- Year of publication: 2016
- Source: Show
- Pages: 5-11
- DOI Address: -
THE HALVED HEROISM: SOME REFLECTIONS ON AUTOBIOGRAPHISM IN MARIO RIGONI STERN’S IL SERGENTE NELLA NEVE
this article aims to analyse the image that the writer Mario Rigoni Stern wants to give of himself as a soldier abandoned to his fate during the disastrous Russian campaign of 1942-1943. Hence, this paper begins by mentioning the importance of autobiographism in neorealist literature after World War II. In the first part of the article, works by Paul Ricœur, Philippe Lejeune, Ivan tassi, and Maria Anna Mariani will be considered in order to emphasise that, in autobiographical books, the writer “builds”, “transforms”, his or her own image according to a specific ideology. Following this premise, the analysis of Il sergente nella neve, according to the contemporary theories of autobiography, aims to highlight the image that the writer wants to give of himself as a soldier, an image simultaneously humanised and heroised. In fact, in his own humanity, Rigoni Stern’s hero tragically takes on an epic dimension. thus, it can be concluded that the inhuman effort of a man who is leftalone in front of a hostile nature and a powerful enemy creates a new example of the epic hero. Furthermore, the self-image modelled in this text is presented as an individual who is fighting not only for his own survival, but also for the survival of his companions. He is a leader to follow and a reference point, a soldier who does not fight for a political cause, but for greater values, like friendship, love, or honour.
PARADOXICAL IDENTITIES IN LEVI, MORANTE, AND TOMIZZA
By considering three works of Primo Levi, elsa Morante, and Fulvio tomizza, this analysis aims to investigate some examples of composite and paradoxical identities. Regarding the matter in question, I will examine cases in which the elements shaping the subjects, especially language, will be discordant with the proposed identity. In Primo Levi’s La tregua, the author seeks to account his Jewish belonging, despite his lack of knowledge of yiddish. Morante investigates the troubled linguistic identity of Aracoeli’s protagonist, while the extreme hybridism of Stefano in tomizza’s L’albero dei sogni allows remarkable forms of estrangement to surface. thanks to the support of identity theorists such as Baumeister and Chambers, and of theorists of the monolingual/plurilingual condition such as Fishman and Lepschy, I will employ a more fluid notion of identity in order to contemplate different variables and solutions, which may lead to contradictions. these three authors can, therefore, be considered forerunners of recent literary studies on migration, which deal with the impellent necessity to remove the limits imposed by strict definitions of identity.
HARD-HEADED CHILDREN, EXTRATERRESTRIAL ADOLESCENTS, AND CHERRY - TREE GRANDPARENTS: A METAPHORICAL VOYAGE THROUGH THE CHILDHOODS OF SOME CONTEMPORARY ITALIAN AUTHORS OF CHILDREN’S LITERATURE
this contribution retraces the subjects of some novels by contemporary Italian writers of children’s literature. the novels were chosen amongst those that seem to best represent “good literature” that is able to build critical and creative readers and that is inclined to shape its own depiction of reality and to move in a utopian way towards the research. It is a literature that teaches children how to face life’s problems and find the right key to change the world in a democratic direction. the model of “nonconformist” literature to which this contribution refers looks at the epistemological model of Gianni Rodari and the fantastic creativity he uses to tell children about reality without restriction or censure. Rodari’s model has been recovered by many contemporary children’s literature writers, such as Donatella ziliotto, Angela Nanetti, Bianca Pitzorno and Giusy Quarenghi. these authors are taken into account within this article for their ability to see literature as a tool for growth and a support for a child’s identity construction, with particular regard to gender identity, which today is still the focus of stereotypes and cultural conditioning that often weaken the development of children, negating their need to freely respond to their personal attitudes. A fundamental role in a child’s growth is played by grandparents, to whom some of these novels are addressed, as mediators amongst different generations and who are able to support children and young adults in the process of reconstructing their past and planning their future.
IN THE CONTEXT OF FUTURISM: FRIEDRICH NIETZSCHE’S TIME AND “HISTORICAL SICKNESS” AND THEIR OUTCOME IN GIOVANNI PAPINI
Within Futurism, a critical concept is formed of the past, of history in general, and of the way in which history is lived in the present, along with its harmful consequences, as it becomes an excuse to avoid progress by constantly looking back at the past. this is an idea that is exemplified well by Giovanni Papini in his Discorso di Roma. Contro Roma e contro Benedetto Croce. However, the past and history as “sickness” had already been analysed by Friedrich Nietzsche in On the Use and Abuse of History for Life. In the early years of the 20th century, the German philosopher established his presence within Italian culture thanks to the authors of the literary journal Leonardo, and Papini in particular. these intellectuals not only wrote about Nietzsche in their magazine, but they also tried to make use of Nietzche’s thought. From a Futurist perspective, the connection between the two authors has to do primarily with the criticism of history and the past. However, the Röcken-born philosopher focuses on both the abuse and use of the historical past, while Papini carries this idea to extremes by stressing only the abuse that comes from it, therefore condemning it tout court. By doing this, the tuscan intellectual, shortly after adhering to Futurism, follows the guidelines imposed by the avant-garde movement and expresses the fiery magnitude of his thought, aimed at the destruction of the past in all its forms to make way for the long-denied future.
