wykroczenie

Glosa do postanowienia Sądu Rejonowego w Sieradzu z 27 kwietnia 2021 r. (II W 63/21)

Author: Jan Kulesza
Institution: Uniwersytet Łódzki
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0574-9120
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 337-342
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2022.01.27
PDF: ppk/65/ppk6527.pdf

Gloss to the judgment of the District Court of April 27, 2021 (II W 63/21)

The current Code of Petty Offenses entered into force in a different legal and socio-economic reality. It does not correspond to contemporary realities, its interpretation requires care, due to the necessity to consider the current Polish Constitution. Article 63a of the Code protects against behavior that violates the aesthetics of public space. Such behavior may not be punished when it does not violate public order, as it constitutes a form of exercising individual the freedom of expression.

Glosa do wyroku Sądu Okręgowego w Krośnie z 26 lipca 2021 r., sygn. akt II Ka 191/21

Author: Jan Kulesza
Institution: Uniwersytet Łódzki
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0574-9120
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 443-449
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2022.05.35
PDF: ppk/69/ppk6935.pdf

Gloss to the Judgment of the District Court in Krosno of July 26, 2021, file ref. no. II Ka 191/21

Pro-life activists, publicly displaying banners depicting human fetuses, have raised controversy. In the judgment, the perpetrator, who himself removed the banners and destroyed them while dismantling, was found guilty but not punished. The inability of the person who removes such content to claim their state of higher necessity is a derivative of their actions aiming at interests of the perpetrator who placed the banners. Behavior so directed may be justified as necessary defense, but higher necessity. Legal scholarship assumes that this type of pro-life activity is unlawful, legal practice fails to reflect such an assessment. It is practically impossible to rely on acting in self-defense, which requires the unlawfulness of the attack. If it is possible to call the police, the citizen does not have the right to self-defense. It also does not serve when the police are already there, but it does not intervene.

Demonstracyjne okazywanie lekceważenia w miejscu publicznym Narodowi Polskiemu, Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej lub jej konstytucyjnym organom a wolność wyrażania poglądów

Author: Maria Gołda-Sobczak
Institution: Uniwersytet im. Adma Mickiewicza w Poznaniu
Year of publication: 2015
Source: Show
Pages: 168-188
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/tpn2015.1.09
PDF: tpn/8/TPN2015109.pdf

Public manifestation of disregard for the Polish nation, the Republic of Poland and its constitutional authorities is a misdemeanor. Such disregard is not within the scope of the freedom of public debate. Such disregard is not within the concept of insult.

Prawo do obrony obwinionego o popełnienie wykroczenia z perspektywy art. 42 ust. 2 Konstytucji RP

Author: Piotr K. Sowiński
Institution: Uniwersytet Rzeszowski
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2210-5877
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 155-167
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2023.03.11
PDF: ppk/73/ppk7311.pdf

The Right to Defence of an Offence Defendant in the Light of Art. 42 sec. 2 of the Polish Constitution

The text presents the problem of autonomy of proceedings in misdemeanour cases, with particular emphasis on the situation of the accused and their right to defence. The author puts forward a thesis concerning the necessity to recognise that the provision of Art. 42 of the Constitution of the Republic of Poland should be applied to the accused, even though this provision refers to guarantees of the right to defence for persons appearing in criminal proceedings, and not literally for persons against whom proceedings in misdemeanour cases are conducted. The extension of constitutional guarantees to defendants is important for the defendants themselves, but also for the coherence of the justice system and court procedures, as only in this way does the constitutional benchmark of a fair trial become feasible.

Glosa do wyroku Sądu Najwyższego z 24 sierpnia 2023 r., sygn. akt IV KK 37/22

Author: Jan Kulesza
Institution: Uniwersytet Łódzki
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0574-9120
Year of publication: 2024
Source: Show
Pages: 297-303
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2024.01.22
PDF: ppk/77/ppk7722.pdf

Gloss on the Judgment of the Supreme Court of August 24, 2023, file ref. no. IV KK 37/22

The purpose of the gloss is to present the correct line of reasoning that the Supreme Court should have adopted to reach the conclusion approved by the glossator. Relevant jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights allows for the acceptance of the absence of a violation of the norm sanctioned as a result of the application of constitutional and convention interpretation, rather than just the lack of social harmfulness of the act, as basis for the denial of the element of criminality. Any legal restrictions on freedom of speech must arise from serious reasons and an urgent societal need.

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