- Year of publication: 2016
- Source: Show
- Pages: 3-6
- DOI Address: -
Military operations of the Chinese Empire: their types and characteristics
Wars waged by the Chinese Empire, or civil wars within it, differ significantly from those waged in Europe, owing to differences in the sphere of ideology, predominantly Confucian, and historical realities. There are also cultural differences related to the prevailing attitudes to war, struggle and the use of force. The study presents several of them.
The author briefly outlines the “borderlands”, which the Empire wanted to control when it was strong. He also analyses the social, economic and ideological reasons, why in the Empire prevailed isolationist policy and the expansion was carried out merely on a limited scale, mostly to the neighbouring states and lands.
Problems and mysteries of the World War II in Asia, 1937–1945
There are still many mysteries concerning World War II in Asia, especially its most forgotten chapter: the Sino-Japanese War. We still know very little about secret negotiations between Guomindang (Kuomintang, KMT) and Tokyo, end even less about British-Japanese negotiations 1939–1940, when, after the Nazi-Soviet Pact and during the Finnish (“Winter”) War the possibility of improvement in their relations (and even anti-Soviet cooperation), seemed to be open.
New “revisionist studies” by some authors (as Jay Taylor, Rana Mitter, Peter Worthing) rehabilitate President Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kai-shek) as combat commander, diplomat and military administrator. One of the most inexplicable campaigns of the entire war remains Japanese Ichigō off ensive (1944), which ruined KMT’s state and leave the field to the unattacked Communist armies in North China. Origins and real causes of this undertaking are still obscure.
We know very little about relations within triangle Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kai-shek) – Mao Zedong – Wang Jingwei (head of pro-Japanese puppet Government in Nanking, previously a close collaborator of Sun Yat-sen), but it is certain, that both Chiang and Mao maintained secret contacts with Wang regime. A fresh look, based on new sources, destroy the myth about immense American wartime support for fighting China. One has also bear in mind that the relations between CCP and Moscow, always complex and delicate, changed several times during the war. In theory CCP recognized hierarchical subordination to Moscow, although practice significantly differed and concrete benefits for Mao (in particular after the Yalta conference) constituted the key elements of concern. The last Chinese peace offer during the war, the so-called Miao Bin Mission in Tokyo (spring 1945) also remains mysterious. There are opinions that Japan and Nationalist China could both have been spared much destruction and victims if this operation had had a better fate. These are the most important problems, which the Author indicates as deserving to be solved.
The Mongols of Northern China in the face of Japanese expansion
The historic turmoils of the first part of the XXth century in Northern China had a great impact on the Mongols in Manchuria and Inner Mongolia. Worth reminding is that the Mongols were both – a subject and an object of the political game of the Chinese (both parties – CCP and GMD), the Japanese and the Russians. As the main power-holders during the Qing period, Han Chinese were able to expand their political culture and governance in the minority regions, which was interrupted with the internal conflicts and expansion of the neighboring empires. The Mongols, as the weaker side, collaborated with all of the main actors, which at the end gave them a strong position in the victorious Communist Party and forgiveness of sins such as creating the Japanese-allied puppet state Mengjiang and the autonomous regions in Manchukuo. Despite that fact, the period of the Japanese influence transmission became an important factor shaping modern national dynamics in the region.
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