Author: Michał Marcin Kobierecki
Institution: University of Łódź
Year of publication: 2019
Source: Show
Pages: 216-231
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2019.64.13
PDF: apsp/64/apsp6413.pdf

The goal of the research was to investigate FIFA, one of the most important international sports organisations, from the perspective of its diplomatic subjectivity. It is a case study concerning the process of selection of the World Cup hosts by FIFA, in reference to the engagement of presidents, prime ministers and other representatives of national authorities of states that hosted FIFA World Cup in bidding for the tournament within last the 30 years. The hypothesis that was verified within the research assumed that through selecting World Cup host FIFA obtains diplomatic subjectivity. This refers to research questions concerning the willingness of state leaders to engage in contacts and negotiations with sports officials and reasons for such engagement.

DYPLOMATYCZNA PODMIOTOWOŚĆ FIFA W KONTEKŚCIE WYBIERANIA GOSPODARZA MISTRZOSTW ŚWIATA W PIŁCE NOŻNEJ

Celem pracy jest zbadanie jednej z najważniejszych organizacji sportowych, jaką jest FIFA, z perspektywy jej dyplomatycznej podmiotowości. Badanie stanowi studium przypadku poświęcone procesowi wybierania gospodarzy mistrzostw świata w piłce nożnej w kontekście wspierania poszczególnych kandydatur przez prezydentów, premierów i innych przedstawicieli władz państw, którym ostatecznie przyznano organizację mistrzostw świata w ostatnich 30 latach. Hipoteza, która została poddana weryfikacji, zakładała, że poprzez wybieranie gospodarzy mistrzostw świata w piłce nożnej FIFA uzyskuje podmiotowość dyplomatyczną. Wiąże się to z pytaniami badawczymi dotyczącymi gotowości przywódców państwowych do angażowania się w kontakty i negocjacje z działaczami sportowymi oraz przyczyn takiego zaangażowania.

BIBLIOGRAFIA:

  • Adler-Nissen, R.(2016).Diplomatic Agency.In: C.M.Constantinou, P.Kerr, & P.Sharp (eds.).The SAGE Handbook of Diplomacy (pp.92–103).London: SAGE.
  • Beacom A.(2012).International Diplomacy and the Olympic Movement: The New Mediators.Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Becker, R.J.(2013).World Cup 2026 Now Accepting Bribes: A Fundamental Trans­formation of FIFA’s World Cup Bid Process.International Sports Law Journal, 13(1–2), 132–147.Retrieved from: file:///C:/Users/UX07/AppData/Local/Temp/ SSRN-id2223798.pdf.
  • Bilefsky, D.(2018, June 13).Can the World Cup Restore Harmony Between Canada and the U.S.? The New York Times.Retrieved from: https://www.nytimes.com/2018/06/13/world/canada/world-cup-trudeau-trump.html.
  • Bose, M.(2000, July 7).How the World Cup Was Won – and Lost.The Telegraph.Retrieved from: https://www.telegraph.co.uk/sport/football/international/4757036/How-the-World-Cup-was-won-and-lost.html.
  • Brannagan, P.M., & Giulianotti, R.(2015).Soft Power and Soft Disempowerment: Qatar, Global Sport and Football’s 2022 World Cup Finals.Leisure Studies, 34(6), 703–719.DOI: 10.1080/02614367.2014.964291.
  • Butler, O.(2002).Getting the Games: Japan, South Korea and the Co-hosted World Cup.In: J.Horne, & W.Manzenreiter (eds.).Japan, Korea and the 2002 World Cup (pp.43–55).London–New York: Routledge.
  • Cooper, A.F.(2013).The Changing Nature of Diplomacy.In: A.F.Cooper, J.Heine, & R.Thakur (eds.).The Oxford Handbook of Modern Diplomacy (pp.35–53).Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Critchley, M.(2018, June 13).World Cup 2026 Awarded to USA, Mexico and Canada Joint-bid at Fifa Congress on Eve of 2018 Tournament in Russia.The Independent.Retrieved from: https://www.independent.co.uk/sport/football/world-cup/world-cup-2026-hosts-usa-morocco-announcement-fifa-congress-2018-russia-a8396621.html.
  • Dauncey, H., & Hare, G.(1999).Introduction: France and France 98.In: H.Dauncey, & G.Hare (eds.).France and the 1998 World Cup: The National Impact of a World Sporting Event (pp.1–14), London: Frank Cass.
  • Eisenberg, C.(2005).From Political Ignorance to Global Responsibility: The Role of the World Soccer Association (FIFA) in International Sport during the Twentieth Century.Journal of Sport History, 32(3), 379–393.
  • Factsheet, FIFA World Cup™ Host Announcement Decision.Retrieved from: https://resources.fifa.com/mm/document/fifafacts/mencompwc/51/97/81/fs-201_13a_fwc-bidding.pdf.
  • Structure, Content, Presentation, Format and Delivery of Bid Book.Retrieved from: https://resources.fifa.com/mm/document/affederation/administra­tion/02/91/61/10/structure.content.and.format.of.bid_neutral.pdf.
  • FIFA (1999, October 21).Chancellor Gerhard Schröder Welcomes FIFA President Joseph Blatter.Retrieved from: https://www.fifa.com/worldcup/news/chancellor-gerhard-schroder-welcomes-fifa-president-joseph-blatter-35212.
  • FIFA (2000, August).FIFA Magazine.
  • FIFA (2008, January).FIFA Magazine.
  • FIFA (2009, December).FIFA World.
  • FIFA (2011).61st FIFA Congress, Activity Report 2010.FIFA Museum Archives, Zurich.
  • FIFA (2017, October 30).BRAZIL BID: Inspection Report for the 2014 FIFA World Cup.Retrieved from: https://www.fifa.com/mm/document/affederation/mis­sion/62/24/78/inspectionreport_e_24841.pdf.
  • FIFA (2018).FIFA Statutes, August 2018 edition.
  • Graham, B.A.(2018, June 13).North America to Host 2026 World Cup after Winning Vote over Morocco – as It Happened.The Guardian.Retrieved from: https://www.theguardian.com/football/live/2018/jun/13/world-cup-2026-vote-fifa-nations-choose-between-north-america-and-morocco-live.
  • Grix, J.(2012).‘Image’ Leveraging and Sports Mega-Events: Germany and the 2006 FIFA World Cup.Journal of Sport & Tourism, 17(4), 289–312.DOI: 10.1080/14775085.2012.760934.
  • Grix, J.(2015).Sport Politics: An Introduction.New York: Red Globe Press.
  • Henderson, J.C.(2017).Sports Events, Tourism, Development and Regeneration: A Per­spective from Gulf States of Abu Dhabi, Dubai and Qatar.In: N.Wise, & J.Harris (eds.).Sport, Events, Tourism and Regeneration (pp.9–23).Abingdon: Routledge.
  • Homburg, H.(2006).FIFA and the “Chinese Question”, 1954–1980: an Exercise of Stat­utes.Historical Social Research, 31(1), 69–87.DOI: 10.12759/hsr.31.2006.1.69-72.
  • Horne, J., & Silvestre, G.(2016).Brazil, Politics, the Olympics and the FIFA World Cup.In: A.Bairner, J.Kelly, & J.Woo Lee (eds.).Routledge Handbook of Sport and Politics (pp.483–495).London: Routledge.
  • Jackson, J.(2009, December 6).The World Cup Party Mandela Began in Zurich Arrives in South Africa.The Guardian.Retrieved from: https://www.theguardian.com/football/2009/dec/06/south-africa-world-cup-hosts.
  • Jackson, S.J., & Dawson, M.C.(2017).The IOC-State-Corporate Nexus: Corporate Diplomacy and the Olympic coup d’état.South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation, 39 (1:2), 101–111.
