victimology

Віктимолого-психологічна модель реабілітації неповнолітніх жертв сексуального насильства

Author: Тетяна Тіточка (Tetiana Titochka)
Institution: Donetsk State University of Internal Affairs
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5924-614X
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 55-62
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/CPLS.20224.06
PDF: cpls/4/cpls406.pdf

Victimology-Psychological Model of Rehabilitation of Minor Victims of Sexual Violence

The article examines the peculiarities of victimological and psychological rehabilitation of adolescents who suffered from sexual violence. Attention is drawn to the fact that statistical data and judicial practice show that the consequences of sexual violence against minors are often irreparable, especially if the child was not provided with timely help. It is indicated that sexual violence, in any case, is the so-called «trigger point» for counting the formation of psychological injuries, which in most cases lead to the emergence of a person, especially a minor, in a retrospective phenomenon, which consists in an episodic return to the event , which caused an injury. In this regard, the rehabilitation of such children should begin with establishing not only psychological and physiological determination, but also criminological and victimological conditions and background phenomena, which in symbiosis contributed to or facilitated the commission of sexual violence. As in the case of working with criminal offenders, as well as with victims, the creation of specific models of actual or potentially deviant behavior with the allocation of correlations with psychological and moral features of a person’s personality becomes especially relevant. Victimological prevention should always include identifying the basic conditions for the creation of deviant instructions that contributed to the adolescent getting into an unfavorable situation and working out possible ways to avoid it in retrospect. Any rehabilitation should begin with a balanced dialogue, which will give the child the opportunity in a favorable environment to work with a specialist on all aspects of a socially dangerous event and build a behavioral algorithm that will allow him to avoid victim relapse in the future. It was concluded that the main rehabilitation measures and means are: 1) creating a sense of security in the minor victim of sexual violence; 2) building a dialogue taking into account the characteristics of the child’s personality and the event of a criminal offense committed against him; 3) working out, if possible, the maximum number of trigger zones associated with a socially dangerous event; 4) adjusting the child to positive reframing; 5) prevention of repeated and secondary victimization; 6) closure of gestalts associated with episodes of sexual violence. Rehabilitation of such children should take place due to the consolidation of efforts of medical workers, teachers, psychologists, criminologists and victimologists.

Criminal Law and its Victim-Oriented Development: an Academic Inquiry

Author: Viacheslav Tuliakov
Institution: University of Castilla La-Mancha
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2716-7244
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 70-74
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/CPLS.2023308
PDF: cpls/7/cpls708.pdf

In the 21st century, one of the essential roles of the Criminal Code is to protect the rights and interests of crime victims. Criminal law is a complex field that must balance established principles with evolving societal dynamics. This involves various stakeholders, including the state, perpetrators, victims, and civil society, each with differing views on criminal law. The modern era, marked by post-truth narratives and a reputational society, has further complicated matters. Casuistry now prevails over systematic approaches, leading to a disconnect between criminal law’s foundational principles and intended societal outcomes. Contemporary criminal law operates on multiple dimensions, addressing individual, societal, and institutional levels while aiming to balance the interests of these entities. The transition from the “age of information” to the “age of reputation” underscores the importance of information subjected to external evaluation. In the context of harmonizing Ukrainian criminal legislation with EU and Council of Europe norms, it is vital to protect human rights. This aligns with a Committee of Ministers recommendation that recognizes crime as a wrong against society and a violation of individual rights, emphasizing the importance of safeguarding victim rights. Approaching criminal law from a victimological perspective offers unique insights into victim participation in criminal liability, crime qualification, and offender culpability. This perspective encourages assessing the efficacy of criminal law prohibitions and promoting victim engagement in crime control.

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