youth

Political and Economic Determinants of the Attitudes of the Young Generation in the Russian Federation in 2020–2021

Author: Mateusz Kamionka
Institution: Pedagogical University of Kraków
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7316-145X
Author: Paweł Bielicki
Institution: Asia and Pacific Society in Toruń
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5015-6869
Year of publication: 2021
Source: Show
Pages: 67-87
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2021.72.04
PDF: apsp/72/apsp7204.pdf

The aim of our considerations is to present the most important determinants and implications characterizing the views of the young generation of Russians on the political and economic events taking place in the Russian Federation in 2020–2021. The subject of our interest will be the analysis of the causes of growing disapproval of young people towards the president of the country, Vladimir Putin, in this period. At the beginning of this study, we will examine the political situation in Russia following Putin’s next re-election in March 2018 and the deterioration in the economic situation of the country’s young citizens, multiplied by the outbreak and development of the coronavirus pandemic. An important problem that we faced is the attitude towards the return to the country in January 2021 of the oppositionist Alexei Navalny and his immediate detention by repressive state authorities, resulting in social protests, in which young Russians widely participated. It will also be important to analyze the role of social media in shaping the views of Russian youth. In addition, we will discuss the issue of economic problems of the Russian state that are increasing in strength, affecting the condition of the part of Russian society that is entering adulthood. In conclusion, we would like to answer the questions to what extent the disappointment of young Russians towards the person and government of Putin will contribute to the decline in support for him, and whether the Kremlin has real instruments to reverse the trend that is negative for the rulers.

Shaping an Identity as the Main Developmental Task of Youth in the Contemporary Socio-Cultural Reality

Author: Paulina Peret-Drążewska
Institution: Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9228-4009
Year of publication: 2021
Source: Show
Pages: 50-61
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2021.02.04
PDF: kie/132/kie13204.pdf

The self-creation of modern youth in the world of permanent change is closely related to the existing socio-cultural conditions and the psychosocial condition resulting from the experienced developmental stage. The changeability and relativity of the reality in which young people exist affects the process of searching for their “I”, which becomes more and more undefined, requiring constant updating, and changing. Therefore, it becomes necessary to undertake analyses of identity formation as the main developmental task of the youth period, with particular emphasis on the current socio-cultural reality, which is not insignificant for this process. The article presents the results of scientific research on the subjective aspect of the sense of identity of contemporary high school youth (out of the general population the author selected a population of 439 students of secondary schools, aged 15-19, located in the territory of the Wielkopolskie [Greater Poland] Voivodeship in Poland, random selection) measured by the TST (Twenty Statements Test). The presented results of research on the subjective aspect of the sense of identity of secondary school youth reveal an image of this age group as one that is still searching for its own identity core, and undergoing the process of implementation of developmental tasks belonging to the stage of adolescence. The analyses of the research results show the specificity of the process of shaping identity by young people in modern conditions. This issue is the main goal of the research presented in the article.

Concern, Pessimism and Neuroticism of Senior Undergraduates and Students

Author: Vrcic Amar Аnida
Institution: State university of Novi Pazar
Author: Milena Belic
Institution: State university of Novi Pazar
Author: Djerdji Erdes-Kavecan
Institution: State university Novi Pazar
Year of publication: 2021
Source: Show
Pages: 273-282
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/tner.21.64.2.22
PDF: tner/202102/tner6422.pdf

Th is paper explores the relations of concern, pessimism and neuroticism in two groups of young people, students in their fi nal year of high school, and senior undergraduates of diff erent faculties. In this research, we further want to check at what level these cognitive elements are expressed in young as well as whether there is a diff erence between the sexes. Th e study included 274 participants, average age of 20 from the South-Western Serbia. Th e following instruments were used: Scale of optimism / pessimism, Penn state questionnaire of concerns and GEN questionnaire for generalized neuroticism. Th e results showed that young people have a higher concern, pessimism, and that 17.9% of young people in our sample were neurotic. Female gender is more concerned and neurotic when compared to males.

