totalitaryzm

Odpowiedzialność funkcjonariuszy Policji i innych współczesnych formacji za pełnienie służby w organach bezpieczeństwa PRL – aspekty konstytucyjne

Author: Marcin Dąbrowski
Institution: Uniwersytet Warmińsko-Mazurski
Year of publication: 2018
Source: Show
Pages: 121-144
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2018.02.07
PDF: ppk/42/ppk4207.pdf

Liability of Police Officers and Other Contemporary Formations for Participation in the Secret Service of the Polish People’s Republic – Constitutional Aspects

The article concerns on a problem of social security and analyzes issue of the change of provisions which regulate pensions of officers of communistic security services, who served their duties after the communistic system collapsed in the Republic of Poland (after the year 1990). The amendment of statutory law has seriously reduced the amount of pensions of indicated above officers. Firstly the author of the essay criticizes the statutory definition (temporal limits) of the totalitarianism, which took place in Poland after the Second World War. It is found that provisions wrongly indicates that communistic totalitarianism ended in 1990, while historians officially claim that it had taken place in 1956. In the second part of the article the author argues that statutory changes seriously violate the provisions of the Constitution of the Republic of Poland of 1997. New, actually binding provisions are unfair, demoralizing and discriminate persons who legally preformed duties in security formations after the year 1990.

Plato and the Universality of Dignity

Author: Marek Piechowiak
Institution: Uniwersytet Humanistycznospołeczny SWPS, Instytut Prawa, Wydział Zamiejscowy w Poznaniu
Year of publication: 2015
Source: Show
Pages: 5-25
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/tpn2015.2.01
PDF: tpn/9/TPN2015201.pdf

An important argument in favour of recognising the cultural relativism and against universality of dignity and human rights, is the claim that the concept of dignity is a genuinely modern one. An analysis of a passage from the Demiurge’s speech in Timaeus reveals that Plato devoted time to reflecting on the question of what determines the qualitative difference between certain beings (gods and human being) and the world of things, and what forms the basis for the special treatment of these beings – issues that using the language of today can be described reasonably as dignity. The attributes of this form of dignity seem to overlap with the nature of dignity as we know it today. Moreover, Plato proposes a response both to the question of what dignity is like, as well as the question of what dignity is. It is existential perfection, rooted in a perfect manner of existence, based on a specific internal unity of being. Dignity is therefore primordial in regard to particular features and independent of their acquisition or loss. Plato’s approach allows him to postulate that people be treated as ends in themselves; an approach therefore that prohibits the treatment of people as objects. Both the state and law are ultimately subordinated to the good of the individual, rather than the individual to the good of the state.

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