The American Military Strategy to Combat the ‘Islamic State’ in Iraq and Syria: Assumptions, Tactics and Effectiveness

Author: Ewelina Waśko-Owsiejczuk
Institution: University of Białystok (Poland)
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 317-336
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2016024
PDF: ppsy/45/ppsy2016024.pdf

The American strategy to combat the ‘Islamic State’ rests on four pillars. The first is to conduct systematic air campaigns against the terrorists. The second involves increasing support for forces fighting the jihadists on the ground. The third is based on the strengthening of international cooperation in counter–terrorism operations. The fourth involves the provision of humanitarian aid to civilians displaced from the territories occupied by the jihadists. This article analyzes the assumptions, tactics, the most important decisions and actions of the American administration to combat the ‘Islamic State’. It is an attempt to provide answers to the questions: why has there been a growth of extremism in the Middle East? Why is the ‘Islamic State’ a new form of terrorist threat? How does it differ from other terrorist organizations? How was the ‘Islamic State’ created? What actions have been taken by the international coalition led by the United States in the fight against the jihadists in the Middle East? Is the strategy taken up by the United States effective? Does the defeat of the ‘Islamic State’ require the involvement of US ground forces in Iraq and Syria?

The Need for New Research on Terrorism

Author: Sebastian Wojciechowski
Institution: Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań (Poland)
Year of publication: 2013
Source: Show
Pages: 34-46
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2013003
PDF: ppsy/42/ppsy2013003.pdf

Terrorist attacks in various parts of the world evidence’s what a complex and dangerous problem we are facing, even though a great number of states and organizations have committed themselves to combating it, deploying a  variety of resources and mechanisms for this purpose. Ne vertheless, there is no fully efficient method or system to counter terrorism. It is no use hoping that it will emerge soon (or ever), either. Therefore, combating terrorism resembles the struggle of the ‘global community’ with a globally operating enemy.

The United Kingdom's Legal Response to Terrorism

Author: Wojciech Stankiewicz
Institution: University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn (Poland)
Year of publication: 2013
Source: Show
Pages: 244-267
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2013016
PDF: ppsy/42/ppsy2013016.pdf

Terrorist violence has a long history in the United Kingdom and the Government has a long experience in adopting the legal measures to counter the danger. It was the Irish terrorist activity, which started in the XIX century and continued almost till the end of the XX century, that caused the developing of a well – regarded competency in counter – terrorism in the UK. Nevertheless, the terrorists attacks of September 11, 2001 and attacks in Great Britain on 7 and 21 of July 2005 compiled the UK Government to change its counter – terrorism policy. The UK had to provide legislation which could deal with the new terror provided by extreme radical Islamic networks waging a global jihad. The UK Government started to deal with this new international terrorism, by introducing the new anti – terrorist acts in 2001, 2005 and 2006. The Islamic terrorist treat started to reform the institutions for domestic counter – terrorism and create new international relations among the CT activities of national governments.

Book Review: Sebastian Wojciechowski, The Hybridity of Terrorism, Logos, Berlin 2013, pp. 216

Author: Artur Wejkszner
Institution: Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań (Poland)
Year of publication: 2013
Source: Show
Pages: 363-366
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2013028
PDF: ppsy/42/ppsy2013028.pdf

The issue of modern terrorism is a significant subject of academic research. For decades the representatives of many branches of science, ranging from psychology and sociology, through history, law and political science to criminology, in particular, have been trying to find basic answers to a number of fundamental questions concerning the nature, manifestations, evolution of terrorism, and combating it. A definite majority of studies that have been around are fragmentary, selective or descriptive, and they do not make a significant contribution to the state of knowledge. There are very few studies that discuss the matter in question in a comprehensive, in-depth and original manner. This cognitive gap has clearly been to some extent filled by the latest publication by Professor Sebastian Wojciechowski, entitled The Hybridity of Terrorism. While the title may seem somewhat general, it actually points to a crucial feature (or a set of features) of the phenomenon it analyzes. In the simplest terms, dealing with terrorism we come across a cluster of elements, and relations between them, that sometimes are independent from one another, sometimes coexist side by side, and most frequently complement each other, constituting terrorism and influencing its evolution.

Why is it so Difficult to Define Terrorism?

