- Year of publication: 2018
- Source: Show
- Pages: 5-8
- DOI Address: -
A NEW STANDARD ITALIAN: SURVEY ON THE ACADEMIC WRITING OF STUDENTS OF THE UNIVERSITIES OF PALERMO AND MESSINA
In the mid-1980s, Sabatini and Berruto theorised the need to support the Italian standard via non-standard varieties (“average use,” or neo-standard) towards which the norm’s barycentre progressively had shifted. Thirty years later, and in light of the dynamism that the uses of speakers have impressed on the system, the issue has become a central one yet again.
This paper investigates the main features of university students’ written language. The corpus consists of 300 e-mails sent to professors and 150 drafts of degree dissertations, produced by students of the degree courses in Humanities, Foreign Languages, Education, and Communication of the Universities of Palermo and Messina.
Despite lacking any quantitative relevance, the results of this research allow us to identify which features of neo-standard Italian are now accepted by speakers in their language uses at the level of (semi-)formal writing, such as academic writing, and to propose a new reflection on the need to redefine the norm of contemporary Italian.
OVERCOMING DIFFICULTIES IN SUBJECT IDENTIFICATION IN THE ITALIAN LANGUAGE
Identifying the subject in a sentence, especially if the subject is not obvious, is difficult for secondary-school students. The apparent simplicity of this topic might cause one to consider it lightly; however, it should be considered generative for textual comprehension, for the production of cohesive and coherent texts, and for moving from parataxis to hypotaxis. Traditional grammar equates the syntactic notion of subject with the semantic notion of agent and with the communicative notion of topic, giving rise to possible misunderstandings.
The present article offers a proposal that allows one to solve any ambiguity, developing a trajectory with two phases. Firstly, by using a functional criterion within the language (i.e., going from the singular to the plural of the sentence terms), students can correctly identify the subject. Secondly, through a semantic analysis carried out in competence-heterogeneous groups, students inductively comprehend the complexity of the function of “subject”, thereby linking the semantic criterion with the syntactic one.
This analysis, only initially teacher-led, fosters learning by discovery, which brings students to an active, inclusively realised construction of knowledge, and it allows each student to work within their zone of proximal development. This method overcomes traditional “normative” grammar and enhances the student’s centrality: students are not given a ready-made description, but, rather, they are encouraged to build one by actively acting upon on the language.
criteri nozional-funzionale o semantico approccio integrato costruttivismo riconoscimento del soggetto didattica della grammatica semantic or notional method subject identification grammar teaching constructivism
ESSERE OR AVERE? THE SELECTION OF AUXILIARY BETWEEN THEORY AND DIDACTICS IN THE TEACHING OF ITALIAN L2
In the teaching of Italian L2, learners and teachers encounter difficulties when they are faced with the issue of auxiliary selection in the formation of compound tenses. If we analyse the way grammars for foreigners deal with the problem, we notice—between hypertrophic classifications and lists of exceptions—the lack of a model that is able to explain the phenomenon in a systematic and exhaustive manner. Looking at the source, i.e., the Italian L1 grammars, the syntactic model based on the distinction between transitive and intransitive verbs, both in its traditional and non-accusative version, is not suitable for application in L2 teaching, especially in the case of learners from countries where little room during class time is given to metalinguistic reflection.
This paper aims to suggest an alternative semantic model that is capable of representing an orientation tool for learners and finding a balance between theoretical and teaching needs, as well as between learning and acquisition. According to our model—which moves the attention from government to diathesis and starts from the meaning of the auxiliaries as autonomous verbs—avere is used when the effects of the action expressed by the verb are directed towards the external world. Meanwhile, essere is used when such effects are directed towards the subject itself, that is, when the syntactic subject of the sentence represents the semantic object of the event, and it therefore assumes the role of the patient, typical of passive and middle diathesis.
PREPOSITIONAL CHAOS: ERROR ANALYSIS AND LEARNING STRATEGIES
The use of prepositions is difficult to learn. To examine this fact, mistakes in the usage of prepositions were collected from 108 assignments completed by Italian secondary-school students. In this article, these errors are listed and several causes for them have been hypothesised: mistakes due to dialectal interference (type 1; a, b); errors in polyrhematic units (type 2; c, d, e); mistakes due to paradigmatic interference (type 3; f, g, h, i, l); errors due to loss of syntactic orientation (type 4; m, n, o). Following this, teaching strategies based on mistakes are proposed. Finally, an in-depth review of recent grammars and dictionaries is carried out in order to verify how the sections related to prepositions are structured and if the new cognitivist models have been accepted within these didactic instruments.
