Author: The Editors
Year of publication: 2018
Source: Show
Pages: 3-4
DOI Address: -
PDF: apsp/59/apsp59toc.pdf

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SPIS TREŚCI

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Publikacja “Athenaeum Polskie Studia Politologiczne” w języku angielskim i udostępnienie wersji cyfrowej w wolnym dostępie to zadania finansowane w ramach umowy 525/P-DUNdem/2018 ze środków Ministra Nauki i Szkolnictwa Wyższego przeznaczonych na działalność upowszechniającą naukę.

Author: Łukasz Dominiak
Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń
Year of publication: 2018
Source: Show
Pages: 7-17
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2018.59.01
PDF: apsp/59/apsp5901.pdf

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In the present paper the author considers a challenge to libertarianism posed by G.A. Cohen. The charge issued by Cohen says that libertarianism defines freedom in terms of justice and justice in terms of freedom. The paper deals with an aspect of this charge as expressed by one of Cohen’s thought experiments according to which it is not the case that the answer to the question whether person B forces person A to do φ depends on whether person B’s actions are legitimate or not. Employing the Hohfeldian analysis of fundamental jural conceptions, the author demonstrates that if person B’s actions are legitimate, then making person A to do φ cannot, at pains of contradiction, be considered forcing. If person B is at a liberty to make person A to do φ, then person B cannot at the same time and in the same respect be at duty not to make person A to do φ. Yet, this is exactly what would follow if we adopted the stance that person B’s legitimate actions force person A to do φ. If they forced person A, then the expenditure of whatever labour needed to do φ would not be a voluntary expenditure and thereby would constitute a violation of person A’s rights to this labour. However, if person A’s rights were violated by person B’s actions, then via Hohfeldian Correlativity Axiom person B would have to be at duty not to undertake these actions. Yet, the whole reasoning started from the assumption that person B is at liberty to undertake them.

libertarianism freedom coercion circularity Hohfeld G.A. Cohen libertarianizm wolność przymus błędne koło

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Author: Danuta Plecka
Institution: University of Zielona Góra
Year of publication: 2018
Source: Show
Pages: 18-30
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2018.59.02
PDF: apsp/59/apsp5902.pdf

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The liberal trend which emerged in Poland was not a doctrine deeply rooted in social awareness. Quite the opposite, its essence and meaning were alien to Polish tradition or hardly recognizable. The interpretation of the concept of freedom only in the negative sense was imposed on the public opinion by the elites. Thus, as new ideas were adopted without any reflection, the state’s function was reduced to the role of a “night watchman”, and citizens were to adapt to it. Both sides did not enter into discussion on the possible creation of the role of the state as an institution involved in the social sphere. This seems to have been the main cause of the failure of the liberals and of the values they advocated in the public space. The Polish model of liberalism was not on the path towards modernity, but – by treating values selectively – it represented the anachronistic approach to liberal ideas. Polish liberals forgot that in the second half of the 20th century, the welfare state came into being owing to the recognition of Berlin’s notion of positive freedom and his unquestioning attitude to the plurality of values. Unfortunately, these two elements did not appear (or appeared too rarely) in the liberals’ concepts, so left-wing liberalism could not develop in Poland, and its foundations in the economic sphere were taken over by political options other than liberal ones.

liberalism liberalizm left-right wing left-wing liberalism lewica–prawica liberalizm lewicowy

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Author: Marcin Lisiecki
Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń
Year of publication: 2018
Source: Show
Pages: 31-46
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2018.59.03
PDF: apsp/59/apsp5903.pdf

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The main purpose of this article is to analyze the situation of modern Tibet, which political and legal structures are divided into the Central Tibetan Administration in India and the Tibet Autonomous Region in China. What connects them is a developing national identity of the Tibetans and the actions taken by the Central Tibetan Administration to create a new and independent state. Of great importance for the specificity of politics and the shaping of Tibetan national identity are also activities of the 14th Dalai Lama, who internationally promotes Tibetan culture and informs about the situation of Tibetans living in the Tibet Autonomous Region in China.
Dalai Lama is also the author of the draft constitution of the future state of Tibet, which content is a basis of the analysis in this article. Due to the comprehensive presentation and explanation of the specifics of this project, we will analyze not only particular articles, but also the introduction that we can consider as preamble. Thanks to this, it will be possible to show the relationship between political, legal and religious issues that make up the visions of the new state of Tibet.
This article is divided into two related parts. The first one is connected with national identity and independence of Tibet. The second part is focused on democratization of Tibet and relation between religion and politics.

