World War II

  • Białoruś Zachodnia w interpretacji polskiej: wybrane wątki historyczne i motywy liryczne Część II: Polska wizja Białorusi w II wojnie światowej: widmo zdrady i obudzenie skruchy

    Author: Swietłana Czerwonnaja
    Year of publication: 2015
    Source: Show
    Pages: 154-176
    DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2015109
    PDF: npw/08/npw2015109.pdf

    The main theme in the Polish science and fiction literature, which in the postwar era evolved primarily in exile (in the works of Józef Mackiewicz and other authors whose interest was concentrated on Second World War times), are issues related to the lack of understanding and reconciliation between the Polish resistance movement, the history of the Home Army and the guerrilla groups of various nationalities (Belarusian, Lithuanian, Ukrainian, Russian) in the Polish Eastern Borderlands occupied by the Nazis and national organizations and liberation movements of nations that sought their own solutions to national problems by means of collaboration with the occupants. Misunderstandings, war clashes among themselves caused fatal misfortune, irreparable damage to the lives of these people and for the common cause against the occupant. At first the Polish literature was dominated by the desire to find the culprits of this situation among neighbours, among others to prove the guilt of the Belarusians in what formed in Polish Eastern Borderland during the war and occupation, then the creation of the communist regime, when, supposedly, Belarusians willingly and on a mass scale served in the Soviet authorities “gosbezopasnosti” and in the ranks of the Polish Department of Security (UB). Such a drive in the works of writers and scientific studies of recent decades is changing to a more objective approach and indepth analysis of the dramatic situation in which were nations of Eastern Europe, deceived by their own leaders, blinded by false illusions, pulled into a fratricidal war. In Polish literature, whose attention is paid to the situation of the Belarusian minority in post-war “People’s Poland” – situation in many aspects hard and unlawful – new intonations of repentance and reconciliation can be heard much louder. Evidence of this poetic light Belarus-Dobrorus image can be.

  • Dziennik Hansa Franka jako źródło historyczne do badań nad okupacją niemiecką podczas II wojny światowej

    Author: Mirosław Kłusek
    Year of publication: 2014
    Source: Show
    Pages: 88-97
    DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm201407
    PDF: ksm/19/ksm201407.pdf

    Official Hans Frank, not counting indexes includes 24 volumes of diaries and 11 volumes of minutes. Entries were conducted from 24 October, 1939 to April 3, 1945. It can be a great source of historical research into the German occupation during World War II. However, using the Journal, we must not forget the conditions under which arose and how it was given character – propaganda showing the construction of a new order in the East. Also be aware that the issues were not top secret protocols.

  • German Cultural Policy in the Reich Province of Danzig-West Prussia: A Short Characteristic

    Author: Sylwia Grochowina
    Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0124-1311
    Year of publication: 2018
    Source: Show
    Pages: 142-159
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2018.60.09
    PDF: apsp/60/apsp6009.pdf

    An important element of the ethnic and racial policy pursued by the German occupant in the Reich Province of Danzig-West Prussia was cultural policy (Kulturpolitik). Admittedly, since the first days of occupation the German authorities attached great importance to matters of culture – however, in the Nazi reality there was no cultural policy understood as encouragement and support offered by state authorities for independent, artistic creativity in its varied forms. The Nazis “controlled” culture, which played an important role in the process of creating a new reality in the annexed Polish territories. In the present paper, the author discusses selected issues illustrating the organization and forms of German cultural life in the Danzig-West Germany Province of the Reich. In outlining the German cultural policy, two main aspects were taken into account: culture as just another component of the broader German nationalistic and ethnic policy, as well as its role as an integral part of social reality.