Author: Sebastian Wojciechowski
Year of publication: 2009
Source: Show
Pages: 58-72
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2009005
PDF: ppsy/38/ppsy200905.pdf

The term ‘terrorism’ is among the most frequently used words. It accompanies us on an everyday basis. It is apparently understood in a similar manner throughout the world, but it is actually interpreted and defined in different ways. “All vogue words appear to share a similar fate: the more experiences they pretend to make transparent, the more they themselves become opaque”. Terrorism is no exception to that rule. This has become particularly apparent following the events of September 11, Bali, Madrid and London. Terrorism is characterized not only by its manifold nature and complexity but also by the problem with its definition.

Data retention as a counter-terrorism instrument. The analysis in the context of civil rights protection

Author: Joanna Trela-Zielińska
Institution: University of Szczecin
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 141-153
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/rop201709
PDF: rop/2017/rop201709.pdf

  The article analyses the legitimacy of citizens telecommunications data retention usage in the fight against terrorism. Data retention, that is the preventive storage of information on the source, data, hour and duration of a connection, type of the connection, communication tool and location of a recipient, is a powerful source of knowledge about citizens and their use should be soundly justified. However, both the European Union and Polish practices show that behind this interference in privacy there is neither a guarantee that the data stored would be used exclusively to fight terrorism and severe crimes, nor a sufficient access control mechanism. The efficiency of data use in the fight against organized crimes, including terrorism, is also dubious.
  In her work the author analyses Polish studies concerning information disclosure issues, Internet publications of the European Union and American reports on retention programmes, as well as Polish and foreign positions of non-governmental organizations engaged in the civil rights protection in this respect.

The Dilemma of Present Day: Guerrilla, Terrorist and Asymmetric Warfare

Author: Jarosław J. Piątek
Institution: University of Szczecin
Year of publication: 2014
Source: Show
Pages: 46-62
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/rop201404
PDF: rop/2014/rop201404.pdf

In order to describe the environment surrounding us, so complex in terms of relations resulting from using violence, we easily employ terms such as ‘partisan’ or ‘militant’, just in order to define the very same ones as terrorists a while later. Probably the benchmark of contemporary description, especially of political action is the lack of clear-cut attitudes. Terrorism is nothing new, and this statement in itself is not very revealing. However, for many contemporary researchers of this issue, there is never too much information. Terrorism has always accompanied the history of oppressive regimes as well as resistance movements and uprisings. All the same, within the anti- colonial insurrectionary movements of the mid-20th century which led to the fall of European colonial empires over a short period of time, terrorism achieved new quality. It should also be emphasized that it achieved considerable political successes compared to the social-revolutionary terrorism of the late 19th century. The attribute ‘terrorist’ serves as an excluding one in different relations. By employing such term, one that their cause is an unconventional one – leastways as long as specific ways of using violence are applied. On the other hand, groups classified as terrorist ones often describe themselves as partisans who are fighting for the liberation of certain social or ethnic groups and who have to employ “unconventional” methods of using force because of the military superiority of the oppressive regime. By describing certain actions as ‘terrorist’ one usually intends on bereaving it of every sort of political legitimation. Is there any aspect that terrorism and guerrilla actions have in common? In certain socio-revolutionary or ethno-separatist strategies of violence, the concept of terrorism consists in the idea of a ‘starter’ which is to create the conditions to commence the guerrilla war. There could also be groups acting as partisans on one front line, and as terrorists on the other. The example is Al-Qaeda: in Central Asia its network operated only temporarily, as a kind of guerrilla, while in the global scale it employed terrorist strategy.

The Threat of Mega-terrorism: Availability, Inhibitors and Motivation

Author: Rafał Kopeć
Institution: Pedagogical University in Krakow
Year of publication: 2013
Source: Show
Pages: 105-125
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/rop201306
PDF: rop/2013/rop201306.pdf

The prospect of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) terrorism poses a danger for contemporary societies. However, the incidents related to an application of weapons of mass destruction (that is, nuclear, chemical, biological and radiological weapons) by non-state actors are relatively rare. The aim of the paper is to present recent incidents and to estimate the threat from particular types of WMD. The author focuses both on the question of motivation to undertake these operations and on the problem of technological capabilities. To sum up, the risk of a massive WMD terrorist attack should be perceived as quite moderate due to the technological barrier, but selective attacks carry a greater potential risk because of their higher probability and significant psychological effect.

