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Author: Czesław Banach
Year of publication: 2003
Source: Show
Pages: 9-21
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm200301
PDF: ksm/07/ksm200301.pdf

Streszczenie:

Education is a fundamental right of every human being and a universal value as well as an investment in the future of both the individual and the com- munity. Its reforming is & diflicult and multi-conditional task. It takes time and needs the funds based the assumptions of the reform. Educational reports and the documents of the European Committee all point out that the „society learn- ing throughout its lifetime” is the most important in this respect. Thus the basic aims of the reform are those concerning general culture, developing skills for a future job, helping to develop economic activity, improving flexibility of edu- cational process so it becomes multi-tasking and innovative, giving the same educational opportunities for the adults and the youth, struggling against school problems, learning three languages used in EU, decentralising and regionalising, diversińcating higher education and educating the teachers.  The Polish reform of education focuses on four main points: raising the level of education in Poland by popularising secondary and higher education, leveling educational opportunities, improvement in quality of education and the change in the structure of schools.  It lacks however a long-term programme for the whole system between years 2010-2015. And besides the positive results of the reform launched in the l990-s, there are still many fields of impendence and disfunction. It calls for the cooperation and integration with the EU coutries and these should be popular- ised by all the educational institutions to make the processes of using European standards and values smoother and to prepare for the tasks of the informa- tional society which is based on knowledge.

Author: Ryszard Tadeusiewicz
Year of publication: 2003
Source: Show
Pages: 21-30
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm200302
PDF: ksm/07/ksm200302.pdf

Streszczenie:

Accession to European Union is very important factor, determining the future of Poland. Obviously this fact have also very strong impact on Polish Universities. It is especially meaningful and even threats generating for Polish Technical Uni- versities, because of growing competition in the area of high education and devel- opment of industrial productivity. European technical universities (in contrast with other type of universities) haven't got enough candidates for technology and science studies. The reason is simple: Good and reach Universities from - for ex- ample - Germany are very interested in acceptance of good polish candidates students as their students. This fact leads to the direct competition between Polish and other European universities, placing us in much worse position because of big differences in funds obtained by the Universities form the government in Poland and in EU countries.  Next threats generating factor is connected with the prońle of the professional activity of alumni. When good teachers, doctors, lawyers and other alumni of gen- eral type universities working in Poland are not exposed to be a direct competitors for their EU colleges, well educated Polish engineers must compete with them on the European Labor Market because of the condition of Polish industry. Many in general in EU people in UE there is no interested in development of Polish indus- try. The reason is simple: when Polish plants are small and in old-fashion, than many similar plants in Western Europe can produce goods for export its to Poland. In fact this means export of UE unemployment - to Poland. When Polish technical universities will offer to Polish industry many well educated engineers - it must leads to fast development of Polish plants and increasing of Polish economy. Hence Polish Technical Universities can not count for help from EU structures and even- tually can be closed after full integration. The paper presents general discussion of this problem.

Author: Stanisław Palka
Year of publication: 2003
Source: Show
Pages: 31-38
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm200303
PDF: ksm/07/ksm200303.pdf

Streszczenie:

The theoretical pedagogical knowledge and educational practice can be interrelated m a creative way. 'The theoretical pedagogical knowledge can influence educational practice through spreading the results of researches

a) descriptive and diagnostic ones,

b) explanatory and verifying ones,

c) historical ones,

d) comparative ones,

e) experimental ones.

Educational practice can influence the theoretical pedagogice] knowledge through teachers' cognitive and creative activity which is showed in such forms as:

a) participation in action research,

b) pedagogical innovations,

c) realization of pedagogical research.

Taking advantage of these possibilities depends on the attitudes of pedagogical researchers and teachers.

Author: Konrad Marek Woliński
Year of publication: 2003
Source: Show
Pages: 39-54
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm200304
PDF: ksm/07/ksm200304.pdf

Streszczenie:

The subject of this article is a problem of authority in a social - political doctrine of pope Leon XIII. 'The Leon's XIII encyclical Diuturnum Ilłud was a source of information to analises of this issues. The encyclical was published 29th of June 1881 and a was anhounced as soon as an attempt on tsar Ale- ksander II life was made. Leon XIII criticized and rejected doctrines, which propagated that an authority is granted by people.  He said that the authority is given by the God and it has divine character. The authority can't be granted by people, because they don't have a law to give the authority. According to Leon's XIII opinion the mistakes of the social agree- ment doctrines came from the reformation times. The reformation brought an ideas development which propagate a character and destruction.  The theory of authority of Leon's XIII in a large part contributed to retrieval the church authority, which was weak after French Revolution. The pope didn't support any of political form, but the accepted politic pluralism, which came into being when feudal relations were demolished. The pope emphasized that national system should be consistent with the God's law and should stress justice.

