violence

Soldier Woman. Woman in the Arms of the Mars

Author: Jarosław J. Piątek
Institution: University of Szczecin
Year of publication: 2013
Source: Show
Pages: 165-177
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/rop201310
PDF: rop/2013/rop201310.pdf

A term „violence”, despite transformations of the meanings, has always been connected with relations between genders, and as such, what it means in a given society to be a woman and a man and which economic, social and psychological relations have been assigned to these categories. At least since the 18th century, unequal share of the power between men and women has been justified with, among others, a different share of “passion” and different potential of violence. A real power ready to use violence should be focused on the men side while a tasks of women should be neutralizing men’s readiness to use violence, achieved by subjecting themselves to men. For thousands of years military battles have been almost exclusively a man’s privilege. Even 100 years ago, women did not have a right to vote even in western countries with the longest democratic traditions. Today, giving a woman the highest office in a state is not unusual. So can we talk about a fall of the patriarchy and replacing men by women even in such man fields as war and military battles?

Causes and Management Strategies of Violent Activities in Tertiary Education Institutions in North-Central Nigeria

Author: Isiaka Abdulaziz
Institution: University of Ilorin in Ilorin
Author: AbdulrasaqOlatunji Balogun
Institution: University of Ilorin in Ilorin
Author: AlexanderOlushola Iyekolo
Institution: University of Ilorin in Ilorin
Year of publication: 2018
Source: Show
Pages: 122-134
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/tner.2018.54.4.10
PDF: tner/201804/tner5410.pdf

The presented descriptive study involved three hundred and sixty five (365) lecturers and one thousand one hundred and sixty two (1,162) students selected from twelve (12) tertiary education institutions spread across North-Central Nigeria, making a thousand five hundred and twenty seven (1,527) respondents for the study. The main instrument used to obtain data for this study was adapted questionnaire, two research questions and three hypotheses were formulated. The hypotheses were tested using the t-test statistical technique at 0.05 level of signifi cance. Sociologists, religious leaders, the government, homes and school management should embark on enlightenment campaign programs.

About Women in Conflicts and Wars: Theories of Violence and Collective Memory

Author: Inga B. Kuźma
Institution: University of Łódź (Poland)
Author: Edyta Pietrzak
Institution: Łódź University of Technology (Poland)
Year of publication: 2019
Source: Show
Pages: 49-64
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2019103
PDF: ppsy/48-1/ppsy2019103.pdf

The article deals with the subject of relations between theories of violence and the category of collective memory in relation to women’s war stories. The text introduces the issue of war and conflict, understanding the theory of violence, the category of collective memory and female war narratives, as well as the ways of their political interpretation. The interpretation is crucial because of method used in the research, meaning hermeneutics, but also because of the, presented here, perspective of polyphony.

Retrospektywne spojrzenie na przemoc rówieśniczą w szkole

Author: Aleksandra Tłuściak-Deliowska
Year of publication: 2016
Source: Show
Pages: 11-32
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2016.03.01
PDF: kie/113/kie11301.pdf

Research on bullying in schools (1) are taken mainly in the quantitative methodology and (2) are conducted mainly on the regular basis in order to diagnose the phenomenon, evaluating its size and severity, as well as its determinants. The main aim of article is to present results of retrospective study on the experience of peer violence (e.g. the bully, bullied and bystander) at school (primary, middle and high school), with a particular focus on written statements of respondents. The data source was autobiographical memory of young adults. The study was conducted in the current academic year 2014/2015 among pedagogy students of the specialties of teacher education. As a result, the retrospective qualitative data about school experience of young adults were collected. Accept descriptions revealed a variety of personal experiences of respondents associated with peer violence at school, mainly from the perspective of its bystanders and victims. Data also provide a unique account of how adults view and perceived their school experiences.

Mysterium tremendum: el sacrifi cio humano como motivo literario en la narrativa latinoamericana contemporánea

Author: Edyta Andzel-O’Shanahan
Institution: Investigadora independiente
Year of publication: 2019
Source: Show
Pages: 179-192
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/sal201906
PDF: sal/9/sal906.pdf

Mysterium tremendum - human sacrifice as a liter ary motif in contemporary Latin-American prose fiction

The aim of this article is twofold: firstly, it examines the meaning and the role of the frightening Aztec ritual of human sacrifice in its original religious and political context. Human sacrifice was an integral part of the Aztec world view. It facilitated the communication between the supernatural forces and the human world through the interchange of vital energy. Human sacrifice also had a political meaning, as over time it intensified and was transformed into a formidable display of state power. Secondly, the article investigates the use of human sacrifice as a literary motif in modern Latin-American prose fiction. The selected examples illustrate how the Aztec ritual has acquired different connotative values, distant from its original denotation. It has been transformed into a symbol of historical violence, existential fears and irrational reality.