Smartpone Addictive Behaviour in Adolescents

Author: Miriam Niklová
Institution: Matej Bel University
Author: Karina Zošáková
Institution: Matej Bel University
Author: Michal Novocký
Institution: Pavol Jozef Šafárik University in Košice
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 24-33
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/tner.20.62.4.02
PDF: tner/202004/tner6202.pdf

The aim of the contribution was to map the degree of smartphone addiction in adolescents by means of The Smartphone Addiction Scale (SAS-SV) short version designed by Kwon et al. (2013). The construct validity of the research tool was established by exploratory factor analysis. A unidimentional solution appeared suitable to work with. The internal consistency of the scale was determined by Cronbach’s alpha (0.831). 519 respondents aged 12 to 25 years (AM = 19.41; SD = 3.83) participated in the research. A statistically significant difference was confirmed in the degree of adolescents’ smartphone addiction by gender in favour of women, and by age, at which respondents got their first smartphones, in favour of those who got their smartphone at a younger age. The effect size of differences was weak. No statistically significant difference showed in the degree of smartphone addiction by school type attended by adolescents.

From the Analysis of Pedagogical Discourse to a Reflection on the Integration of Knowledge about Youth

Author: Helena Ostrowicka
Institution: Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz
Year of publication: 2014
Source: Show
Pages: 5-23
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2014.05.01
PDF: kie/105/kie10501.pdf

This paper offers a reflection on educational discourse with particular focus on pedagogical discourse about youth. It begins with terminological and methodological assertions. Making a distinction between the discourse of educational practice and pedagogical discourse, I attempted to identify some types of discourse about youth which have become prominent in pedagogical research. To grasp the characteristics of the discourse I referred to quite a wide selection of pedagogical texts which provide data about the ways of problematisation of the theme of youth. They included monographs devoted to youth, research reports and articles from pedagogical periodicals, published in the last decade. My research tools in the qualitative analysis of the texts were two basic analytical categories: ideological dominants (the concept of youth, dominant values attributed to young age and youth) and interrogative dominants (fundamental practices of formulating questions about youth, problematisation, and typical conceptual categories). The typology of discourses about youth derived from empirical studies was used to construct a theoretical model of the analysis of integration of knowledge about youth. The concluding section poses several questions pointing at some potentially interesting areas for future research into heterogeneous sources of knowledge about youth.

O równości jako kierunku zmiany i przedmiocie badań – Ryszarda Borowicza rozważania nad selekcjami w edukacji

Author: Arkadiusz Karwacki
Institution: Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu
Year of publication: 2014
Source: Show
Pages: 257-275
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2014.04.17
PDF: kie/104/kie10417.pdf

This text should be perceived as an review article in which the content of the monograph Social Inequalities in Access to Education… by Richard Borowicz allows for the presentation of his heritage which is leftfor the next generation of sociologists and educators. The text therefore exposes the approach to the profession of sociologist which was characteristic of Ryszard Borowicz, his scientific workshop and inspirations that we may draw from in relation to how to analyze the surrounding reality, how to communicate what we have determined, how to make methodological choices and, within them, choose the methods. At the same time, the text presents the continuity of the research into sociology of education in Poland, preserved also thanks to the research by the Author of the book discussed here. What is worth emphasizing is the diagnosis and assessment of the Polish transformation at the beginning of the twenty-first century in the context of young people’s educational fates (and their determinants), which is dominant in the monograph. The essence of Ryszard Borowicz’s research interests is the study on school selections. Therefore, the text contains an attempt at analyzing the findings in the book Social Inequality… relating to the mechanisms of selection in the educational system, including the analysis of the relevance of specific content, links with the findings by other researchers, and most of all, with the Author himself – his beliefs, motivations, and attitudes, which distinguished him in the scientific community.

Przekaz z granicy a potrzeba edukacji, czyli czego uczy młodzież wielokulturowa rzeczywistość?

