Forms of Cyber-bullying from the Aspect of Cyber-victims – Elementary and Secondary School Pupils

Author: Jana Makúchová
Author: Miriam Niklová
Year of publication: 2018
Source: Show
Pages: 150-161
DOI Address:
PDF: tner/201801/tner20180112.pdf

The Internet and cyber-space create a platform where a new form has emerged, i.e., bullying, so far occurring mainly within school premises. The study presents results of empirical research conducted at selected elementary and secondary schools in Slovakia in 2017. The aim of the study was to elucidate the most frequent current cyber-bullying platforms and occurrence of individual forms of cyber-bullying with regard to cyber-victims. The research sample consisted of 1004 respondents, aged 10–20 (AM 14.9). Empirical data were collected using the method of questioning in the form of a written questionnaire. We focused on cyber-bullies, electronic platforms and identification of cyber-bullying forms from the point of view of cyber-victims and pupils’ gender and age. It was found out that 24.50% of pupils reported to have been cyber-victimized, girls more often than boys. The most frequent form of cyber-bullying from the point of view of cyber-victims was abusive or offensive language on the Internet and spreading rumours on the Internet.

Victim and Guardian: A Short Ethical Reconnaissance

Author: Marcin Jaranowski
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 145-153
DOI Address:
PDF: kie/112/kie11211.pdf

The article Victim and Guardian: A Short Ethical Reconnaissance is a proposal for fundamental rethinking of the phenomenon of care and support in the context of the experience of evil. The author analyses the phenomenon of transitivity of evil, and describes suffering of a guardian as an extension of the harm done to the victim. He notices that the expectation of care occurring in a difficult situation is one of the fundamental claims in social life, and not receiving it is one of the most painful moral experiences. Finally, the author emphasizes the moral value of guardian’s participation in the defeat of the victim. He says that we do not need the notion of triumph over evil to recognize this value.

The specifics of proving causing moral damage to the employee

Author: Olha Panchenko
Institution: National Academy of Internal Affairs
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 93-107
DOI Address:
PDF: rop/21/rop2106.pdf

The article is devoted to causation as one of the main conditions for compensation for moral damage. The specifics of causal link in labor relations are considered and it is established that the theory of direct and indirect causation is the most acceptable from both theoretical and practical perspective for solving the question of its presence or absence. It is proved that an illegal act on the part of the employer should result in moral damage to the latter; if there is no such connection, then, accordingly, the damage to the employee was caused for other reasons, which means that there is no obligation in this legal relationship. Particular attention is paid to primary (direct) and indirect (secondary) moral damage, as moral damage may lie in pain-related experiences or in connection with a disease caused by mental suffering. The process of proving the fact of moral damage and the existence of a causal link, which is quite specific in the employment relationship, is considered. The employee can prove the existence of moral damage by the following means: 1) written, physical and electronic evidence; 2) expert opinion; 3) testimony. Some legal practitioners argue that most labor courts today actually apply the presumption of moral damage, but we do not agree with this conclusion, although we insist on enshrining it in Ukrainian legislation. In our opinion, any lawlessness on the part of the employer affects both the employee’s mental health, i.e. his (her) self-esteem, self-reliance, attitude to the events taking place in his (her) life, etc., and physical health, i.e. the normal functioning of the body. It is proved that it is expedient to involve an expert in every case related to compensation for moral damage in labor relations, whose conclusion is important both in the process of proving the fact of moral damage and determining its amount. Only a specialist is able to properly assess the characteristics of the victim’s behavior in problematic situations and the features of his (her) emotional state under certain circumstances.

Віктимолого-психологічна модель реабілітації неповнолітніх жертв сексуального насильства

Author: Тетяна Тіточка (Tetiana Titochka)
Institution: Donetsk State University of Internal Affairs
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 55-62
DOI Address:
PDF: cpls/4/cpls406.pdf

Victimology-Psychological Model of Rehabilitation of Minor Victims of Sexual Violence

The article examines the peculiarities of victimological and psychological rehabilitation of adolescents who suffered from sexual violence. Attention is drawn to the fact that statistical data and judicial practice show that the consequences of sexual violence against minors are often irreparable, especially if the child was not provided with timely help. It is indicated that sexual violence, in any case, is the so-called «trigger point» for counting the formation of psychological injuries, which in most cases lead to the emergence of a person, especially a minor, in a retrospective phenomenon, which consists in an episodic return to the event , which caused an injury. In this regard, the rehabilitation of such children should begin with establishing not only psychological and physiological determination, but also criminological and victimological conditions and background phenomena, which in symbiosis contributed to or facilitated the commission of sexual violence. As in the case of working with criminal offenders, as well as with victims, the creation of specific models of actual or potentially deviant behavior with the allocation of correlations with psychological and moral features of a person’s personality becomes especially relevant. Victimological prevention should always include identifying the basic conditions for the creation of deviant instructions that contributed to the adolescent getting into an unfavorable situation and working out possible ways to avoid it in retrospect. Any rehabilitation should begin with a balanced dialogue, which will give the child the opportunity in a favorable environment to work with a specialist on all aspects of a socially dangerous event and build a behavioral algorithm that will allow him to avoid victim relapse in the future. It was concluded that the main rehabilitation measures and means are: 1) creating a sense of security in the minor victim of sexual violence; 2) building a dialogue taking into account the characteristics of the child’s personality and the event of a criminal offense committed against him; 3) working out, if possible, the maximum number of trigger zones associated with a socially dangerous event; 4) adjusting the child to positive reframing; 5) prevention of repeated and secondary victimization; 6) closure of gestalts associated with episodes of sexual violence. Rehabilitation of such children should take place due to the consolidation of efforts of medical workers, teachers, psychologists, criminologists and victimologists.

Potencjalna ofiara naruszeń praw człowieka na tle systemu ochrony Europejskiej Konwencji Praw Człowieka

Author: Dominika Kuna
Institution: Uniwersytet SWPS w Warszawie
Year of publication: 2024
Source: Show
Pages: 149-160
DOI Address:
PDF: ppk/78/ppk7811.pdf

Potential Victim of Human Rights Violations on the Background of the Protection System of the European Convention on Human Rights

The article’s purpose is to present the concept of a potential victim of violations of the rights and freedoms of the European Convention on Human Rights. A group of complainants is treated as a victim, even though the violation affects society. The qualification of complainants as victims of human rights violations can be treated as the creation of European human rights law. The role of the Court is to apply the so-called ‘push’ and ‘pull’ factors, which cannot only effectively contribute to the implementation of the principles of the ECtHR. The article addresses the problem of the assumptions of the living instrument doctrine and the interpretation of the law currently associated with the active activity of judges (judge-made law). The concept of the potential victim of human rights violations represents an opportunity for the postulated expansion of the catalog of fundamental rights.

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