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Author: Arkadiusz Niedziółka
Year of publication: 2012
Source: Show
Pages: 7-19
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm201201
PDF: ksm/17/ksm201201.pdf

Streszczenie:

In the article different issues connected with different forms of qualified to­urism development in the interwar period in Cracow Voicodeship were pre­sented. First of all the essence of such understood tourism was defined. The most popular forms of qualified tourism were presented, too. In twenties and thirties of the 20th century these forms were similar to present ones. In this part of the work specialist tourism values, on the base of literature were characteri­sed, too. They allow to practice different forms of qualified tourism. Next, there was a short part of the article related to the history of quali­fied tourism development from the second part of nineteenth century till the outbreak of the first world war in 1914 on polish territories. In this over 120 years period Poland had been not existed as sovereign country but first forms of mountain tourism and skiing appeared.

The most information and problems included in the article were connect­ed with the qualified tourism development in Poland, especially in Cracow Voivodeship in the interwar period. The author described the role of institu­tional surrounding in the development of this kind of tourism. Some organiza­tions like Polish Tatra Society played a very big role in this period in qualified tourism development, especially in the development of mountain tourism in Tatra Mountains.

The Polish Tatra Society built a lot of mountain huts in Poland, especially in Cracow Voivodeship in Tatra Mountains. A mountain hut was kind of accom­modation located in the mountains intended to provide food and shelter to mountaineers, climbers and hikers. This organization caused to expand tour­ism and recreation base in Zakopane, too. It was a place from which tourists started to go to the mountains.

In this work the role of different publications connected with qualified tourism development in the interwar period were presented, too. Among these positions one should mention about year-book “Wierchy” edited in Cracow.

Author: Piotr Długosz
Year of publication: 2012
Source: Show
Pages: 20-33
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm201202
PDF: ksm/17/ksm201202.pdf

Streszczenie:

The paper presents results of research on tutoring high school students from the southern Polish. Survey research was carried out in the province of Podkarpackie, Małopolska and Silesia. To use the tutoring is granted one third of respondents. Tutoring change their function depending on the social status of students. Among students with high status are used to achieve high educa­tional attainment and improve life chances. Students with low status allows fill gaps in cultural capital and ensure their maintenance in the school system. Key words: gimnazjaliści, tutoring, school system, life aspirations.

Author: Benedykt Banach
Year of publication: 2012
Source: Show
Pages: 34-50
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm201203
PDF: ksm/17/ksm201203.pdf

Streszczenie:

The author deals in this article with selected economic problems of a demo­cratic state at the beginnings of fast development of market economy and the service sector in Poland. He undertakes an attempt at analyzing and synthesi­zing economic environment on the basis of data found in the Polish statistical yearbooks.

Hyperinflation in Poland was in 1988 and the following one witnessed a slight increase in GDP (100.2%). As a result of the above-mentioned, the economic crisis occurred in the 1990–1991 period because of a considerably decreased GDP (which, counted in fixed prices, dropped to 88.4% and 93.0% respectively). However, elimination of hyperinflation in 1990 and tempering the financial crisis in 1991 turned out to be a great economic success. A slight pickup in economic growth occurred in the 1992–1993 period (102.6% and 103.8% respectively), but is was due to a low computing base in the two previo us years. A significant GDP increase was not noticed until 1994 (105.2%), and it was due to a faster and faster economic development in Poland. Especially the years 1995–1997, witnessed fast development and economic growth pro­ved by greater GDP ratios in 1995 by 7%, in 1996 by 6.0% and in 1997 by 6.8%, which confirmed a good state of the Polish economy.

The discussion concerns fundamental production branches in economy, i.e. industry, construction and agriculture. The attention has been focused ma­inly on capital investment and fixed assets used in the above branches and in the entire economy. The issues of unemployment and foreign trade have been discussed briefly. Other equally important problems, such as development of the service sector or financial matters, due to a limited size of the article have not been taken into consideration.

Author: Magdalena Kowalska
Year of publication: 2012
Source: Show
Pages: 51-64
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm201204
PDF: ksm/17/ksm201204.pdf

Streszczenie:

The aim of researches was the recognition of attitudes in the face problems of the environmental protection of inhabitants of two communes near Kraków: Wieliczka and Zielonki. This to make one used with special categories: the eco­logical attitude and the ecological indifference with introduced by T. Burger. Presented elaboration targets the distinction of attitudes of inhabitants in Zie­lonki and Wieliczka communes.. Researches were carried out in 2010 among adult of 150 inhabitants of both communes. The relation of respondents to the environment protection is more declared than realized. It seems that findings permit them to classify to the group I (fa­voring to the environmental protection, however not demonstrating clearly the ecological attitude) and II (the group of indifferent people , not concerned this with the problems and not recognizant so that the management an envi­ronmental protection be necessary). In progress of research rather one did not ascertain the attitude which would help to define respondents as persons perceiving problems of the ecology but simultaneously expressing to the co­nviction that not yet the time to deal with their resolution or else being with conscious opponents of the environmental protection (that is being qualified to the group II and IV).

Author: Piotr Trojański
Year of publication: 2012
Source: Show
Pages: 65-78
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm201205
PDF: ksm/17/ksm201205.pdf

Streszczenie:

KL Auschwitz was a complex of German Nazi concentration camps and exter­mination camp (Auschwitz II Birkenau). It was established in April 1940 in the area of the town of Oświęcim, as a concentration camp for political prisoners – mainly the Poles. In the following years it was being enlarged and became the main site of mass extermination of the Jews and other people from all over Europe. The complex history of the camp resulted in the variety of meanings that Auschwitz has for various national, ethnic and social groups that created its own Auschwitz, or its own metaphor of the camp and the ways of commemo­rating it.