Author: Alina Dworak
Institution: Uniwersytet Śląski w Katowicach
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5909-8896
Author: Agata Rzymełka-Frąckiewicz
Institution: Uniwersytet Śląski w Katowicach
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7173-2407
Author: Teresa Wilk
Institution: Uniwersytet Śląski w Katowicach
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7356-6502
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 167-177
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/em.2022.03.11
PDF: em/18/em1811.pdf

Message from the border and the need for education, or what it teaches young people multicultural reality

From the end of the summer of 2021, we have been receiving media messages showing the migration situation on the Polish-Belarusian border. The incoming images and information reveal the dramatic situation of people-refugees- migrants from the Middle East trying to reach Western European countries through our country. Deprived of humanitarian aid, they camp in the woods. Cold, hungry and sick, they expect help from the relevant services. The situation is very difficult, as it has a humanitarian and social dimension, but also, and perhaps above all, a political one. This image reaches adults, but also young people, who are not always able to understand the situation and the lack of help. Observing the attitudes of adults, young people take part in the lesson of indifference and acceptance of evil. The aim of this text is therefore to draw attention to the message received by the young generation and to identify what educational activities should be undertaken in educational environments in order to maintain responsibility and humanitarian values, which should dominate the educational and upbringing processes. So that in an increasingly multicultural world they become a common social practice.

Should grit be our educational goal? The relationship between grit and the mental well-being of youth in North-Eastern Poland

Author: Marcin Kolemba
Institution: University of Białystok
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9884-8672
Author: Tomasz Bajkowski
Institution: University of Białystok
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4931-8637
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 153-163
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/em.2022.04.10
PDF: em/19/em1910.pdf

The article presents the relationship between the grit factor and the mental well-being of young people recruited from high school students in Podlaskie Voivodeship (n = 275). The study was conducted using the Short Grit Scale (SGS) by A.L. Duckworth, the Psychological Well-Being Scales (PWBS) by C. Ryff and the Cantril’s Ladder of Life Scale. The obtained results indicate significant positive relationships of grit with the current assessment of the quality of life and mental well-being in each of the six dimensions measured with C. Ryff’s PWBS tool (autonomy, environmental mastery, personal growth, positive relations with others, purpose in life, and self-acceptance). Since grit is a construct showing positive relationships with well-being and quality of life and a modifiable one – it can be shaped at an early stage of development – it should be considered as an important element when drawing future educational plans.

The religiosity of young Poles and the development of the Internet against the background of American experiences

Author: Krzysztof Łuszczek
Institution: University of Szczecin
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1862-5028
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 215-229
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/em.2022.04.15
PDF: em/19/em1915.pdf

The article concerns selected problems in the development of the Internet in terms of its impact on the religious attitudes of young Poles. On the base of the research on the use of the Internet and the development of religiosity, their situation is presented in the context of the situation of American teenagers. Americans are one of the largest media markets and have strong and traditional Christian communities. Therefore, certain trends in religious attitudes could have appeared earlier and outlined more strongly there than in other parts of the world. Which of them are reflected in the Polish situation? How is the Internet used by young users in the United States and Poland? Is there anything specific to the Polish situation in shaping religious attitudes via the Internet? The final results of the comparative analysis undertaken are to lead to conclusions showing the characteristics of the Internet that enable it to influence the shaping of the world-view and to forecast directions in which these changes may go. Research on the Internet’s influence on religiosity has a short history, but dynamic changes in both religiosity and technology call for the opening of new research spaces.

Соціально-психологічна гармонізація молоді у політичному часо-просторі

Author: Олександр Федорков (Oleksandr Fedorkov)
Institution: кандидат психологічних наук (Candidate of Psychological Sciences)
ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0001-9096-082X
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 33-40
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/PPUSN.2022.02.03
PDF: pomi/05/pomi503.pdf

Socio-psychological harmonization of youth in political time-space

The article considers the description of the developed training program, which is aimed at optimizing the political behavior of young people and neutralizing the potential of their political conflict. It is determined that neutralizing the potential of political conflict among young people requires a number of measures, in particular, at the stage of providing educational services, which should include both educational and counseling activities aimed at optimizing the political behavior of young people. It is proved that an effective mechanism to counteract this and neutralize the destructive influences of extremist organizations is to increase the political culture and maturity of the political identity of the younger generation, namely the development of its political activity in line with democratic initiatives and political identity of the younger generation. stimulating youth participation. And the main forms of implementation of this are the involvement of young people in public administration, namely the internship of students in order to develop the necessary professional qualities and prepare for further work in local governments. It is also important to involve the most active youth representatives in community councils or advisory bodies, which will also help them to develop the professional skills needed to work in this field. It is determined that, given the multinational and multi-religious composition of modern Ukrainian society, it is especially important to hold mass events aimed at forming a tolerant attitude of young people to different cultures and traditions and non-acceptance of any manifestations of intolerance and discrimination. It was found that the most effective socio-psychological tool for harmonizing the political behavior of young people is to conduct appropriate training aimed at forming a mature political culture that will provide a tolerant attitude and constructive ways to overcome political contradictions and conflicts. The developed program of socio-psychological training, aimed at harmonizing the political behavior of young people and neutralizing conflicts in the political space, includes the following 5 sessions. The study concludes that the implementation of this training program will increase the maturity of political identity of young people and, as a result of optimizing their political behavior and developing skills of constructive interaction in society in situations of political contradictions and conflicts, significantly reduce their potential for political conflict.