Sekurytyzacja islamu w Azji Centralnej

Author: Nartsiss Shukuralieva
Institution: Uniwersytet Kazimierza Wielkiego w Bydgoszczy
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4046-9738
Year of publication: 2018
Source: Show
Pages: 33-54
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/so2018202
PDF: so/14/so1402.pdf

Securitization of Islam in Central Asia

The aim of the article is to analyse mechanisms of constructing Islam in the discourse and practices of undemocratic Central Asian countries. This objective will be accomplished through the references to securitization theory located within the framework of the constructivist paradigm. The major argument of the paper is that the discursive transformation of various dimensions of Islam’s existence into a homogeneous threat to the security was an important securitizing move. Its relevance is related to the national and international level of legitimacy. The strength of the securitizing move results from the amount of resources of the authoritarian Central Asian elites as the dominant securitizing actors. In the first part, the text critically discusses the radicalization of Muslims in Central Asia thesis and the practices of the state structures towards Islam. In the next part it will present various manifestations and dimensions of the securitization of Islam in the discourse and practice of the incumbent elites in Central Asia countries.

Inicjatywy polityczno-gospodarcze Stanów Zjednoczonych adresowane do krajów Afryki Północnej na początku XXI wieku

Author: Rafał Wordliczek
Institution: Uniwersytet Jagielloński w Krakowie
Year of publication: 2015
Source: Show
Pages: 83-100
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2015.45.05
PDF: apsp/45/apsp4505.pdf


The Mediterranean Area is a very important region at the contemporary international relations scene. Since 2001, the United States have established closer relations with North African countries. There are two main goals of the American foreign policy towards Maghreb. The first one of these goals concerning cooperation is searching for the alternative way of supplying the United States by African gas and oil. Such countries as Algeria, Libya, and Nigeria are some of the biggest holders and exporters of these natural minerals. Nowadays, the U.S., the European countries and Russia are in rivalry for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) and oil contracts with the African partners. The winner of this competition will keep control of the whole market of minerals, and from the political, economic and strategic point of view will be stronger in the future. The second one is supporting by Maghreb countries the U.S. counter-terrorism military operation “Active Endeavour”.

Zagrożenia asymetryczne w regionie bałtyckim – wybrane aspekty

Author: Marika Sokół
Institution: Akademia Marynarki Wojennej w Gdyni
Year of publication: 2019
Source: Show
Pages: 168-180
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ksm201909
PDF: ksm/24/ksm201909.pdf

The article presents the problem of asymmetry in the aspect of threats. The reflections were made in reference to the Baltic Region. The analysis was made by approximating the meaning of the asymmetrical risk date and presenting the forms of their occurrence in the Baltic Region, and methods for their prevention and eradication.

Edukacja szkolna w Federacji Rosyjskiej wobec zagrożeń terroryzmem

Author: Adam Hołub
Institution: Wyższa Szkoła Policji w Szczytnie
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8865-6543
Year of publication: 2019
Source: Show
Pages: 34-43
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20192302
PDF: npw/23/npw2302.pdf

School education in the Russian Federation in the face of terrorist threats

The Russian Federation is the target of religious and separatist terrorism. The threat of terrorism depends on the region in which it occurs. Using a method of analysing the content of programmes and recommendations for teaching subjects on security in Russian schools, it has been found that their content includes elements of anti-terrorist education. In addition, anti-terrorist education is very active in regions exposed to increased terrorism. In addition to practical skills, the introduction of educational elements and education of patriotic attitudes of schoolchildren is a specificity.

Ataki terrorystyczne w Federacji Rosyjskiej w XXI wieku

Author: Aleksander Ksawer y Olech
Institution: Akademia Sztuki Wojennej
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3793-5913
Year of publication: 2019
Source: Show
Pages: 109-127
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20192306
PDF: npw/23/npw2306.pdf

