- Year of publication: 2015
- Source: Show
- Pages: 3-4
- DOI Address: -
ISLAMIC DEMOCRACY? THE CASE OF TURKEY
This article aims to present Turkey as a very specific case study of a state that is as much a democratic republic oriented towards Europe as it is steeped in the culture and tradition of Islam. We begin by asking whether a fruitful coexistence of democracy and Islam is possible, and how it might influence Turkey’s development as a modern state. Next, we examine important issues in Turkey’s internal affairs and foreign policy. We end the essay with some conclusions regarding the future of the country in the European community.
INSTITUTIONAL, SOCIAL A ND POLITICAL ASPECTS OF TURKISH PRAETORIANISM
The term ‘praetorianism’ refers to countries in which the armed forces influence the political system. The army, as an institution, can develop its political power in two ways: in a “direct” and “indirect” fashion. While in the first case the armed forces take control over state institutions, the second is more sublime and is restricted to the building of more concealed methods of influence, such as blackmail. Additionally, the army itself, as the officers are not engaged into politics, shows a high level of political cohesion and military professionalism. Turkey is an example of a country in which a professional army, after decades of acquiring political experience and under favourable conditions, was and still is able to efficiently exert backstage politics. On one side, TSK (Turkish Armed Forces) has developed constitutional and legal means of influencing the government, and on the other, the high public trust in the armed forces allows it to, if necessary, effectively blackmail or even supplant disobedient cabinets.
TURKEY IN BRITISH POLICY TOWARDS SYRIA AND LEBANON IN 1940 – 1941
After collapse of metropolitan France in June 1940, the French in the Syria and Lebanon swore allegiance to the Vichy Government. This situation was hard to accept by the British. According to the Chiefs of Staff Committee, the occupation of these territories by enemy forces could have had most serious strategic consequences since it would cut of land communications with Turkey and would immediately threaten the whole of British interests in the Middle East. Due to that threat, London was forced to rethink its policy towards French Levant. One of the discussed measures was a proposition to involve Turkey in solving this problem. Turkey was bound with Britain with reciprocal security pact since October 1939. Moreover, the situation in Syria and Lebanon was also a threat for Turkish security. It was thought that these arguments would act in favor of Turkish involvement. Although in London everyone counted on active attitude of Turkey, there was no agreement as to its nature. While Churchill, Eden and the Chiefs of Staff were willing to agree on Turkish occupation of Syria and Lebanon, the Foreign Office was definitely against this solution. The first option eventually won. The first serious talks about Turkish involvement in Levant question took place in Ankara in January 1941, during the Anglo-Turkish military conversations. It was agreed then that if Turkey had entered the war, Turkish and British armies would have occupied Syria and Lebanon. The deteriorating military situation on the Eastern Mediterranean forced the United Kingdom to intervene in the French Levant in June 1941. Th e British government encouraged Turks to take part in that operation (“Exporter”). However, Turkish government rejected that offer. Turkey was still out of war and did not want to worsen her relations with the Third Reich.
MUSLIMS IN FRANCE IN TERMS OF RELIGIOUS AND ORGANIZATIONAL BACKGROUNDS
At the turn of the twentieth and twenty-first century, the problem of the Muslim minority in Europe became a significant problem in religious, social and political terms. In this publication, we present the characteristics of the presence of Muslims in France only in terms of religious and organizational backgrounds. By analyzing the first aspect, the importance of Islam as the second religion in terms of the number of believers in France is shown. The second aspect describes the characteristics of some important Muslim organizations in France.
CONSIDERATIONS OF THE LEGAL AND CULTURAL SITUATION OF FAMILIES IN SELECTED COUNTRIES OF THE ORIENT
Residents of the area known as the Orient are characterized through the prism of stereotypes operating for years. Researchers’ works focus mainly on the traditions, yet omit from the analyses the legal and cultural conditions. Primarily of interest and analysis are the Muslim minorities living in Europe, instability in the Middle East and North Africa, and economic issues. Often the subject touched upon is the position of women in Islam, and the studies begin the discussion on both the West and the Arab World. The text is intended to outline situation of family and rights of each member of family, which are contained in the constitutions of the individual states, or the ones that stem from the Muslim law. For the purposes of this text, various Arab countries has been selected where the system has a different shape.
THE PROTECTION OF THE RIGHTS OF INDIGENOUS PEOPLES IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION
There are about 250 thousand people belonging to 41 ethnic groups recognized as indigenous peoples in the Russian Federation. From the legal point of view, their rights are well protected by the Constitution and a number of federal laws. Unfortunately, their social, economic and political situation is much worse than the standards set by the legislation. The provisions of these acts are violated and some of them are in contradiction with other normative acts. Another problem is the lack of implementing acts. Indigenous peoples in Russia, as it was in the period of the Soviet Union, are “the last among equals”, and their interests are rarely noticed by the regional and central authorities. This is due to their small size (0.2% of the total population), but, first of all, their interests are in contradiction with the needs of the Russian economy.
ABORIGINAL AUSTRALIANS – LOST IN CIVILIZATION
Aboriginal Australians last in the age of perdition. There has been 224 years since the day that Captain Arthur Phillip came to Australia with British convicts. Since then almost every day Aboriginal ‘collide with civilization’ and fight for surviving. All rules of tribal life had to be replaced by new ones. They had to wear clothes, live in houses of bricks, and work. All of this was completely different from the previous life. ‘White civilization’ that has brought the development into the Antipodes has also brought reasons of perdition. Among those: illnesses, which decimate Aboriginal clans, and alcohol, which destroys all residues of ancient Stone Age culture and causes many social problems. For several dozen years, Australian government has been trying to make up for Aboriginal wrong, but programs for improvement of their situation do not work. ‘Civilization’, in social evolutionists’ opinion, should be the highest level of people’s culture, for Aboriginal though it is some kind of abyss in which they cannot or they do not want to find a proper place for themselves.
THE ACTIVITIES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION TO ARMENIA CARRIED OUT UNDER THE EUROPEAN NEIGHBORHOOD POLICY AND THE EASTERN PARTNERSHIP
In September 2013, a meeting between the President of Armenia S. Sargsyan and the President of the Russian Federation V. Putin took place in Moscow. During the meeting, the Russian authorities convinced the Armenian President to join the Customs Union and do not proceed further cooperation with the European Union. In the article, the author tries to analyze why Armenia cardinally changed its policy on the eve of the Eastern Partnership Summit in Vilnius on November 28–29th, 2013. There are also analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of eventual Armenia’s accession to the Customs Union with Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia, and to the European Union.
UGANDA UNDER YOWERI MUSEVENI. FROM THE RAW MODEL OF POSTCONFLICT RECONSTRUCTION TO THE INCLUSIVE PATRONAGE NETWORK
The principal aim of this paper is to critically examine evolution of the Ugandan political regime during the Yoweri Museveni rule and the very nature and socio-political consequences of the vast, inclusive patronage network existence. This paper is based primarily on field research conducted in Uganda in June and July 2014.
The paper is divided into three parts. The first part briefly presents evolution of the Ugandan political regime. In the second part the very issue of the nature of the political patronage in Uganda was raised. The last section concludes.
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