Avoidant Coping Strategies in Adolescents in Situations of Social Conflict: An Attempt to Identify Personality Indicators

Author: Danuta Borecka-Biernat
Institution: University of Wrocław, Wrocław
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1401-9821
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 78-93
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2022.04.05
PDF: kie/138/kie13805.pdf

The study aimed to determine the personality indicators of the avoidant coping strategy in adolescent youth in situations of social conflict. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (adapted by I. Dzwonkowska, K. Lachowicz-Tabaczek, and M. Łaguna), the Stress Assessment Questionnaire (Kwestionariusz Oceny Stresu, KOS) designed by D. Włodarczyk and K. Wrześniewski, and Questionnaire for Coping Strategies in Adolescents in Situations of Social Conflict (Kwestionariusz do badania strategii radzenia sobie młodzieży w sytuacji konfliktu społecznego) created by Borecka-Biernat (2012). The empirical research was conducted in middle schools on 893 adolescents (468 girls and 425 boys) aged 13 to 15. An analysis of the research results indicates that a young person’s low assessment of own abilities and the assessment of a situation of conflict as a threat or harm/loss co-occur with the avoidant coping strategy in situations of social conflict.

War in Ukraine from the Perspective of Polish and Slovak University Students

Author: Izabela Kapsa
Institution: Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz
Author: Natasza Lubik-Reczek
Institution: Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań
Author: Jaroslav Ušiak
Institution: Matej Bel University in Banská Bystrica
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 270-287
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2022.75.16
PDF: apsp/75/apsp7516.pdf

In the aftermath of the Russia’s annexation of Crimea and the outburst of conflict in the eastern part of Ukraine in 2014, thousands of Ukrainian migrants came to Poland. Many of them settled down and found jobs. On the onset of war in 2022, Ukrainian students were the most populous group among foreigners at Polish universities. The war in their home country had an impact on their families and friends. Young Poles, who made friends with Ukrainian students, take the war personally. Due to its unique nature, the perception of the conflict among young people has attracted the authors’ research interest. Additionally, it seems to be an added value when we compare attitudes of Polish students with those of Slovakian ones, as the latter do not share the same experience. The main goal of this article is to analyse opinions about the war in Ukraine among students studying in Poland and Slovakia, and their attitudes and behaviours towards refugees expressed online and offline. Results presented in the article have been taken from a questionnaire survey involving a group of 459 students. The survey took place in Spring 2022. The quantitative analysis of data is designed to provide answers to the following research questions: What sources of information about the war do young people use? What do young people think about the war in Ukraine, its causes and consequences? What forms of refugee-oriented activity do young people resort to? Have students encountered any form of resentment towards particular nationality groups in connection with the outbreak of the war?

Functions of Youth Councils in Local Self-Government Communities in Poland: Empirical Research Results

Author: Dominik Boratyn
Institution: University of Rzeszów
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 288-306
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2022.75.17
PDF: apsp/75/apsp7517.pdf

The article is part of a series of publications on the activities of youth councils in local selfgovernment communities. It focuses on describing the functions performed by such entities and attempts to answer the question about which of the functions performed by youth councils is of key importance in the opinion of councillors. The article is based on empirical research (quantitative research) conducted using a questionnaire. The research was carried out in 18 voivodship cities in Poland, and its aim is to expand the discussion on the functioning of youth councils as structured entities within local self-government units.

