- Year of publication: 2019
- Source: Show
- Pages: 5-8
- DOI Address: -
PRONUNCIATION AND WRITING BETWEEN L1 AND L2: SOME CONSIDERATIONS ON SPELLING ERRORS OF SLOVENE STUDENTS
This paper proposes a model for the analysis of spelling mistakes that Slovene speakers make in written production in Italian as FL/L2. This model is based on a grid produced by other authors and adapted for the specific needs of the present research. The grid comprises four categories: phonological errors, non-phonological errors, phonetic errors, and punctuation errors. Each category is further divided into sub-categories. The aim of the research is to discover which category yields more errors and what their origin is, in order to propose scientific bases for improvements in teaching Italian to Slovene students. The conclusion is that students and teachers have to deal with first-language interference as well as negative transfer from English as FL/L2, another foreign language that students acquire, and universal strategies comprising generalisation, simplification, and regularisation.
ASYMMETRIES IN THE ENCODING OF DEICTIC REFERENCE: ITALIAN VERSUS RUSSIAN
This paper aims to analyse, through a contrastive approach, the asymmetries between Italian and Russian in the encoding of deictic reference. Some complex and divergent instances of deictic anchoring are discussed in relation to the notion of deictic centre (or zero-point, in Lyons’ terms). Different types of asymmetry can be identified according to structural and functional criteria: a) overcoding versus undercoding of deictic information (e.g., Italian tra and dopo versus Russian čerez); b) different internal articulation of the deictic reference (such as in the sequence of tenses, which is governed by mood and tense in Italian and solely by tense in Russian); c) the adoption of a different perspective in the deictic conceptualisation of space, time, and person (as in conversive predicates). All of these types of asymmetry seem to affect learners’ acquisition of L2. For this reason, a systematic analysis of errors committed in deictic reference can be a useful tool for second-language teaching.
CONTRASTIVE ITALIAN-MACEDONIAN STUDIES: RECENT ADVANCES AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVES
The paper aims to present contrastive Italian-Macedonian studies, giving a general overview of the development of these studies, with particular attention to the context in which the first studies between these two languages appeared. A corpus of 60 studies published in the last two decades is analysed in the second part of the paper. The classification of the studies based on the topics covered reveals a prevalence of morphosyntactic, semantic, and translation studies. Contrastive studies related to teaching Italian as a foreign language and studies that introduce other topics are also present in the corpus. The final part of the paper reflects upon the future of this type of contrastive study, especially in light of the recent changes related to the interest in studying Italian in Macedonia.
THE BLAME IS ON INTERFERENCE: A CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS OF ERRORS IN THE WRITING OF SLOVENE-SPEAKING UNIVERSITY STUDENTS OF ITALIAN
This contribution aims to address and show the crucial points of mother-tongue interference in the writing of Slovene-speaking learners of Italian. The issue is presented on the basis of a comparison between the language rules in Slovene and Italian in relation to the difficulties encountered in concrete contexts. The goal of this article is to identify the hypotheses underlying learners’ language choices. The article illustrates the mistakes made in the choice of verbal paradigms (consecutio temporum; doubts regarding choosing between the perfect and the imperfect and the explicit and implicit forms; some passive constructs; and the subjunctive) as well as the difficulties in using articles and certain adjectives and pronouns (possessive, demonstrative, and relative ones). The work also contains documented and commented examples of errors in the use of the comma and cases of interference that can be attributed to “false friends” (errors of spelling and of a morphological-syntactic, derivational, and lexical nature). The results of this analysis confirm the need for a conscious integration of direct teaching, noticing linguistic mechanisms, and a focus on form in learning processes in order to regulate the input, facilitate understanding, and stimulate natural processes of acquisition.
contrastive analysis analisi contrastiva analisi degli errori apprendenti slovenofoni di italiano L2 interferenza della lingua madre riassunto Slovene-speaking learners of Italian mother-tongue interference summary error analysis
THE NOMINAL SYSTEMS OF ITALIAN AND POLISH IN COMPARISON: SOME REMARKS ON GENDER AND CASE AS GRAMMATICAL CATEGORIES
The present study features a description and comparison of the Italian and Polish nominal systems. Our tertium comparationis are two grammatical categories: gender and case. Gender is morpho-syntactically coded in both languages; case, is morphologically coded only in Polish, while in Italian it is predominantly expressed by the use of prepositions. Focusing on the noun class, we contrastively examine the ways and means used to express the two grammatical meanings. In particular, we compare grammatical meanings expressed by morphological and syntactic cues. As a multifaceted category, grammatical gender classifies Italian and Polish nouns and co-regulates the morpho-syntactic agreement between sentence constituents (controller-target relation), contributing to the decoding of an internal text structure. The morphological case variation of Polish nouns (inflection) is often reinforced by syntactical markers; thus, case coding in Polish occurs both in synthetic and analytic ways. In contrast, Italian uses only analytic means to mark the grammatical meaning of case. The two linguistic systems under examination exhibit a similar formal organisation and expressive cues but apply them in different proportions.
NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES DESCRIBING CHARACTERISTICS OF THE HARE IN POLISH AND ITALIAN HUNTING LEXIS
This paper expounds the results of a query conducted in terminological resources related to the hare’s characteristics and features a subsequent comparison of findings. The approach is semantically-oriented and consists of qualitatively and quantitatively processed Polish and Italian data. A single species is at the focus of this lexical study: the hare. To narrow down the size of the data submitted to analysis, nouns and adjectives describing qualitative characteristics of the hare have been given priority; thus, common hare-denoting nouns are given emphasis. Additional areas of interest extend over terms describing its age, sex, as well as its physical and mental features. The corpus comprises lexical units drawn from 19th- and 20th-century dictionaries of hunting lexis. It extends over present-day terms, documented in blogs and web pages frequented by hunters. The present investigation has benefited greatly from oral interviews and surveys carried out amongst Polish and Italian hunters coming from a variety of regions.
POLISH TRANSLATIONS OF THE ITALIAN VERBAL CONSTRUCTION STARE PER + INFINITIVE
The Italian verbal construction stare per + infinitive expresses the prospective aspect. This aspectual meaning can be defined in terms of Reichenbach’s theory (1947), which makes use of three points: E (the point of the event), S (the point of speech), and R (the point of reference). The prospective meaning appears when R precedes E and when the position of S is not important. The author of the article examines the possible ways of translating the Italian construction stare per + infinitive into Polish. Unlike Italian, this Slavic language does not have special grams that convey the prospective meaning. Amongst the possible Polish translations, the construction <mieć (‘have’) + infinitive> seems to express best the prospective meaning of the Italian stare per + infinitive. Still, this Polish construction has two other readings: a modal one and an evidential one.
PRAGMATIC ASPECTS OF EVIDENTIALS IN ITALIAN AND CROATIAN
Evidentials articulate the source of information on which a statement is based, which means that they also involve the speaker’s position towards the sentence content. In this paper, after defining the subject of the research and describing various typologies of evidential strategies, we analyse the pragmatic values of linguistic expressions that articulate the various degrees of a speaker’s involvement with regard to stated claims, which for their part represent speech acts used to endorse the veracity of a statement. Evidential strategies are frequently used to diminish responsibility for the veracity of claims, that is, they may serve as a means of distancing oneself from the sentence content, a discourse mechanism that the speaker may employ in order to avoid potential negative impacts that overly assertive claims might contain. In defining evidential strategies, we consult linguistic research as well as research on justification logic. The goal of this paper is to show that these terms can be adequately defined only by also taking into account the analysis of pragmatic impacts in a specific communicative and social situation.
SOME CORRELATION TENDENCIES BETWEEN THE (IN)DEFINITE FORM OF SLOVENE ADJECTIVES AND THE (IN)DEFINITENESS OF NOMINAL PHRASES FROM AN ITALIAN-SLOVENE CONTRASTIVE PERSPECTIVE
This paper addresses some aspects of the expression of (in)definiteness in Slovene and Italian. While in Slovene, a language without a systemic use of articles, (in)definiteness can be considered only as a universal, extralinguistic, semantic/pragmatic category that is inferred implicitly from the context, in Italian it is fully encoded and is therefore also a grammatical/syntactic category. However, Slovene also displays a specific device in this respect: the definite and indefinite form of the adjective. This paper investigates some correlation tendencies between the definite adjectival form and the definiteness of the noun phrase in which the adjective acts as an attribute (and vice versa, the correlation between the indefinite form of the adjective and the indefiniteness of the respective noun phrase). The contrastive study is based on a corpus of Italian and Slovene texts, as well as their translations, in which Italian has a control function. The results speak in favour of the (in)definiteness correlation between the adjective and the noun phrase, although the indefinite form can also appear in definite noun phrases and the definite one in indefinite noun phrases.
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