  • Kasraoui, S.(2018, April 28).Mexican, Canadian Officials Respond to Trump’s Threaten­ing Tweets on 2026 World Cup.Marocco World News.Retrieved from: https://www.moroccoworldnews.com/2018/04/245359/mexican-canadian-officials-respond-to-trumps-threatening-tweets-on-2026-world-cup/.
  • Katsarov, Ch.(2018, June 13).Canadian Politicians Celebrate Chance to Co-host 2026 FIFA World Cup.Huffington Post.Retrieved from: https://www.huffingtonpost.ca/2018/06/13/canadian-politicians-co-host-2026-fifa-world-cup-soccer_a_23458415/?guccounter=1&guce_referrer_us=aHR0cHM6Ly93d3cuZ29vZ2xlLmNvbS8&guce_referrer_cs=sZZTh7Q44qN_8JYhW1Dq8w.
  • Kirschbaum, E.(2016).Soccer Without Borders: Jürgen Klinsmann, Coaching the U.S. Men’s National Soccer Team and the Quest for the World Cup.New York: Picador.
  • Kummels, I.(2013).Anthropological Perspectives on Sport and Culture: Against Sports as the Essence of Western Modernity.In: K.Bromber, B.Krawietz, & J.Maguire (eds.).Sport across Asia: Politics, Cultures, and Identities (pp.11–31).New York: Routledge.
  • Lewis M.(2015, July 4).How USA Was Chosen to Host World Cup 94: the Inside Story of a Historic Day.The Guardian.Retrieved from: https://www.theguardian.com/football/2015/jul/04/usa-world-cup-94-inside-story.
  • Longman, J.(1996, June 1).SOCCER; South Korea and Japan Will Share World Cup.The New York Times.Retrieved from: https://www.nytimes.com/1996/06/01/sports/soccer-south-korea-and-japan-will-share-world-cup.html.
  • Markovits, A.S., & Rensmann, L.(2010).Gaming the World: How Sports Are Reshaping Global Politics and Culture.Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Matheson, V.A., & Baade, R.A.(2004).Mega-Sporting Events in Developing Nations: Playing the Way to Prosperity.The South African Journal of Economics, 72(5), 1085–1096.
  • Merkel, U.(2008).The Politics of Sport Diplomacy and Reunification in Divided Korea: One Nation, Two Countries and Three Flags.International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 43(3), 289–311.DOI: 10.1177/1012690208098254.
  • Merkel, U.(2016).Sport as a Foreign Policy and Diplomatic Tool.In: A.Bairner, J.Kelly, & J.Woo Lee (eds.).Routledge Handbook of Sport and Politics (pp.28–38).London: Routledge.
  • Millward, D.(2000, July 7).Germany Beats England to Hold 2006 World Cup.The Telegraph.Retrieved from: https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/germany/1347296/Germany-beats-England-to-hold-2006-World-Cup.html.
  • Müller, M.(2017).How Mega-Events Capture Their Hosts: Event Seizure and the World Cup 2018 in Russia.Urban Geography, 38(8), 1113–1132.DOI: 10.1080/02723638.2015.1109951.
  • Murray, S.(2018).Sports Diplomacy: Origins, Theory and Practice.London: Routledge.
  • Nadel, J.H.(2014).Cup of Welcome? Media, Marketing, Latinos, and the 1994 World Cup.In: S.Rinke, & K.Schiller (eds.).The FIFA World Cup 1930–2010: Politics, Commerce, Spectacle and Identities (pp.298–317).Göttingen: Wallstein.
  • Ndlovu, S.M.(2010).Sports as Cultural Diplomacy: the 2010 FIFA World Cup in South Africa’s Foreign Policy.Soccer & Society, 11(1–2), 144–153.DOI: 10.1080/14660970903331466.
  • Palmer, C.(2013).Global Sports Policy.Los Angeles: Sage.
  • Postlethwaite, V., & Grix, J.(2016).Beyond the Acronyms: Sport Diplomacy and the Classification of the International Olympic Committee.Diplomacy & Statecraft, 27(2), 295–313.DOI: 10.1080/09592296.2016.1169796.
  • Schad, T.(2018, June 15).Donald Trump Touts His Efforts in Successful World Cup Bid, Thanks Robert Kraft for Advice.USA Today.Retrieved from: https://eu.usatoday.com/story/sports/soccer/worldcup/2018/06/15/donald-trump-touts-world-cup-2026-bid-thanks-robert-kraft/704433002/ [access date: 07.01.2019].
  • Schausteck de Almeida, B., Bolsmann, C., Marchi Júnior, W., & de Souza, J.(2015).Rationales, Rhetoric and Realities: FIFA’s World Cup in South Africa 2010 and Brazil 2014.International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 50 (3), 265–282.DOI: 10.1177/1012690213481970.
  • Schausteck de Almeida, B., Marchi Júnior, W., & Pike, E.(2014).The 2016 Olympic and Paralympic Games and Brazil’s Soft Power.Contemporary Social Science, 9(2), 271–283.DOI: 10.1080/21582041.2013.838291.
  • Sputnik News (2009, May 5).Putin Orders Sports Minister to Prepare Bid for 2018 World Cup.Retrieved from: https://sputniknews.com/sport/20090505121448011/.
  • Sugden, J., & Tomlinson, A.(2017).Football, Corruption and Lies: Revisiting ‘Badfellas’, the Book FIFA Tried to Ban.London: Routledge.
  • Surmacz B.(2015).Ewolucja współczesnej dyplomacji. Aktorzy, struktury, funkcje.Lublin: Wydawnictwo UMCS.
  • Swart, K., Bob, U., & Turco, D.M.(2013).Bidding for Major International Sporting Events.In: M.Ben Sulayem, S.O’Connor, & D.Hassan (eds.).Sport Management in the Middle East: A Case Study Analysis (pp.20–39).London: Routledge.
  • Varcoe, F.(2002, May 20).Coming to Terms with Cohosting.The Japan Times.Retrieved from: https://www.japantimes.co.jp/sports/2002/05/20/soccer/international-soccer/coming-to-terms-with-cohosting/#.XC3ZC1xKjIU.

Wiadomość do:

 

 

© 2017 Adam Marszałek Publishing House. All rights reserved.

Projekt i wykonanie Pollyart