Terrorist attacks in the Russian Federation

The high level of terrorist threat to the security of the Russian Federation, which has been persisting for decades, is a process of many aspects. The conducted internal policy, involvement in armed conflicts in Ukraine and in Syria, the unstable situation in the Caucasus and the undertaken international co-operation have a significant impact on the activation of terrorist groups in Russia. Already in 2012, before the series of attacks in the French Republic, the on-going conflict in the North Caucasus was described as the most brutal in Europe. Since 2007, Russia has started to cope with international terrorism. What is even worse, it has undergone evolution, permanently destabilizing the internal security of the state. The recent attacks have been associated with the emergence of extremist groups from the Middle East, such as Al-Qaeda and the Islamic State, and their cooperation with rebels from the South and North Caucasus. International terrorist groups began their expansion into the whole territory of the Russian Federation, mobilizing the local government to undertake activities counteracting terrorism. Nowadays, the situation is slowly returning to normal, but new threats are still worth noting. The past experience and new threats of attacks urge us to re-analyse the current situation and define the goals of the anti-terrorist actions of the Russian Federation. This is also important in view of the consequences for other countries which are immediate neighbours of Russia, including possible terrorist consequences for Poland.

Najlepsi z najlepszych. Charakterystyka wybranych izraelskich jednostek kontrterrorystycznych

Author: Natalia Ciszewska
Institution: Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9655-2173
Year of publication: 2019
Source: Show
Pages: 130-142
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20192307
PDF: npw/23/npw2307.pdf

The best of the best. Characteristics of selected Israeli counterterrorist units

The creation of Israel aroused many negative emotions, which over time evolved into war and terrorist activities, the aim of which was to destroy this country and push it into the sea. Israel in response to numerous attacks was forced to develop an effective defense, and its basic element was well-trained special forces. Israeli services are considered brutal: they carry out daring operations, risking diplomatic crises, never negotiating with hijackers, and often killing potential terrorists, however, they cannot be denied their effectiveness. Israeli commandos are often recognized as the best in the world and their training is as demanding as the American Navy SEAL’s. In the era of growing number of terrorist attacks, it is worth taking a closer look at Israeli counterterrorism units, their experience and answer the question whether the methods, tactics and strategies used are appropriate and should be copied by special forces of other countries.

Próba analizy radykalnych islamistycznych organizacji militarnych: somalijskiej Al-Shabaab i czeczeńskiej Riyad us-Saliheyn

Author: Kamil Pietrasik
Institution: Towarzystwo Azji i Pacyfiku
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8579-0659
Year of publication: 2019
Source: Show
Pages: 46-63
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/so2019203
PDF: so/16/so1603.pdf

An attempt to analyze radical Islamist military organizations: the Somali Al Shabaab and the Chechen Riyad us-Saliheyn

In this text we presented the functioning and objectives of which are fighting the militants from the Somali terrorist group Al-Shabaab and the Chechen Riyad us-Saliheyn. Of course, keep in mind that these are not groups with global rather local, regional, however destabilize the regions in which they operate and the inhabitants of these places do not feel safe even in extreme cases, life deprived of mainly religious reasons.

Współczesne zagrożenia terrorystyczne w Republice Czeskiej

Author: Aleksander Ksawery Olech
Institution: Akademia Sztuki Wojennej
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000–0002–3793–5913
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 102-127
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20202504
PDF: npw/25/npw2504.pdf

Contemporary terrorist threats in the Czech Republic

Terrorism has been evolving and taking different forms since the beginning of the XXI century. It is closely related to the geopolitical situation in the world. The development of research of safety indicates evidently that terrorism currently constitutes one of the biggest threats to the security of countries. That is why the analysis of terrorist threats in Central European countries, including the Czech Republic, seems to be indispensable. It is the Western European countries that are struggling today with intrastate terrorism whose effects lead to destabilization of national integrity and jeopardise social security. This situation is also important for neighbouring countries and international organisations to which they belong, such as the European Union or NATO. Data collected between 2014 and 2019 shows that the Czech Republic has improved its terrorist threat combating system and it is constantly reducing the impact of threats on the situation in the country. Terrorism as a phenomenon, and at the same time a kind of weapon for the increasing number of its proponents, needs to be acknowledged immediately. Its complexity imposes determining ways of countervailing it in the future. The presented analysis is a sort of study on cases in the context of threats with the characteristic of terrorism in the Czech Republic.

Węgry w działalności chorwackiego ruchu ustaszy (1929–1934)

Author: Jędrzej Paszkiewicz
Institution: Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7115-9284
Year of publication: 2021
Source: Show
Pages: 131-148
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/hso210407
PDF: hso/31/hso3107.pdf
License: This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license CC BY-NC-ND 4.0.