Stereotyp mężczyzny jako ofiary przemocy - percepcja studentów

Author: Justyna Pikus
Institution: Uniwersytet w Białymstoku
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0159-3031
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 195-208
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2020.01.12
PDF: kie/127/kie12712.pdf

Changes occurring in the modern world have a significant impact on the perception of a number of social phenomena that are studied by social pedagogy. One of them is violence in partnerships, which is associated with the stereotype of a man as the main perpetrator of violence. Stereotypes functioning in the consciousness of our community are often inconsistent with reality. Most people, however, have the conviction that they are true and unchangeable. This conviction led to the sole identification of the woman with the victim and the man with the perpetrator of violence. Most people are unaware of the existence of battered husband syndrome. The aim of the article is to analyze the phenomenon of female violence against men in the perception of academic youth. Research analyzes presented in the article focus on the assumption of changing the stereotype of man as the perpetrators of violence.

Absence of Law to Protect Civilians during War in The Kite Runner

Author: Mustafa Wshyar
Institution: Koya University
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 115-123
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/so2020208
PDF: so/18/so1808.pdf

Absence of Law to Protect Civilians during War in The Kite Runner

This paper explores the topic of violence as it is represented in Khaled Hosseini’s The Kite Runner (2003). The aim is to look at the possibilities of representing violence in the fictional context. The novel is analyzed accordingly, through its characters and acts in order to see violence structures in the small narratives of each characters and the main narrative itself. For this purpose, disnarration is applied as a narratological approach.

Dziecko ma swoje prawa

Author: Angelika Lenart
Institution: Katolicki Uniwersytet Lubelski Jana Pawła II
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4106-1518
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 196-206
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ksm20202013
PDF: ksm/26/ksm2613.pdf

One of the most important rights for every child is the right to family upbringing and physical and mental integrity. The basis for proper functioning in adult life are proper growth conditions enabling the youngest children to undergo intellectual and emotional development. The educational environment influences the later quality of life of a young person, which shapes the potential serving the whole society. The most important and most important legal act in Poland is the Constitution of the Republic of Poland 2nd of April 1997 together with ratified international agreements, laws and regulations, ensures the protection of children’s rights.

Koncepcja kozła ofiarnego René Girarda jako inspiracja dla edukacji międzykulturowej

Author: Monika Humeniuk
Institution: Uniwersytet Wrocławski
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9888-3010
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 233-244
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/em.2020.02.12
PDF: em/13/em1312.pdf

W artykule zostaje przywołana koncepcja mimetyzmu i kozła ofiarnego autorstwa René Girarda. Zasada mimesis w ujęciu francuskiego intelektualisty stanowi fundament społecznej natury człowieka. Jako taka oznacza jednocześnie źródło społecznego cierpienia skutkującego kolektywną przemocą, jak i warunek ładu społecznego osiąganego za sprawą instytucji kozłów ofiarnych. Koncepcja kozła ofiarnego odwołuje się do czterech stereotypów, które składają się na schemat prześladowczy ukazujący przemoc jako specyficzną zasadę regulacji stosunków społecznych w sytuacji poważnego kryzysu społecznego. Zaprezentowane koncepcje zostały umieszczone w polu pytań, jakie stawiają współczesna pedagogika, edukacja międzykulturowa i krytyczna pedagogika religii.

Del rito ancestral al rito moderno. En torno a Leopardo al sol de Laura Restrepo

Author: Adriana Sara Jastrzębska
Institution: Universidad Jagellónica, Cracovia, Polonia
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 179-194
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/sal202008
PDF: sal/10/sal1008.pdf

From the ancestral rite to the modern rite. Around Leopardo al Sol by Laura Restrepo

This article proposes an analysis of Laura Restrepo’s Leopardo al sol (1993), a novel that proposes a sociocultural interpretation of the impact of the illegal economies of drug trafficking on traditional society. By analyzing the ingredients of the convention and poetics narco in the text, we observe how the violence represented in Leopardo al sol takes the form of a particular syncretism of modern elements of a civilization of spectacle and archaic elements intrinsic to mentalities anchored in mythical and magical thinking.