Major issues of youth policy implementation in Kazakhstan

Author: Mekebaeva Maigul
Institution: Kazachski Narodowy Uniwersytet im. Al-Farabi
Author: Mussatayev Seylbek
Institution: Kazachski Narodowy Uniwersytet im. Al-Farabi
Year of publication: 2015
Source: Show
Pages: 332-346
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/siip201518
PDF: siip/14/siip1418.pdf

In this article the authors considered problems of the realization of youth policy in the Republic of Kazakhstan. There are some factors which objectively complicate the realization of youth policy in Kazakhstan: the lack of social-political ideology which could be able to play the part similar to the role of communist ideology in the USSR or liberal-democratic one in the USA, the domination of ethnic identity over the civil one; the system of values, which unites community, must not only be a subject for general consensus in the society but gather the youth together emotionally, appealing to an irrational beginning in individual and massive psychology; the problem of social growth of the youth. Mostly, the youth in Kazakhstan can be divided into two groups: socially safe and socially unsafe. In the article analysis methods and content analysis were used as well as the results of sociologic researches.

Działalność uznana za terrorystyczną w województwie pilskim w latach osiemdziesiątych XX wieku, w świetle sprawy obiektowej o kryptonimie „Przemoc”. Wybrane problemy

Author: Przemysław Bartosik
Institution: Regionalne Towarzystwo Historyczne Ziemi Wałeckiej
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6417-4822
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 99-109
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/CCNiW.2022.01.06
PDF: ccniw/1/ccniw106.pdf

Activity recognized as terrorist in the Piła Voivodship in the 1980s in the light of the object case code-named «Violence» (selected issues)

The object-related case, codenamed “Violence”, was conducted by the 3rd Department of the District Offi ce of Internal Aff airs in Piła during the years of 1984–1990. Its purpose was to identify, neutralize and eliminate acts bearing the hallmarks of terror, in particular; killings, beatings or deprivation of liberty for political reasons, explosions and arson of political objects and state institutions, collecting weapons and explosives in order to organize terrorist attacks, kidnapping people and planes, illegal political and nationalist organizations that use terror as a form of combat, as well as the operational control of channels to terrorist centres in capitalist countries.

Wiedza wyborcza pokolenia „Z” w perspektywie badania ilościowego nad warszawskimi licealistami

Author: Arleta Hrehorowicz
Institution: Szkoła Główna Gospodarstwa Wiejskiego w Warszawie
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1656-5252
Author: Tomasz Kowalczyk
Institution: Kujawsko-Pomorska Szkoła Wyższa w Bydgoszczy
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7251-5431
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 119-139
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2023.02.09
PDF: ppk/72/ppk7209.pdf

Electoral Knowledge of Generation “Z” in the Perspective of a Quantitative Study on Secondary School Students in Warsaw

The research problem of the described study was the electoral knowledge of representatives of generation Z. The aim of the content of the article is to clarify the extent to which today’s secondary school students are familiar with the principles of electoral law and to determine the significance of gender on their level of knowledge in this area; obtaining information on the self-assessment of knowledge regarding electoral law and elections, as well as the importance of the length of learning for the level of self-assessment, as well as learning about the most convenient form of voting in the opinion of secondary school students. Research to date in this area has mainly focused on the millennial generation, not on today’s youth. This text therefore seeks to fill this gap. The study was carried out by means of a diagnostic survey using a survey technique and an online survey questionnaire research tool.

Nie tylko dyskusja. O partycypacyjnych formach i metodach organizacji młodzieżowych działających na terenie Ukrainy

Author: Joanna Stepaniuk
Institution: Uniwersytet Kazimierza Wielkiego w Bydgoszczy
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4724-7687
Year of publication: 2022
Source: Show
Pages: 111-123
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/cip202206
PDF: cip/20/cip2006.pdf

Not only a discussion. About participatory forms and methods of youth organizations operating in the territory of Ukraine

The subject of the text concerns various forms and methods of the participation of selected Ukrainian youth organizations, which were particularly active in 2018. The author discusses the basic theoretical assumptions by analyzing the issue of participation in relation to Polish and foreign literature of the subject. Then, she describes the research material and methods of analysis of the collected empirical data. In the last part of the article, the author presents the most important conclusions regarding the „soft” and „hard” forms and methods of the participation of six youth organizations operating in Ukraine.