Author: Marek Delong
Year of publication: 2003
Source: Show
Pages: 55-68
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm200305
PDF: ksm/07/ksm200305.pdf

Streszczenie:

The subject of this article is a problem of authority in a social - political doctrine of pope Leon XIII. The Leon's XIII encyclical Diuturnum Ilłud was a source of information to analises of this issues. The encyclical was published 29th of June 1881 and a was anhounced as soon as an attempt on tsar Ale- ksander II life was made. Leon XIII criticized and rejected doctrines, which propagated that an authority is granted by people.  He said that the authority is given by the God and it has divine character. The authority can't be granted by people, because they don't have a law to give the authority. According to Leon's XIII opinion the mistakes of the social agree- ment doctrines came from the reformation times. The reformation brought an ideas development which propagate a character and destruction.  The theory of authority of Leon's XIII in a large part contributed to retrieval the church authority, which was weak after French Revolution. The pope didn't support any of political form, but the accepted politic pluralism, which came into being when feudal relations were demolished. The pope emphasized that national system should be consistent with the God's law and should stress justice.

Author: Piotr Waleck
Author: Jan Trąbka
Year of publication: 2003
Source: Show
Pages: 69-84
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm200306
PDF: ksm/07/ksm200306.pdf

Streszczenie:

In this paper there was presented hypothesis of the cosmic system of the co- herential connectivity as the global, semantic reality, that involves the total mean- ing pool. It supplies the historical memory and the future programs. At the elementary level that system consists of the many quantic effects as exemplińed by the Bose-Einstein condensation, which manifest itself in the water droplets. On the microscopic scale the tubuline channels, presented in all the tissues there emerge soliton signals, sent to and accepted from the cosmos Solitons make beliefs of the radio electromagnetic nets, that surround all the objects in the universum. Attrac- tors and repliers are the macroscopic representation of the chaotic, non-linear brain dynamics. In all these parts of the coherent system, there are circulating the notion elements i.e. inseminational-semantic messages that create a base for the internal, essentional consciousness (self) and for the hidden, virtual, potential real- ity which belongs to the interest range medicine and particularly of the psychone- urology.  Keywords: Semantics, cosmic system of the coherence, condensation in the gluone bioplazma, global soliton connection, brain attractors.

Author: Wojciech Stankiewicz
Year of publication: 2003
Source: Show
Pages: 85-102
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm200307
PDF: ksm/07/ksm200307.pdf

Streszczenie:

Conflicts on national basis are a factor shaping mutual relations between sub- jects from international community circle. They have become the main driving force of political and social changes in a present power system.  The area of tension dominated by ethnic aspects is the Central-Eastern Europe.  One of the conflict phenomena is the situation of the Hungarian minority. The aim of this paper is to prove that despite the existence of European integration program the problem of Hungarian minority can be the source of civilisational dissention, especially in neigbouring countries.  The peculiarity of Hungarian minority is its size in relation to the inhabitants of the motherland. At present there are about 9.5 million of native inhabitants in Hungary. Outside the borders of the country, living in groups of diverse density, there are 4.5 million of Hungarians, which proportionally constitutes 43% of Hun- gary inhabitants. Proportions decide about the individual character of the minor- ity. 34% of emigrants have settled in neighbouring countries, mainly Romania about 2 million, Slovakia - 600,000, Federal Republic of Yugoslavia - 400,000 and Ukraine - 200.000 people.  The reasons for this should be sought in historic circumstances, triggered by the treaty signed in Trianon on 4th June, 1920. As a result of the treaty resolutions Hungary, belonging to the group of countries defeated in war, lost 2/3 of its terri- tory to Romania (Transilvania and Banat), Serbia (Voyvodina) ans Czechoslovakia (the northern part of Hungary). People found themselves outside the borders of their motherland. Also waves of economic (between 1871 and 1913) and political (from 1841 to 1845, 1947 to 1948 and from 1956 to 1957) emigration as well as demographic crisis were especially loaded with consequences.  The core of Hungarian minority problem is its size as it is a rather densely populated compact area. All of the above mentioned can be used as an argument in favour of authonomy aiming actions that have been taken up. A minority of  such characteristic features is bound to determine the direction of Hungarian foreign and defence policy.  In the face of the actual situation of the minority there arises a problem of the basis for demands and for all the actions undertaken to achieve an independent entity status. A rule of self-determination can be employed here. It was recorded after the Second World War as a legal principle in Charter of the United Nations in art.1 point 2 and it has been a factor activizing states as far as foreign affairs and relations are concerned. It warrants aspirations and lights for national independ- ence of social groups aiming at legal self-determination in international community. Self-determination as a normative term has evolved and still is subject to processes modifying a way of thinking because of its objective content.  After the Second World War the right for self-determination assumed an anti- colonial character and was an ideological justification for postulates of eradication of politics and economy dominant position of great colonial powers. At that time the accepted interpretation in colonial terms allowed for further democratic changes and became a condition for progress as far as evolution of states was con- cerned. The 19605 brought a change in the shape of development of the range of the self-determination right, which was connected with aquiring a universal char- acter and resigning from limiting the area of interests for colonial territories. The rule has gained a democratic apellation, justifying political regimes. A new aspect of the issue arised - self-determination as a basis for ethnic minorities demands in the sphere of authonomy and and self-governing in independent countries. In the 199os it was the source of ethnic intolerance, xenophobia and destructive ten- dencies. Such thinking may prove to be a basis of Hungarian minority actions or an argument in a international discussion over this problem.

 

Author: Karolina Gawron
Year of publication: 2003
Source: Show
Pages: 117-124
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm200309
PDF: ksm/07/ksm200309.pdf

Streszczenie:

Pan-slavism, a nineteenth century concept, had a profound meaning as it in- fluenced numerous nations and changed the fate of the Slavs.  Politicians, thinkers and belles-lettres' authors have created, deveIOped and served by, that is why pan-slavism has been associated, defined and compared in many different ways. Pan-slavism of the first part of the nineteenth century be- lieved that Slavic community would be reborn and was convicted about its leading role in general history. Pan-slavism had different varietes, depending on the coun- tries in which it came into existence and also on its theorists' nationality. In the second part of the nineteenth century pan-slavisrn was transformed into pan-rus- sism, into a political system based on an assumption that Russia was the only power able to put together the "broken pieces of Slavic nation”.  Pan-slavic idea cannot be treated indifferently, especially now that together with some Slavic countries we are going to create a united Europe.  lhe idea indicates what the international contacts between nations ought to be like. They cannot rest on utopian views but on economic cooperation, constructive approach to internal relations in particular countries and to their international situation, but most of on cultural exchange, silencing of dissension, Clearing up misundertandings and establishing a common ground for action. Cultural dia- logue seems to be of the greatest importance here. It is the cooperation between nations and not countries that creates a community. Mutual cognition of cultures, religions and languages is the only way to a real communion.

Author: Janina Szczepaniak
Year of publication: 2003
Source: Show
Pages: 125-144
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm200310
PDF: ksm/07/ksm200310.pdf

Streszczenie:

In Western culture contemporary era was characterised by scientińc, technical and economical progress. The twentieth century and especially its second half revealed on the one hand depletion (foretelling a breakdown) of this project, and on the other hand appearance, together with the main stream, of new developmen- tal trends. Favourable conditions were created by new scientific discoveries as well as changes in understanding of religiousness. Alternative development scenarios were invented, of which the main focus was specifying systems of values and, what would folllow, changes of institutions and global management and economics. A number of postulates aimed to change the situation was proposed. Some of them were put into practice. New conditions are bound to influence perception of a subject and the range of economic discussions. New assumptions should lay foundations for the bases of economy. What seems interesting is the fact of draw- ing attention to the possibility of changing a notion of an "economic man” towards, generally speaking, a conception of Msc and Kind People (F. Zaniecki), character- istic of humanistic civilization.

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