  • Przeszłość, pamięć, wojna: powracające spojrzenia

    Author: Piotr Zwierzchowski
    E-mail: piotr.zwierzchowski@ukw.edu.pl
    Institution: Uniwersytet Kazimierza Wielkiego w Bydgoszczy
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1770-777X
    Year of publication: 2019
    Source: Show
    Pages: 112-123
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2019.03.08
    PDF: kie/125/kie12508.pdf

    W niniejszym tekście porównuję kilka filmów z lat 60. oraz przełomu pierwszej i drugiej dekady XXI wieku: Jak być kochaną (1962) Wojciecha Jerzego Hasa i Joannę (2010) Feliksa Falka, Echa (1964) Stanisława Różewicza i Kreta (2010) Rafaela Lewandowskiego oraz Na melinę (1965) Różewicza i Obławę (2012) Marcina Krzyształowicza. Filmy te równie wiele dzieli, jak łączy. Niemniej jednak podobieństwa wydają się zbyt istotne, by przejść obok nich obojętnie. Nie tyle wojna czy lustracja są ich tematem, ile ludzie postawieni w niecodziennej sytuacji, ich wybory, postawy, dylematy, ale i miłości. W każdym razie w żadnym z nich wojna nie jest powodem do dumy czy chwały, niezależnie od tego, czy kończy się zwycięstwem, czy staje się przyczyną heroicznych zmagań i cierpień. Mimo upływu lat i różnych kontekstów dostrzegam w nich te same problemy, postawy, dyskurs wartości, rozwiązania ideowe i dramaturgiczne, ale też odrębność wobec dominujących wizerunków pamięci, przeszłości i wojny. Dzięki temu mogę zadać pytanie o status relacji między dawnym i nowym polskim kinem, skupić się na sensie pewnych prawidłowości bądź znaczeniu powtórzeń. Wszystkie te filmy łączy nieoczywistość, brak wiary w jednoznaczne odpowiedzi, używając pewnego uogólnienia - przełamanie stereotypów funkcjonujących w polskim myśleniu o przeszłości, pamięci i wojnie. Powrót do tych samych tematów, sposobów ujęcia, wątpliwości, porządku aksjologicznego nie oznacza prostej kontynuacji czy nawiązań, mających podkreślić odwołanie do klasyki polskiego kina. Nowe filmy stanowią raczej dowód na to, że kolejni twórcy poszukują odpowiedzi na uniwersalne pytania. Nie pozwalają kulturze zamknąć się w gotowych schematach.

  • „Obywatele sowieccy” w województwie poznańskim w latach 1945–1949

    Author: Krzysztof Stryjkowski
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9740-8816
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 112-134
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/hso200107
    PDF: hso/24/hso2407.pdf

    The article discusses the fate of individuals of interest of the Soviet authorities and deemed the USSR citizens. Some of them were forced labourers on their way back home from Germany and the occupied countries. A large part of them were inhabitants of Wielkopolska who used to have Russian or Soviet citizenship. The article presents treatment thereof in Wielkopolska in 1945-1949.

  • L’eroismo dimidiato: alcune riflessioni sull’autobiografismo ne Il sergente nella neve di Mario Rigoni Stern

    Author: Cristiano Bedin
    E-mail: cristiano.bedin@istanbul.edu.tr
    Institution: Istanbul University
    Year of publication: 2016
    Source: Show
    Pages: 17-32
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/IW.2016.07.01
    PDF: iw/07/iw701.pdf

    THE HALVED HEROISM: SOME REFLECTIONS ON AUTOBIOGRAPHISM IN MARIO RIGONI STERN’S IL SERGENTE NELLA NEVE

    this article aims to analyse the image that the writer Mario Rigoni Stern wants to give of himself as a soldier abandoned to his fate during the disastrous Russian campaign of 1942-1943. Hence, this paper begins by mentioning the importance of autobiographism in neorealist literature after World War II. In the first part of the article, works by Paul Ricœur, Philippe Lejeune, Ivan tassi, and Maria Anna Mariani will be considered in order to emphasise that, in autobiographical books, the writer “builds”, “transforms”, his or her own image according to a specific ideology. Following this premise, the analysis of Il sergente nella neve, according to the contemporary theories of autobiography, aims to highlight the image that the writer wants to give of himself as a soldier, an image simultaneously humanised and heroised. In fact, in his own humanity, Rigoni Stern’s hero tragically takes on an epic dimension. thus, it can be concluded that the inhuman effort of a man who is leftalone in front of a hostile nature and a powerful enemy creates a new example of the epic hero. Furthermore, the self-image modelled in this text is presented as an individual who is fighting not only for his own survival, but also for the survival of his companions. He is a leader to follow and a reference point, a soldier who does not fight for a political cause, but for greater values, like friendship, love, or honour.

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