Strategie adaptacyjne młodzieży z pogranicza – komunikat z badań pokoleniowych

Author: Alina Szczurek-Boruta
Institution: Uniwersytet Śląski w Katowicach
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7705-4398
Year of publication: 2023
Source: Show
Pages: 119-133
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/em.2023.03.08
PDF: em/22/em2208.pdf

Adaptation strategies of borderland youth – a report from generational studies

The conducted discussion is embedded in pedagogy of youth, Robert Merton’s theory of social adaptation, the concept of intercultural education and the concept of “intercultural identity” by Jerzy Nikitorowicz. In the article, the strategies are presented of the adaptation of young inhabitants of the Polish-Czech borderland to school conditions and the requirements of social life. The results of some diagonal studies among secondary school learners, conducted 13 years apart, indicated two dominant strategies of conformism and innovation, revealed a slight decrease in the average value of conformism (3%) and a significant increase in the average value of innovation (22% change). In that context, the features of permanent socialization taking place in the conditions of the Polish-Czech borderland were indicated: dynamism, bidirectionality, functioning/being “in-between”, cultural pattern, the principle of continuum. Empirically determined adaptation strategies of youth show how young people handle a complex reality and how they can join the mainstream of social life.

Health of Young People as One of the Elements of the State Youth Policy in Ukraine

Author: Maryna A. Naidych
Institution: Lesya Ukrainka Eastern European National University
Year of publication: 2013
Source: Show
Pages: 221-233
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2013.05.11
PDF: kie/98/kie9811.pdf

The study is prepared at the Department of International Information of Lesya Ukrainka Eastern European National University. The paper describes the healthcare system in Ukraine. The basic legal documents that relate directly to this issue are considered. The main health threats for Ukrainian youth are defined. Some of the social programs and projects related to healthy lifestyle of Ukrainian youth are examined.

„Bogacze” i „biedacy” – plany edukacyjne młodzieży Grudziądza i okolic a ich kapitał symboliczny

Author: Filip Nalaskowski
Institution: Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu
Author: Mirosław Zientarski
Institution: Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu
Year of publication: 2013
Source: Show
Pages: 184-200
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2013.03.09
PDF: kie/96/kie9609.pdf

“Rich Men” and “Poor Men” – Educational Plans of Youth from Grudziądz and the Region of Grudziądz and Their Symbolic Capital

The title “rich” and “poor” are respondents who took part in the research plans of youth education from Grudziądz and surrounding areas. During the analysis of the data was evaluated their symbolic capital [SC], which is the final instance of equity conversion: cultural, social and economic. It took the values that differ significantly from the average in the study group. In the 31-point scale, “poor” where called people whose measured SC received less than 9 points. The “rich” are people with SC bigger than 19 points. Group accounted for 7.7% and 8.1% of the population (respectively 155 and 164 people). 84.2% of population received in the measurement of SC score between 10-18 points, constituting 29% of the scale. That means that a high similarity of tested people for the measured SC. The data do not reflect the real inequalities that occur in modern society. For the SC test by gender, it was noted outnumbered the “rich” men, due to more frequent than in women taking more lucrative work. With regard to housing, most fell Świecie, where lives most of the capital rich at the same time the least poor capital. Slightly dropped Grudziądz, in which live almost as much “rich” and “poor”, which distracted in the area of small villages. Determined to continue their education was 85.4% “rich” and 65.2% “poor”. With regard to second degree studies, the declarations made 71.4% of the “rich”. 2/3 “poor” could not take such a decision at the time of the study. Nearly 1/4 of the group was not able to identify a particular direction, or university of their future studies. The “poor” often declared a desire to study in the fields to which it is easy to get (tourism, cosmetology, physiotherapy and available in Grudziądz educational sciences). The high ranking law reflects the desires and needs of their social advancement. The “rich” often give direction to ‘prestigious’ and harder subjects (medicine, science, law, and engineering). In both groups, there were no indications of ‘uniform’ subjects, popular in the overall population. Wealthy capital want to get through studies or maintain high social status and prestige occupations. Poorer searching in higher education relative economic security and greater social recognition.

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