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Author: Tadeusz Konrad Grabowski
Year of publication: 2010
Pages: 7-19
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm201001
PDF: ksm/14/ksm201001.pdf

Streszczenie:

This article is a synthetic image of Cracow in the years 2003–2007. The metropolis which is the regional and international center, in which social, economical and cultural functions coexist together. The city of great potential ingrained by history. Housing in the countries, which in result of the transformation of systems have entered from the central controlled economy into free market, requires general reforms and changes, which unfortunately do not get social acquiescence. Cracow, as well as other historical cities of the eastern bloc – Vilnius, Bratislava, Leipzig or Prague – has been marked by totalitarianism. The last twenty years can be described as the new beginning of the city. The disproportionate rise of the territorial development, chaotic management of investments, inconvenient industry and gaps in law are at the moment huge problems for the city. The key matter is the renovation of historical districts and by this I do not only mean the Old Town but also old apartment blocks, which need some additional investments in order to change them to modern housing estates. As important is using the potential of postindustrial plots for the future housing needs of the society. The next few years is the time, in which we will learn how well we can handle these problems.

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Author: Magdalena Kowalska
Year of publication: 2010
Source: Show
Pages: 20-35
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm201002
PDF: ksm/14/ksm201002.pdf

Streszczenie:

Family tradition is the essential value of upbringing. It shapes a specific atmosphere for each common family and style of house by decision about its individual character. The awareness of family cultural heritage, own roots of tradition has got an essentially significant for individual’s life. It allows to develop by means of building into culture, among it into tradition, customs and folk customs usually preserved by nations, social groups and families. A family takes up in social transmission. Thanks to it heritage and traditions are remembered and revived. According to Ziemski transmission is “communication between this what was and this what is”. Mentioned revival happens, when the contact between sender (former generations) and receiver and such contact takes place because of social institutions like family. A child gradually, by his upbringing and education receives cultural heritage from their parents, who transmit him his own life experiences, among them these, which they had received form their parents. Presented researches was carried out in three Malopolska communities – Dębno, Wieliczka i Zabierzow. 40 multigenerational families were selected in each community in these researches. Interviews with questionnaire were carried out with them, the questionnaire was devided into three parts directed to the representatives of three generations: grandparents, parents and grandchildren. All in all 360 people were examined. Presented results constituted the attempt of answers for question about essential role of tradition in multi-generational rural families’ life, and about the range of customs keeping which are inherited from previous generations, too. For straight majority of respondents the role of tradition in their life is big or very big (all in all for almost 90% people). It is easy to see the little degeneration of tradition, which are typically secular, while customs strictly connected with religious practices are cultivated also with big engagement like in the past. It’s seen, as parish priest says: “in solemn experience of religious and festive events”. Results of researches related to perceiving festivals in multigenerational generational families find the reflection in mentioned yet interview with parish priest. He said that, “certainly for rural family on the first place religious experiences matter. A big attendance in churches in taking part in masses and very numerous saint sacraments receiving, although certainly Christmas are more family than Eastern ones. Summarizing, one can affirm that festivals and traditions connected with them still play a very essential role in rural multigenerational families’ life from the territory of examined Malopolska communities.

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Author: Tadeusz Branecki
Year of publication: 2010
Source: Show
Pages: 36-46
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm201003
PDF: ksm/14/ksm201003.pdf

Streszczenie:

On the turn of the XX-th and XXI-st centuries in Switzerland Confideration a Jurisdiction reform was done. That reform (The Project Neue Bundesgerichte) aimed to: creating new Federal Courts to consider • criminal, civil and administrative cases etc. – and at the same time helping the Federal Court (Bundesgericht);

  • strengthening and expansion of the legal protection of citizens (simplification of the Court access process);
  • standardization of Civil and Criminal Law. Creation of new Federal Criminal Court was novum in the farming of Switzerland’s Federal Administration of Justice because before the mentioned above reform there was only in Switzerland the Federal Court and separated from its structure the Federal Tribunal of Insurance.

The Federal Criminal Court began its activity on the 1-st April 2004 in Bellinzona. It is a Common Criminal Court in Switzerland, stated in institution preceding the Federal Court if only the Law does not exclude claiming to the Federal Court. In the Structure of this Court it is possible to mark off the Penal Chamber (states in Criminal Cases, Criminal Administrative cases and also in those ones concerning rehabilitation applications) and the Chamber of Complaints (hears complaints concerning legal help, means of under duress etc.). Fundamentally the Court states in full strength of three members, though it is possible to increase its strength up to fire judges.