THE PROBLEM OF RELIGION AND LITERATURE: I PROMESSI SPOSI AND THE RECEPTION OF MANZONI’S CATHOLICISM
the essay examines the phenomenon of negative reception of religious thematics in the field of Comparative Literature in the US and the difficulties in interpreting I promessi sposi as a reflection on human accountability and its relationship to the idea of theodicy, both in American and Italian academe. Particular attention is paid to the problem of methodological and practical introduction of religion into the dyadic system of interdisciplinary studies in Comparative Literature.
teodycea katolicyzm i komparatystyka recepcja Manzoniego w USA religia i literatura Alessandro Manzoni religion and literature Manzoni’s reception in the US catholicism and comparative literature theodicy
THE DISCOURSE OF SPACE - THE SPACE OF DISCOURSE. THE IMAGE OF THE CITY IN DRUGA VENECIJA (THE OTHER VENICE: SECRETS OF THE CITY) BY PREDRAG MATVEJEVIĆ
the author of this article reconstructs the image of Venice depicted in the novel-essay Druga Venecija (The Other Venice: Secrets of the City) by Predrag Matvejević. the novel is characterised by multilingualism (loanwords from the Italian language and its dialects) and contributions from other arts (numerous illustrations, maps, photo reprints, etc.). the discursive mechanisms shaping the impression of space and the world that is represented, as well as the nonlinguistic (visual) ways of its reproduction, are analysed in the article. the narration of the novel is deprived of plot, as it is essayistic and dehistoricised. The book incorporates different genres, combining elements of the essay, travelogue novels, encyclopaediae, and portolan charts. It is characterised by minimalism and restrained language, which are distinguishing features of Matvejević’s work. the poetics of minimalism is reflected in the fragmentation of the plot, the selectivity of themes, and the simplicity of style. the writer concentrates on presenting the details, exploring unknown areas that are overlooked in other literary descriptions of Venice. the originality of Matvejević’s creative method is based on tracking down abandoned, non-obvious, and devastated places; the book, therefore, describes the passages of the city, referring random information and fragments of other stories and legends. enumeration is the most frequent figure of speech used by the writer to describe phenomena in a synchronous and non-hierarchical way. the starting point for the considerations made in this article are the philosophical concepts of the relationship of semiotic systems and different types of art (both applied and fine) to the category of spatiality (Derrida, Rewers, eco, taine).
LU SCÏÒ BY GUIDO MILANESI BETWEEN LITERATURE AND LANGUAGE
The article intends to analyse the short story Lu scïò by Roman writer Guido Milanesi, published after the First World War in the collection of stories Mar Sanguigno. Milanesi’s works belong to the genre of the colonial novel, but Milanesi can be mostly defined as a writer of sea tales. the article introduces the historical period in which Milanesi’s works were published and then presents the Adriatic legend of the waterspout and compares it with other local writings. A brief linguistic analysis follows, which examines the mixture of Italian dialect and maritime terms present in the story.
A BLUE DRESS, THE LANGUAGE OF THE PROPRIETIES, AND JUVENILIA IN TRANSLATION. SOME REMARKS ON THE “FRASI ALL’INNAMORATA” BY CESARE PAVESE
The main purpose of the essay is to present one of the juvenilia by Cesare Pavese as a coherent text worth of being diffused. For this reason, the poem “Frasi all’innamorata” (1930), in its original version, opens the essay. the interpretation of the text is undertaken to show both its literary and cultural inspirations (W. Whitman, G. Gozzano, psychoanalysis) and dominant artistic strategies (transforming poetry into prose, playing with colloquial speech and linguistic clichés). Moreover, the presentation of possible difficulties in translation of the poem leads to a reflection on the themes of Pavese’s poetry such as solitude, a lack of love, anxieties caused by human physicality, alienation, and disapproval of superficiality in interpersonal relations. the Polish version of the poem acts as a final proposal of its reading.
SURVIVING IN THE “INFERNO”: A LEGACY OF CALVINO
the present study aims to highlight two survival strategies in the “inferno of the living” that emerge from the analysis of Invisible Cities: lightness and gaze. the value of lightness is visible in the “thin cities”, which share a fragile architecture, the contrary reaction opposing the heaviness of living, the distance from the ground. “the hidden cities”, in turn, provide the motive for a reflection (a lecture) on gaze, with the aim of training the gaze to “recognize that which is not hell”: the happy city inside the unhappy city. In Invisible Cities, Calvino’s gaze still has an ethical and civic function (present in The Day of a Scrutineer). this function, however, will give way to the epistemic and scientific function of Mr. Palomar (from The Cosmicomics onwards), whose eye is exclusively concerned with measuring the limits of knowledge, which never extends, in a revealing way, from the natural world to the human world. thirty years after Calvino’s death, amongst the many legacies leftby his multifaceted literary work, we can recover the ethical and civic dimension expressed by the values of lightness and gaze.
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