of the analysed phenomenon in the future. The practical purpose of the study was to recommend a strategy for the management of the analysed issues. In the research process, the author applied qualitative research methods, including query of the sources and analysis of statistical data, as well as analysis of risk using the FEMA methodology based on data from the years 2009–2015. The research fills a gap in studies on crime of foreign nationals in Switzerland. Article not only constitutes a diagnosis of the current nature and scale of crime of foreign nationals, but it also includes an arithmetic prediction concerning the evolution of the phenomenon in the future, in the context of it being a potential threat to public security in Switzerland.

Labour Law and ADR in Switzerland – Selected Topics Mediation, Arbitration and Collective Employment Contracts, Arbitrability of Labour Law Claims

Author: Piotr Wójtowicz
Institution: Attorney at Law in Zurich, research assistant at UZH
Year of publication: 2015
Source: Show
Pages: 209-222
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/tpn2015.1.11
PDF: tpn/8/TPN2015111.pdf

The article presents maters of contemporary Labour Law and Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) in Switzerland, regulated – or “outlined” – for the first time only recently. Amongst main things the study refers to such matters as: arbitration and collective employment contracts, mediation, and arbitrability of international and domestic labour disputes. These are presented thoroughly and compared with conclusions, and future options.

The Pedagogical Concept of Penitentiary Reforms by Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi. Vision, Contexts, and References

Author: Dariusz Schmidt
Institution: University of Warsaw, Polska
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 41-66
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2023.04.03
PDF: kie/142/kie14203.pdf

The text is devoted to the analysis of Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi’s pedagogical concept of reforming criminal legislation, modernizing the prison system and dealing with convicts. Although this is not the main axis of his work and covers only a few texts, the message contained in them, supported by the author’s practical activity, makes him considered one of the main prison reformers of the late 18th and early 19th centuries, the mental father of the first wave of Swiss penitentiary reforms and the protoplast of the educational view of the purpose of imprisonment. After a introduction, the importance of Pestalozzi’s work and activities for modernizing the prison system is presented, followed by an analysis of his proposals in this regard. However, not only a presentation of his views on the treatment of criminals and the handling of convicts was made, but also the contexts and references of his ideas were extensively outlined, referring to his literary works, his practical outreach and education activities, but also illustrating his immersion in the current of reforms of the time and references to figures with whom he worked and valued. The author hopes that this will put Pestalozzi’s visionary postulates into a broader perspective.

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