The article is an attempt to outline the problem of the commemorating the victims of Auschwitz at the Auschwitz State Museum in Oświecim since it was established in 1947 until 2000. It discusses the issue of the perception of Auschwitz by the Polish society, reflects about symbolism and significance of this places for the Poles, Jews and other groups of victims. But moreover it is an attempt to investigate the process of shaping (and distorting) the memory of this event during the Communist time and just after it collapsed, indicating the political factors that affected the shape of historical consciousness of Poles.

Author: Zdzisława Zacłona
Year of publication: 2012
Source: Show
Pages: 79-97
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm201206
PDF: ksm/17/ksm201206.pdf

Streszczenie:

Education of the XXI century ought to be perceived as a lifelong process. Life­long learning has become the foundation of human knowledge, performance, ability to exist in the society as well as creation of one’s ego and one’s existence. Awareness of the aging European population gave rise to discussions con­cerning the issue of education and activity of elderly people. The European Committee has declared 2012 the European Year for Active Ageing and Solida­rity between Generations. Consequently, it values the potential of mature and elderly people as well as opens up to their needs. The Senate of the Republic of Poland highlighted the importance of senior education for the country and 2012 was proclaimed the Year of University of the Third Age.

Plenty of UTA students, rich and varied offer of educational – activating classes as well as launched initiatives prove that late maturity might be a period of active lifestyle serving as a springboard for high quality of life and preven­ting exclusion from the society.

Author: Agnieszka Chłosta-Sikorska
Year of publication: 2012
Source: Show
Pages: 98-111
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm201207
PDF: ksm/17/ksm201207.pdf

Streszczenie:

From 1945 to 1947 Cracow was rebuilt after the tragic times of the war and occupation. It was one of the most difficult periods in its history. The people who lived in Cracow hoped that the former form and size of the city would be restored. On the other hand, they hoped that both everyday and festive life would be the same as before the war. The life after the war in Cracow was the same as in the other cities. However, the opposition attitude to the authorities’ actions caused that Krakow was perceived as the dangerous city which should be “under the special control”. The new, imposed reality was coming slowly.

Author: Józef Brynkus
Year of publication: 2012
Source: Show
Pages: 112-122
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm201208
PDF: ksm/17/ksm201208.pdf

Streszczenie:

Józef Beck is one of figures in Second Polish Republic and it is not possible to understand the function of Poland in interwar period without knowing this person. No wonder that historic education not only deal with him, but try, by means of suitable taking hold his biography to give direction to get to know the politics of II Polish Republic. With the presence of his figure were and are many problems, mainly they result from the assessment the leading motif, which could be recognized as basic characteristic his school biography. For this his famous words in parliament are the most often assumed from May 1939. He gave notice about the significance of honour for Poles, activities for keeping independence Poland and the role of Zaolzie annexation. Historical education after 1989 is however too often headed in the estimation of these word not historical premises, but is continuing the experiences of communism in the Polish People’s Republic.

Author: Andrzej Pieczewski
Author: Kamil Kowalski
Year of publication: 2012
Source: Show
Pages: 123-139
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm201209
PDF: ksm/17/ksm201209.pdf

Streszczenie:

The article deals with the phenomenon of tourism trade migrations in Poland in 70s and 80s of 20th century. The text comprises two parts. In the first sec­tion the authors analyze the causes and directions of these specific temporary movements. The article attempts to explain tourists` motivation and presents the scale of these activities which is presented in the context of political and economic situation in Poland. The second consists of five summaries prepared by participants having taken part in the mentioned peculiar “tours”. Specific forms of carrying on business are presented as well as the influence which the tourist trade exerted on their financial situation. In the final section the au­thors confront the case studies with the data presented in the first part.

Author: Mateusz Pawlak
Year of publication: 2012
Source: Show
Pages: 140-120
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm201210
PDF: ksm/17/ksm201210.pdf

Streszczenie:

According to the European Treaties, ‘the members of the Commission shall be chosen on the ground of their general competence and European commitment from persons whose independence is beyond doubt, likewise, the Commission shall be completely independent’29. Nevertheless, the Treaties’ wording is not always followed by ‘the real world’ politics. The institutional inter-dependence, especially among the Commission, the Council and the EP, can be easily notice­able. The Council and the EP may attempt to use their powers to influence the Commission during the appointment or the legislation procedures. From this perspective, being elected by the MSs (the European Council) and approved by the EP, the President of the European Commission makes certain promises to the electors. The scope of these promises influences the President’s future act­ing. On the other hand, the strong and charismatic leaders may appear much more difficult to be interfered (e.g. the Jacques Delors Commission). Taking into consideration the whole College of Commissioners, the similar situation takes place during their election. Nonetheless, after the beginning of the tenure particular members cannot be dismissed by the MSs. The Commission servic­es, as a more technocratic structure, are less exposed to the external pressure or interests. However, their work is conducted and supervised by the College, so if the Commissioners were involved in any kind of a lobby (such situation should never happen), the services would indirectly be affected by it.

Finally, although the subsequent European Treaties have provided the Council and the EP with greater powers (in comparison with the Commis­sion), the EU accountability and impartiality cannot be guaranteed without a politically-neutral institution, whose status is still maintained by the Euro­pean Commission.

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