Przemoc ustanawiająca prawo i podtrzymująca prawo a wolne od przemocy środki („czyste środki”) rozwiązywania konfliktów między jednostkami i w polityce – w świetle teorii Waltera Benjamina

Author: Joanna Stepaniuk
Institution: Uniwersytet Warszawski
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4724-7687
Year of publication: 2021
Source: Show
Pages: 179-190
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/cip202110
PDF: cip/19/cip1910.pdf

Problematyka tekstu konkluduje wokół zagadnienia przemocy, którego źródła należy dopatrywać się w tekście „Przyczynek do krytyki przemocy” autorstwa Waltera Benjamina. Przedmiotem refleksji są różne formy przemocy ustanawiającej prawo, jak i przemocy podtrzymującej prawo, a także ich związku z wolnymi od przemocy środkami, a więc „czystymi środkami”. Takie podejście pozwala na krytyczną analizę zależności istniejącej między jednostką (człowiekiem), a funkcjonowaniem instytucji (państwa, władzy) opartej na określonych regulacjach prawnych. Tekst zachęca do zastanowienia się nad tym: czy przemoc rozumiana jako zasadna może być moralna? i czy wszelka przemoc jest środkiem do sprawiedliwego czy też niesprawiedliwego celu? Wydaje się, że część końcowa tekstu poprzez różnicowanie rodzajów przemocy, dzieląc ją na boską, mityczną, wychowawczą, pozwala odpowiedzieć na te dwa kluczowe, przedstawione wcześniej pytania.

Forms, Causes and Consequences of Gender Based Violence among in-School Adolescence in Ilorin Metropolis

Author: Elizabeth O. Uyanne
Institution: University of Ilorin
Year of publication: 2021
Source: Show
Pages: 62-75
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/tner.21.65.3.05
PDF: tner/202103/tner6505.pdf

Gender-based violence (GBV) is a global menace that has taken worrisome dimension in the Nigerian society especially among in-school adolescents. It is one of the challenges militating against total development of school aged children in Nigeria; hence, the purpose of the study was to investigate the form, causes and consequences of gender based violence among in-school adolescents in Ilorin metropolis in Nigeria. The study adopted a descriptive research of the survey type. There are 18 secondary school in Ilorin. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 10 schools from the available schools in Ilorin metropolis while random sampling technique was used to select 20 representatives from each selected secondary schools. A total of 200 representatives were used for the study. The result revealed a significant difference in the violence against male and female in-school adolescents. Females were shown to be more physically and sexually harassed as well as marginalized when compared to their male counterparts. The result would enable education stakeholders in Nigeria, especially classroom teachers, to be aware and alert on potential gender based violence against female students.

Individual and Educational Risk Factors for Violence Perpetration. Prophylactic Aspects of Pedagogization

Author: Danuta Rode
Institution: University of Silesia
Author: Magdalena Bolek
Institution: University of Silesia
Author: Mikołaj Cugowski
Institution: University of Silesia
Year of publication: 2014
Source: Show
Pages: 303-313
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/tner.14.37.3.24
PDF: tner/201403/tner3724.pdf

The article addresses the issue of risk factors for high aggression of women taking action of a violent nature. The study group consisted of 44 women selected on the basis of studies in Family Diagnostic and Consultation Centres, being remanded in custody, or imprisoned. The study examined the dependencies between intensification of aggression and such groups of variables as: educational circumstances, family socialisation conditions, manifestations of demoralization in childhood and adolescence periods, current life circumstances, demographic characteristics, and psychological variables. The application of multiple regression analysis allowed for distinguishing three main factors of women’s aggression (negativism, attitude to school, and theftin childhood/adolescence periods). On the basis of the research findings, psychological and pedagogical directions of prophylactic action were put forward.

Violence in a Comprehensive Perspective

Author: Camilla Pagani
Institution: Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, National Research Council, Italy
Year of publication: 2014
Source: Show
Pages: 148-161
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2014.05.09
PDF: kie/105/kie10509.pdf

This paper addresses some issues that I consider to be particularly important in order to better understand and possibly countervail the phenomenon of violence. It especially focuses on the following points: a) the concept of violence; b) the Seville Statement on Violence and the possibility of revisiting and updating it; c) emotional and cultural factors as causes of violence; d) a proposal of a new perspective on the study of the relations between ingroup and outgroup; e) the possible role of the awareness of the existence of death in the context of human violence; f) the necessity of including violence against animals in the study of human violence.

Aggressive Education of Children in the Family Environment

Author: Grażyna Poraj
Institution: University of Łódź
Year of publication: 2014
Source: Show
Pages: 162-181
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2014.05.10
PDF: kie/105/kie10510.pdf

Children’s individual experience gained within families may lead to the development of both prosocial and aggressive behaviours. The aim of the paper is to analyse the phenomenon of aggression in the family environment. Extensive specialist literature indicates that there are often many co-occurring factors that determine child aggression. Children live in a dysfunctional family, in conditions of poverty and parental pathology, experience parental hostility and violence, are neglected, their vital biological and psychological needs are not met, they undergo inadequate upbringing training. They also experience aggression in sibling relations. Thus, the family provides them with comprehensive aggressive education for years. An important issue is to prevent and control aggression in the family. It is not easy and requires actions at three levels: social, individual and family. The article also presents an interesting intervention model in a sibling aggression situation.