Author: Agnieszka Kasińska-Metryka
Year of publication: 2010
Source: Show
Pages: 47-56
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm201004
PDF: ksm/14/ksm201004.pdf

Streszczenie:

The aim of this analysis is to explore the meaning of leadership in the socalled young democracies. The problem is extremely important, although rarely considered in scientific studies. The nature of the political power in post-communist societies cannot be interpreted accurately from the perspective of developed Western democracies. 1989, a breakthrough year, brought, in addition to institutional and economic changes, changes in public awareness. With the changes in public awareness came the opening to the new mechanisms, both the market and the political ones, and, most important of all, the highly articulated need for “normality”. The good leader is the most important part of every transformation. In Poland Lech Wałęsa can be called “leader of transformation” but there are still a lot of questions connected with his leadership, his life and charismatic personality.

Author: Ella Hyciek
Year of publication: 2010
Source: Show
Pages: 57-71
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm201005
PDF: ksm/14/ksm201005.pdf

Streszczenie:

Most prominent representatives of Polish modernism: Antoni Lange, Tadeusz Miciński, Stanisław Przybyszewski assimilated various philosophies for their needs, including Hindu philosophy with nirvana and reincarnation. In their search for the meaning of existence, truth about the world and man they preferred their own hierarchy of values. They considered art, the work of the artist coming from the subconscious depths of psyche, as the highest value and an individual soul as a treasury of those values. Presenting human conflict with fate they played a Luciferic game against life and the world. Evil was treated as an impulse to selfcreation of a complete human being. The artist was granted the right to freedom of the soul and the liberty to individually express the soul. Przybyszewski placed the artist beyond good and evil. He loathed the rules of social life and bourgeois morality. He undermined the faith in any social utopia. In 1918 he fought for the Polish cause in Gdańsk – he besame a community man. Lange thought that an artist cannot stroll outside the society and nature. He created a utopian Słońcogrod (Sun-city) with no egoism, suffering or evil – a spiritual community of astrals. Miciński wanted to combine the authority of art with a social, moral and patriotic transformation program. He created a garden-city of material and spiritual transformation with a pattern of a „new human” – he strived to bring together in practice the conflicting values of good and evil. Even though none of them created an organized philosophical synthesis that would answer metaphysical questions, still they were setting out ethical instructions for a full redefinition of the knowledge on man and the world. They created theories of cognition, esthetic concepts based on individual morality. They became symbols of original style of thinking, writing and philosophy, attributable only to them. They dreamed of a universal artwork (gesamtkunstwerk) „opus magnum” that would be the sum of knowledge, values, experiences and reflections of the period – a synthesis of the arts in the cognitive and axiological aspect. This was expressed by A. Lange in his essay Modernity, „Tygodnik Ilustrowany” 1890. „Modernism wants an artwork that would become universal, that would include past, future and present, that would be atchitecture, painting, music and poetry, epic, lyric and drama; that would combine the Bible and Zend Avesta, the Iliad and the Divine Comedy, the history of don Juan and don Quixote, Faust and Hamlet, legend of the ages, human comedy and the history of the Rougon-Macquart family; in which sacra profanis mix; that would be a religion and cosmogony, philosophy and psychology, sociology and technology, mysticism and poetry, analysis and synthesis all at once; that would not only be a copy of nature but nature itself; that would merge so perfectly that the border between art and nature would disappear”.

Author: Kazimierz Pierzchała
Year of publication: 2010
Source: Show
Pages: 72-79
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm201006
PDF: ksm/14/ksm201006.pdf

Streszczenie:

This article is an attempt to place an individual committing suicide into a scientific framework and to put the problem into medical terms. However, it seems that suicide is a social issue, and needs to be addressed as a social pathology. Suicide is the most common cause of death in penal institutions and that is the reason why the main task of the prison staff is prevention by means of learning to recognize individuals and situations that pose such danger and carrying out effective interventions. The article presents the result of research into factors that increase the likelihood of suicide with a verification of a high-risk groups. The research indicates that the incarcerated as a group have a much higher suicide rate in comparison to those who enjoy freedom. Another important point for consideration is the existence of a policy and procedures of identification of prisoners who are prone to commit suicide, with the inclusion of rules of conduct in such cases in a penal institution or the lack of thereof. What is more, the discussion on the issues connected with suicide prevention should be preceded by a study of the profile of the suicides themselves, which would greatly improve the chance of diminishing their numbers. The importance of this article lies in indicating research of personality traits of individuals prone to suicide and of a method of preventing suicide among the incarcerated.

