The Second Polish Republic

The image of Chinese and Japanese Theatre in selected popular and artistic press printed in Poland in 1930s

Author: Katarzyna Michalewicz
Institution: Uniwersytet Wrocławski
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1011-906X
Year of publication: 2021
Source: Show
Pages: 144-164
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20213007
PDF: npw/30/npw3007.pdf

The image of Chinese and Japanese Theatre in selected popular and artistic press printed in Poland in 1930s.

Journalists who described Oriental theatres usually based their narrative on personal experience. Both specialist, mass and popular press paid particular attention to elements that distinguished Japanese and Chinese theatre from their European counterpart. The length of performance, innovative technical solutions, different acting style were the elements that received most attention. Nonetheless, sometimes it was impossible to explain the origins of those differences. Furthermore, the above-mentioned differences usually spoke against Chinese theatre. It was criticized for different music, moveable stage scenery, exaggerated acting that was hard to understand. Such attitude was the result of lack of understanding of Chinese opera’s conventions. On the other hand, press eagerly commended the richness of Chinese actors’ costumes and ,,shadow puppet theatre”. Moreover, Polish press also stressed that both classical and modern Chinese theatre enjoyed immense popularity among Chinese people. Polish press went easy on theatrical art in Japan depicting differences that were in many cases the same as in Chinese theatre as something neutral, even positive as it gave the play magical touch. Sometimes it was emphasized that Japanese theatre could become a source of inspiration for its European counterpart. It was praised for masks, costumes, moveable stage scenery and music. It is interesting that in the last two instances Chinese theatre was looked down on. Polish press also spoke favourably of puppet theatre and ,,Takarazuka” performances. On the other hand, magazines’ opinions on acting varied.

Żona, gejsza czy emancypantka? Wizerunek Japonek w wybranej prasie polskiej w latach 30. XX wieku

Author: Katarzyna Michalewicz
Institution: Uniwersytet Wrocławski
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1011-906X
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 7-28
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/so2022201
PDF: so/22/so2201.pdf

Wife, Geisha, or Suffragist? – An Image of Japanese Women in the Selected The Second Polish Republic Press in the 1930s

The Polish interwar press tried to bring its readers closer to the inhabitants of the Land of the Rising Sun. Many articles were devoted to Japanese women. Usually, it was done by mass magazines such as sensational “As” and travel-geographical “Na Szerokim Świecie” [On the Broad World] published by holding “Ilustrowany Kurier Codzienny” [Illustrated Daily Courier], as well as Warsaw “Naokoło Świata” [Around the World], and women’s magazines, e.g., “Bluszcz” [Ivy]. A Japanese was presented either as a mysterious woman of exotic beauty and a mysterious soul, a wife devoted to the family, a victim of the patriarchal system, or an emancipate fighting for political, professional, and social rights. The mass magazines and women focused on the social situation of Japanese women, stressing that it was extremely unfavourable and, as an example, gave their unequal position in marriage. However, they added that their position had improved rapidly, although they still had a long way to go to emancipate. The interwar press tried to combat common stereotypes about the inhabitants of Japan. One was to say that all Japanese women are, by nature, perfect wives, mothers, and mothers-in-law, and the other that geishas are luxury prostitutes.

Aktywność społeczna stowarzyszeń kolejarzy w Polsce międzywojennej

Author: Agnieszka Suplicka
Institution: Uniwersytet w Białymstoku
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7107-0327
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 104-121
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2022.01.06
PDF: kie/135/kie13506.pdf

Social activity of railway workers’ associations in Poland in interwar period

The aim of the article is to present the activities of railwaymen’s associations and social activity in the period of the Second Polish Republic. Railwaymen belonged to numerous and very diverse social organizations, engaged in charity, cooperative, and sports work as well as local and national initiatives. Railway workers’ associations were one of the forms of supporting the Polish state in solving important social and living problems. Their activity is an excellent example of social commitment – the implementation of educational and cultural, social and living as well as health and recreational goals, not only of the railway community but also other social associations of the interwar period. The article presents the social activity of railwaymen undertaken within the associations, with an indication of their theoretical and legal foundations and practical ways of achieving their goals. The article is based on printed sources, including statutes and reports, normative documents, articles from magazines published in the interwar years referring to the issue under study, and contemporary studies. The presented examples of associations indicate that they played an important role in the socio-political, economic, educational and cultural life of the interwar period. The activities of railwaymen undertaken within the associations initiated many useful actions, which became a creative factor that had a positive impact on the life of this professional group.