THE EVOLUTION OF GRAMMATICAL TERMINOLOGY IN COURSE BOOKS OF THE ITALIAN LANGUAGE FOR POLES (17TH–19TH CENTURIES)
The subject of research is that of changes in grammatical terminology that can be observed on the basis of four course books of Italian language for Poles published between 1675 and 1869. The first of them is marked by the Latin terminology that manifests in the adaptation of Latin terms as well as in the direct translation of their basic meaning into Polish. Moreover, the instability of terminology results in the co-occurrence of various forms of the Polish term or in the co-occurrence of Polish and Latin terms. The other two course books by anonymous authors, which seem to be adaptations of French course books, do not include Latin terminology, whereas names for word classes are, with a few exceptions, consistent with the Polish nomenclature devised by the Commission of National Education in the Enlightenment. In comparison to the previous course books, the last one involved in this research is more modern with regards to solutions that are typical for articles and other categories that are characteristic of Romance languages.
GRAMMAR AT THE ADOLESCENT AGE: TEACHING ACTIVITIES APPLIED IN THE VA BENE! COURSE BOOK
The present paper aims at presenting the practical applications of the action-oriented approach to teaching Italian grammar featured in Va bene!, a new handbook series intended for Polish learners between the ages of 13 and 16. According to the CEFR, such an approach treats language learners as “social agents” who accomplish tasks (which are not exclusively language-related) in a given set of circumstances and within a particular field of action. This definition mainly places the teaching/learning process into the social context: learners use the second language in order to achieve given communicative goals. According to pedagogical research findings, two essential factors influence the effectiveness of the learning process: an interactive environment and personal engagement, which allow learners to better elaborate on language data. The teaching tasks proposed in the series Va bene! attempt both to comply with the action-oriented approach and to fulfil young learners’ needs.
sviluppo cognitivo attività didattiche età adolescente approccio orientato all’azione grammatica italiana cognitive development teaching activities adolescent age action-oriented approach Italian grammar
THE GRAMMAR OF LEGAL LANGUAGE. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF SELECTED VARIETIES OF A REGIONAL LAW
According to the Italian legal system, regions may intervene on social and administrative questions with their own laws. The aim of this paper is to analyse varieties of the same law in different Italian regions and cities. The quantitative and qualitative approach is aimed to show the efficiency of each text, taking into consideration linguistic factors and their use in legal writing, such as syntax and lexis as well as intertextuality and relations between hyper- and hypotext (European directives and national norms vs. local norms). The comparison between five similar texts on the same subject will show how the interpretation of a norm may deeply differ one from another and how the quality of a norm may negatively influence it’s comprehension.
ITALIAN EUROLECT: AN ANALYSIS BASED ON ARTICLES OF THE EUROPEAN CONSTITUTION
The following article discusses the linguistic features of legal Italian and the notion of Eurolect; the analysis is based on articles of the European Constitution. The information provided herein aims to demonstrate that legal Italian has a different set of qualities in comparison with those that apply to Eurolect. The author of the article describes the principal characteristics of the Italian language that is used in the institutions of the European Union, a language that is the result of translating the Community legislation, drafted primarily in English or French, and is different from the actual linguistic norms of Italian. It is grammatically correct, yet its quality is not satisfactory for a native speaker. This problem is called attrito linguistico and is a new term in Italian linguistics. Due to this problem, these texts are often criticised for being low-quality translations, but their quality is the result of requirements imposed on translators. The third part of this article then goes into detail about the main features of translated Italian texts and focuses on the analysis of some of the articles present in the European Constitution in order to elaborate on the choices made during the translation and to suggest further solutions.
TOWARDS A COMPARATIVE GRAMMAR OF ITALIAN AND POLISH LANGUAGES. THE NOUN – ITS MORPHOLOGICAL AND SEMANTIC ASPECTS
This article aims to provide a contribution and act as stimulus towards creating a new framework for the Polish-Italian grammar in comparative perspective. Having examined the attempts to establish a lexical category of the noun, made by both Polish and Italian students, the subsequent task was to analyse its structural and semantic features in order to single out the differences and observable commonalities within the system of both these languages. With regard to the analysis conducted from the morphological point of view, the emphasis was placed upon the distinctive attributes of the noun in the Polish language, set against those of the Italian. In turn, the analysis of the semantic features is narrowed down to particular dimensions (kinship names, parts of the body, animal sounds and words describing noises), within which more apparent differences emerge between the content’s form and substance.
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