Hungary’s role in the activity of the Ustasha – Croatian Revolutionary Movement (1929–1934)

Hungary’s role in the activity of the Ustasha - Croatian Revolutionary Movement (1929-1934). The Ustasha (Ustaša) movement developed in Hungary, establishing its cadre organisation framework, seeking the support of Croatian migrant communities and training task forces in diversion and terrorist tactics. Following their disclosure, however, they were no longer supported by the Hungarian authorities.

Selected Problems of Security Control in Civil Aviation Based on Own Empirical Research

Author: Gabriel Nowacki
Institution: Military University of Technology
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5357-8824
Author: Bohdan Paszukow
Institution: Aviation Security and CBRN, EDD, EU COM Working Group
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5357-8824
Published online: 18 October 2021
Final submission: 13 September 2021
Printed issue: 2021
Source: Show
Page no: 19
Pages: 69-87
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy202148
PDF: ppsy/50/ppsy202148_6.pdf

The paper refers to the evolution of methods, new technologies, and devices in security control processes in light of civil aviation requirements, procedures, and increased flow of passengers. The research problem has been defined as follows: How shall the international airport security controls function in the context of regulatory and operational conditions and current and future threats? In reference to the problem, the research hypothesis was defined as follows: Security control in civil aviation consists of screening persons and detecting prohibited articles and mainly depends on the professional competence of security staff and the proper selection and maintenance of electronic assistive devices. Professional competences refer to personnel’s knowledge, experience, qualification, monitoring, operational supervision, and quality control as part of their tasks. The development of new technologies requires the appropriate selection, commensurate with risk analysis, of electronic assistive devices, including equipment, methods, technical means, and their maintenance in a proper technical condition. The paper presents the results of empirical research conducted amongst experienced aviation security forums. Because of its complexity and unpredictability, this problem still leaves a wide margin for improvement and efficiency. The following research methods were used to solve the research problem: theoretical methods and empirical methods: diagnostic survey and expert interview.

Unmanned Aerial Vehicle - a Lethal Weapon of Tomorrow for Terrorists

Author: Aleksander Olech
Institution: Baltic Defence College
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3793-5913
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 44-60
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223203
PDF: npw/32/npw3203.pdf

Unmanned Aerial Vehicle - a Lethal Weapon of Tomorrow for Terrorists

Terrorism has been used as a form of combat for centuries. Over the years, the tools used by terrorists have evolved. While attacks with cold weapons still take place, nowadays terrorists also use explosives, machine guns, guided missiles and increasingly often drones. The present growth of the arms market has led to terrorist groups being heavily militarized, as they can successfully acquire modern weapons and subsequently use them in their attacks. This state of affairs has directly affected the security of states and societies, and subsequently became a principal subject of discussion on international security forums. Contemporary global terrorist threats also harness artificial intelligence that supports weaponized robots, missiles, as well as clusters of killer drones. This narrative arose a few years ago, indicating that terrorists may have a vastly greater array of options at their disposal because they may cooperate with some states that would back them up. The chance for terrorist organisations to gain access to artificial intelligence technologies only increased due to the global competition surrounding it. Due to this potential spreading, terrorists will have a chance to operate weapons supported by AI. These events then merge into a deeply concerning scenario which conceivably may have to be confronted. The threat of terrorist organisations possessing and using swarms of drones does not seem to be very distant.

Polityka Unii Europejskiej w zakresie zwalczania terroryzmu

Author: Nicole Pietrzak
Institution: Uniwersytet Kazimierza Wielkiego w Bydgoszczy
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0747-6234
Year of publication: 2018
Source: Show
Pages: 72-89
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/siip201804
PDF: siip/17/siip1704.pdf

The European Union policies in the area of combating terrorism

The subject of this dissertation is the European Union policies in the area of combating terrorism. The fact that terrorism is regarded as being one of the biggest threats to European Security determined the choice of the subject. The author has tried to explain the terminology applying to terrorism, the history of terrorism, and present methods of fight against it. The objective of the article is the analysis of the European Union main actions taken and decisions made in this respect. One of many determinants that influenced tightening of this policy were the 9/11 terrorist attacks in the USA on 11 September 2001. Also, frequent terrorist attacks forced the European Union member states constant cooperation and continued efforts regarding actions to counter terrorism which is both social and political phenomenon.

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