Why a Statement on Violence? Violence Can Be Psychobiologically Tamed

Author: J. Martin Ramirez
Institution: Hoover Institution, Stanford University, USA
Year of publication: 2014
Source: Show
Pages: 182-192
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2014.05.11
PDF: kie/105/kie10511.pdf

The Seville Statement on Violence (SSV) was originated by a launched UN-Committee of the International Society for Research on Aggression (ISRA) in the late seventies of the past century. Its final product, elaborated by more than twenty scholars from different scientific disciplines and from all continents, was presented in 1986 at the VI Coloquio Internacional sobre Cerebro y Agresión (CICA) in Seville. Three years later, it was endorsed by the 25th General Conference of UNESCO in Paris. Its main message was that violence, and consequently war too, are avoidable and aggressiveness can be tamed. The present article comments what were the main reasons which urged to elaborate it, and some difficulties found on the way.

Role of religion in peacebuilding and conflict resolution: case study of Islam

Author: Seraj Ahsan
Institution: Karabuk University, Karabuk, Turkey
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 7-27
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/rop2022401
PDF: rop/22/rop2201.pdf

Religion is perceived by several scholars as a source of conflict, violence, destruction and cruelty, despite all of these, a lot of people still believe in religion, they regard religion as source of peace, harmony, compassion, love and tolerance. So far as role of Islam in peace building and conflict resolution are concerned, Islam is no different from other religions, it also advocates same virtues as other religions do. But academic discourse on the subject largely identifies Islam with violence and conflict. This study is humble effort to illuminate those social capital that Islam has for establishing peace and resolving conflict, in the same time, this paper also examines Islamic approach toward peace building and conflict resolution by contextualizing Islamic texts as major source on the subject.

Media influence on children and adolescents

Author: Stanisław Juszczyk
Institution: University of Silesia Katowice, Poland
Year of publication: 2004
Source: Show
Pages: 93-110
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/tner.04.3.2.07
PDF: tner/200402/tner307.pdf

In the work a discussions focused on negative influences of the media on children and adolescents. The following domains of influence have been described: violence and its three effects: copycat violence, desensitization and catharsis; aggressive behaviour, sexual content, body image and self-esteem as well as physical health and school performance. The media change the system of humanistic values and attitudes of children and adolescents. In order to prevent the dangerous influence of the media parents and educators should advocate a safer media environment for children and adolescents through media literacy.

Bullying, Mobbing and Bossing as the Types of Violence in Schools

Author: Soňa Kariková
Institution: Matej Bel University, Banská Bystrica, Slovak Republic
Author: Miroslava Šimegová
Institution: Matej Bel University, Banská Bystrica, Slovak Republic
Year of publication: 2005
Source: Show
Pages: 79-95
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/tner.05.7.3.07
PDF: tner/200503/tner707.pdf

This contribution deals with the problems of violence at schools and has mainly a theoretical character. We would like to focus on an essential term definition that will be supplemented with some research findings. Currently, violence at schools is concentrated mainly on bullying among students as repeated, intentional and violent behaviour oriented on other student or students, who have no capability or power to resist this behaviour. Mobbing is relentless and systematic vilification of other colleague or colleagues, intriguing and conspiring, smearing in a work group. Bossing is psychological terror in the workplace, when a superior – boss, bullies one or some employees. In Slovakia, the violence problem at schools is not altogether solved. All three violence types (bullying, mobbing and bossing) have one common attribute of negative consequences on victim’s physical and mental health. The school setting creates some possibilities for bullying, mobbing and bossing, too.

The Choice of Pedagogical and Psychological Study as a Result of the Negative Experiences in the Family

Author: Michal Kanonowicz
Institution: Wrocław University, Poland
Year of publication: 2007
Source: Show
Pages: 91-105
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/tner.07.11.1.08
PDF: tner/200701/tner1108.pdf

Even though discovering true motives for studying at University/college is a difficult task, still it is indispensable. Identification of real motives may help to improve didactic and educational methods at Universities. Furthermore, the teaching process decides about the quality of education as well as the quality of the future graduates’ work. The article provides an analysis of choice for studying psychology and pedagogy as a result of negative experience in the student’s family.

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