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Author: Beata Wójcik
Author: Jadwiga Bożek
Author: Lidia Luty
Year of publication: 2010
Source: Show
Pages: 80-86
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm201007
PDF: ksm/14/ksm201007.pdf

Streszczenie:

One of the largest economic and social problems of modern world is phenomenon of unemployment. It appeared together with development of free market economy and is integrally bounded with technological progress, consequently which is to replace work of human hands with work of machines. In this paper is undertaken an effort to characterise population of unemployed in powiats of the Małopolskie voivodeship in spatial sense. To separate concentrations of objects it was used agglomeration method of grouping – Ward’s method. Function of criterion of joining of units into groups is sum of squares of distances of particular units from groups’ centres of gravity, of which they belong to. Unemployment rate in powiats of the Małopolskie voivodeship showed large spatial diversification, varying between 16,4% in dąbrowski powiat and 5,6% in bocheński powiat in year 2008. Bocheński powiat was distinguished by the highest interest of unemployed women and people with University education, against the background of remaining powiats of the Małopolskie voivodeship. Separation of group of powiats in voivodeship characterizing by similar scale and intensity of certain problems, occurring on local labour market, indicates possibility of exchanging experience, cooperation between institutions servicing labour markets and local authorities. Despite changes, which have taken place over a span of years, still most endangered with unemployment in powiats of the Małopolskie voivodeship are: women, young people (under 24 years old) and people with low education.

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Author: Jakub Piecuch
Year of publication: 2010
Source: Show
Pages: 87-103
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm201008
PDF: ksm/14/ksm201008.pdf

Streszczenie:

The global crisis that has hit almost all economies all around the globe since 2008 is without precedent in post-war world economic history. As other global economies also main European countries are in the deepest recession since the 1930s, with real GDP projected to shrink by 4,1% in 2009. One can say it is the sharpest contraction in the history of the European Union. Although signs of improvement have appeared recently, recovery remains uncertain and some countries suffer from consequences of crisis more than others. Among them are Spain, Portugal and Greece. As an effect of economic problems all three economies have to challenge with negative real GDP growth, high unemployment rate, growing both budget deficit and general government gross debt. All this negative effects of economic crisis slow down the process of growth and create problems in labour market.

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Author: Piotr Cymanow
Year of publication: 2010
Source: Show
Pages: 104-118
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm201009
PDF: ksm/14/ksm201009.pdf

Streszczenie:

The article presents an overview of migration theories considering five basic criteria used for dividing the classification of the discussed phenomenon. The concepts of economic, sociological and geographical migration were discus sed in detail. The importance of migration movements in the context of states and societies development was indicated with particular emphasis on labourrelated travels in the aspect of emerging global market. The overview of migration theories indicates a considerable complexity of the problem connected with people’s mobility, shows it multi-aspect character, at the same time signaling positive and negative consequences of the discussed processes. One of the crucial characteristics of the phenomenon is globalization of migration, which causes an increase in the number of countries experiencing this process and these states becoming mainly the sending countries. Globalization makes possible international flow of people and capital which none of the countries is able to control. A growing number of people decides to cross the border and the number of persons having more than one citizenship is also increasing. Numerous persons find employment in international corporations – therefore the difficulties to assign a character of individual group migration to the framework of definite scientific theory.

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Author: Wioletta Knapik
Year of publication: 2010
Source: Show
Pages: 119-134
DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm201010
PDF: ksm/14/ksm201010.pdf

Streszczenie:

The paper of Wioletta Knapik “The flood-threat. Sociological aspects of the problem” discusses problems concerning risks and its meaning for the contemporary society. The risk appears in all areas of the social life. The risk concerned in the past mainly natural threats. The contemporary world is determined of dynamic development of globalization processes; it creates the threat for the security and the equilibrium in the ecosystem. In the life of the society of XXI age, which Ulrich Beck called a society risks, prevalence different threats. Not only the nature, but also the man creates situations which is dangerous. On the basis of research concerning flood experiences of Uszew inhabitants was discuss the problems of the flood-threat.

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