Dalajlama Tybetańczycy Tybet Dalai Lama Tibetans Tibet buddhism Chiny buddyzm tożsamość narodowa konstytucja niepodległość Constitution national identity independence China

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Author: Maciej Szatkowski
Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń
Year of publication: 2018
Source: Show
Pages: 47-63
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2018.59.04
PDF: apsp/59/apsp5904.pdf

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This text is an attempt to reflect on the image of Mao Zedong in People’s Republic of China and the politics of shaping his image. Mao Zedong, his politics, literary work, life, and other aspects of his long biography have been fairly well described by numerous researchers over the past few decades. However, far too little space has been devoted to the image of Mao Zedong in the consciousness of the Chinese.
Considering that Mao has been included into the set of deities and surrounded by a halo of divinity, the critical attitude to his figure verges on sacrilege. It is a surprising encounter of politics and religion, which Mao Zedong would not expect in his lifetime. In fact, only popular and avant-garde art, as well as individual oppositionists have made iconoclastic attempts to deconstruct the figure of Mao.

the cult of personality Mao Zedong Chinese art iconoclasm cult of personality deification sztuka chińska ikonoklazm kult jednostki deifikacja

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Author: Stanisław Juszczyk
Institution: University of Silesia in Katowice
Year of publication: 2018
Source: Show
Pages: 67-81
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2018.59.05
PDF: apsp/59/apsp5905.pdf

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The work discusses a methodological critique of research concepts, designed and introduced in social sciences, under the positivist and humane paradigms and in ‘mixed’ research. Attention is paid to consecutive stages of a research project (its key points are indicated) and also to needed reflection as well as seeking answers to numerous questions concerning the right structure of projects described in academic articles and monographs.

methodology of social sciences methodological criticism quantitative qualitative research mixed research metodologia nauk społecznych krytyka metodologiczna badania ilościowe, jakościowe i mieszane

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Author: Anna Kobierecka
Institution: University of Łódź
Year of publication: 2018
Source: Show
Pages: 82-95
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2018.59.06
PDF: apsp/59/apsp5906.pdf

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In recent years, nation branding attracts interest of scholars and academic environment. In the era of globalisation, the need to care for propoer image and perception of a state in international environment becomes even more apparent. Soft power resources are a vital element in creating a strong nation brand. The aim of the article is to verify hipothesis stating that civil society can be perceived as a soft power resource used in building the brand. Therefore, the proposed research is conducted by analysing most significant branding rankings with respect to the positions reached by Sweden, used as a model state with strong civil society.

soft power branding state attractiveness civil society soft power resources zasoby soft power społeczeństwo obywatelskie atrakcyjność wizerunkowa państwa

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Author: Beata Stachowiak
Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń
Year of publication: 2018
Source: Show
Pages: 96-108
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2018.59.07
PDF: apsp/59/apsp5907.pdf

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Digital government became synonymous with modern, innovative state structures in which information and communications technologies play a key role – both in the realm of public and commercial services. However, the process of digitization is not free of disturbances. Oftentimes, the source of the latter is the so-called human factor. That is why, what is vital is the social research diagnosing how e-services are received, with the research assessing the level of knowledge on the dangers connected therewith or else, describing the expectations towards the services provided online. Neglecting such research usually leads up to the misallocation of public resources. This paper presents the results of the research conducted among the inhabitants of Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship, with the research testing their attitudes towards public e-services.

digital government Poland e-administration citizen information society państwo cyfrowe Polska e-administracja obywatel społeczeństwo informacyjne

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Author: Michał Marcin Kobierecki
Institution: University of Łódź
Year of publication: 2018
Source: Show
Pages: 109-120
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2018.59.08
PDF: apsp/59/apsp5908.pdf

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China is a country that employs a number of tools in order to shape its positive international perception. Sport plays an important role in this area. The aim of the research is to investigate the issue of sports exchanges and their role in shaping international image of China. The analysis is an empirical case study and is aimed at answering a research question concerning how sports exchanges may be used in order to shape a desired international image of a country. According to the main hypothesis to be tested in the article, through sports exchanges China managed to make a swift from the old, unidirectional sports diplomacy, to a more dialogue-oriented, reciprocal form.

China sports exchange nationbranding sports diplomacy public diplomacy Chiny wymiany sportowe branding narodowy dyplomacja sportowa dyplomacja publiczna

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Author: Katarzyna Zawadzka
Institution: Szczecin University
Year of publication: 2018
Source: Show
Pages: 121-138
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2018.59.09
PDF: apsp/59/apsp5909.pdf

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The article concerns public opinion regarding the postulates of sexual minorities. The basis for this discussion are public opinion polls conducted by the Public Opinion Research Centre. This allowed to present social tendencies regarding activities and postulates of the LGBT movement in Poland. The research polls span the period of time between 1998 and 2013. They concerned the following issues: opinions on homosexuality, social acceptance of homosexuality, attitude to same-sex marriage and civil partnerships, and gays’ and lesbians’ right to public demonstration. This discussion is founded on a theoretical overview regarding non-normativity.

public opinion LGBT sexual minorities civil partnerships opinia publiczna mniejszości seksualne związki partnerskie

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