Pierwsze lata batalii o miejsce Gabriela Narutowicza w pamięci historycznej

Author: Marek Białokur
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 33-59
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/pbs.2017.02
PDF: pbs/5/pbs502.pdf

Early years of the battle for Gabriel Narutowicz’s place in historical memory

This articles discusses what actions were undertaken to commemorate the first president in the Polish history. Gabriel Narutowicz was elected the President in December 1922 and assassinated by a political fanatic just a few days later, on the second day of holding the office. The death of the chief of state was a climax of fierce political war fought on the Polish political arena in 1922. Right after his assassination for some communities in the Second Polish Republic President Narutowicz became a symbolic victim of Polish national fanaticism, as left-wing formations used him as a tool to fight with right-wing groups in Poland. Their activities included fundraising to commemorate the President by erecting statues, naming streets and public institutions after him, organizing anniversary special events or publishing books, just to name a few. Not only did the results of such actions turn to be effective, they also proved to be incredibly long-lasting.

Polscy przedstawiciele dyplomatyczni w Rumunii w latach 1918–1940. Część II: 1923–1940

Author: Henryk Walczak
Year of publication: 2017
Source: Show
Pages: 61-84
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/pbs.2017.03
PDF: pbs/5/pbs503.pdf

Polish diplomatic representatives in Romania in the years 1918–1940 Part II 1923–1940

Polish representatives in Bucharest in the interwar period were – what is obvious – executors of the Polish government’s foreign policy, formulated by the successive Ministers of Foreign Affairs. They had to act within that framework. In exceptional circumstances were Linde and Koźmiński, who happened to act in conditions of nonexistence of a single center shaping Polish foreign policy and they often had to demonstrate creativity, without any directives coming from the top. To a certain extent in a similar situation was Raczyński, who also had to act independently, in a state of necessity – as he claimed – ignoring the supremacy of the Minister of Foreign Affairs interned in Romania. Effective professionals efficiently performing the tasks allocated to them were Wielowieyski, Szembek and Arciszewski. Jurjewicz was perceived as much less energetic. His relatively low activity on the position of the envoy, however, was largely derived from minister Seyda’s passive policy towards Romania. Undoubtedly, the most prominent Polish diplomat in Bucharest was Alexander Skrzyński. He not only performed his duties of the representative of the Republic of Poland with the invention but he also showed his own initiative, when Poland was in extremely difficult war situation in 1919–1920.

Die polnische Anwaltschaft in der Zwischenkriegszeit (1918–1939)

Author: Małgorzata Materniak-Pawłowska
Institution: Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu
Year of publication: 2015
Source: Show
Pages: 124-149
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/tpn2015.1.07
PDF: tpn/8/TPN2015107.pdf

The Bar, as a professional group dealing with defence and representation, has been developing on Polish lands at least since the beginning of the XVI century. However, only in the second half of the XIX century, so already after Poland was partitioned, the Bar association acquired its first self-government organization. The particularly intensive period of development of the Bar took place during the existence of the Second Polish Republic. The issue of legal basis of its functioning was regulated at the time. The old, unsystematic and post partition legislation was replaced with uniform and more modern law created by the Polish legislator. The rules which constitute the basis of the Bar association system were specified. The rule of equality of the legal profession as well as the rule of freedom and independence of the Bar association were the ones which gained the most importance. Furthermore, the issues connected with performing the legal profession were regulated and specified. Among the aforementioned issues were the following: the essential requirements necessary to perform the profession, the forms in which it is performed, the range of legal activities and the possibility of combining the legal profession with other activities, the rights and duties of a lawyer as well as disciplinary responsibility. Consequently, the interwar period was a short, albeit extremely important stage of the legal corporation’s development.

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